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(2,570 words)

Author(s): Volp, Ulrich
A certain Macarius Magnes, or “Makarios the Magnesian,” compiled a work known under the title “A.”. It is one of three surviving comparable apologies dealing with and quoting extensively from pagan intellectual attacks on Christianity. However, the A. has received less interest than Origen’s Contra Celsum or Cyril of Alexandria’s Contra Julianum by modern scholarship so far (see Volp, 2013b, ix–xxxii). Dating and localizing the A. is still a matter of controversy (see below). The meaning and implications of the full title Μακαρίου Μάγνητος Ἀποκρ…
Date: 2021-12-14

Coleridge, Samuel Taylor

(422 words)

Author(s): Volp, Ulrich
[German Version] (Oct 21, 1772, Ottery St. Mary, Devon – Jul 25, 1834, Highgate, London), English poet and theologian. A founder member of the English Romantic movement (Romanticism), he exerted great influence on English religious philosophy, literary criticism and theology. Coleridge was the son of an Anglican vicar and received a broad education in London and Cambridge, including ancient Greek literature and philosophy. His circumstances at Cambridge were very…

Fish in Christian Art

(557 words)

Author(s): Volp, Ulrich
[German Version] Fish ( piscis, ἰχϑύς/ ichthýs) appear frequently in pictorial representations from Christian antiquity, and even modern pictures of fish regularly evoke elements from that ancient symbolism (M. Chagall). Tertullian, De baptismo 1, explicitly refers to Christians as pisculi secundum ἰχϑύν nostrum ¶ Iesum Christum (“little fish in conformity with our ἰχϑύς Jesus Christ”). Beginning in this period, the fish is also attested as an acrostic in literature and epigraphy, with the initial letters of ‘Ιησοῦς Χρ(ε)ιστὸς Θεοῦ ῾Υιὸς Σωτήρ/ Iēsoús Chr(e)istós Theoú Hyiós…

Macarius Magnes

(181 words)

Author(s): Volp, Ulrich
[German Version] is the author of an apology of Christianity (Ἀποκριτικὸς ἢ μονογενής/ Apokritikós ḗ monogenḗs) written either before 303 (Crafer) or around 400; almost nothing is otherwise known of him. Taking the form of a dialogue with a pagan, this work advances rational arguments supporting incarnation, divine monarchy, and resurrection in response to pagan-philosophical criticism and is thus an important source for, among other things, research on Porphyry. Fragments of a homily on Genesis (CPG 6116) hav…


(2,991 words)

Author(s): Otto, Eckart | Doering, Lutz | Hollender, Elisabeth | van Henten, Jan Willem | Volp, Ulrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Old Testament In the preexilic period, Sabbath (שַׁבָּת/ šabbāt) meant the day of the full moon; from the Exile on, it denoted a weekly day of rest. The origins of this day of rest go back to the early days of Exile. The earliest laws regarding the preexilic day of rest appear in the Book of the Covenant (Exod 23:10) and the cultic code in Exod 34:18–23, 25f. (v. 21) (Law and legislation: III). In the Book of the Covenant, the commandment to ¶ observe a day of rest is part of the privilege law of YHWH that deals with setting apart the firstfruits and firstborn …