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Agnosticism

(1,006 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Gebhard | Byrne, Peter | Ven, Johannes van der | Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. …

Clarke, Samuel

(158 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter
[German Version] Oct 11, 1675, Norwich – May 17, 1729, Leicestershire), an exponent of rationalist and liberal theology in the 18th century. Clarke studied in Cambridge where he came under the influence of I. Newton. In A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God (1705) Clarke defended a cosmological proof of the existence of God, which was based on the necessity of explaining why contingent being exists. A Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion argues that the principles of morality can be discerned by reason without relianc…

Butler, Joseph

(362 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter

Empiricism

(863 words)

Author(s): Engfer, Jürgen | Byrne, Peter | Peters, Karl E.
[German Version] …

Natural Religion

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion The concept of natural religion has more than one sense. Its primary sense was fixed during the European Enlightenment (II, 2). Natural religion is opposed to revealed religion. It is a religion based on human reason alone, in contrast to a religion whose essential principles can be known only because they have been communicated through a divine message given to specific people at specific times and places. The principles of natural religion are held to be discoverable by all people at all times and places. …

Bradley, Francis Herbert

(146 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1846, London – Sep 18, 1924, Oxford) spent his working life as a fellow of Merton College in Oxford. Bradley was one of the most important representatives of late 19th and early 20th-century Absolute Idealism in English philosophy. His ideas provided the target for the developing analytic school of G.E. Moore and B. Russell. He wrote extensively on logic, epistemology, ethics, and me…

Deism

(4,554 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Hornig, Gottfried | Pailin, David Arthur | Walters, Kerry S.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Europe – IV. North America I. Philosophy of Religion

Natürliche Religion

(1,213 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Holmes, Stephen R.
[English Version] I. Religionsphilosophisch Der Begriff der n.Rel. ist mehrdeutig. Seine primäre Bedeutung wurde während der eur. Aufklärung (: II., 2.) festgelegt. Die n.Rel. wird der Offenbarungsr…