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Cynuria

(460 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυνουρία; Kynouría, Κυνοσουρία; Kynossouría). [German version] [1] Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis Landscape on the Gulf of Argolis on the north-eastern coast of the Parnon mountains. As a border region between Laconia and Argolis, C. was often the cause of disputes between Sparta and Argos (cf. Str. 1,4,7). The northern part, the Thyreatis, one of the most fertile plains of the Peloponnese, consisted of the valleys of Tanos and Vrasiotis. According to Herodotus (8,73,1; 3), C. was originally Ionian and wa…

Sythas

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Σύθας/ Sýthas). River forming the border between Sicyon and Pellene in Achaea, probably the modern Trikaliotiko ([1. 252]; Paus. 2,7,8; 12,2; 7,27,12; Ptol. 3,16,4 (Σ. or Σῦς). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Griffin, Sikyon, 1982.

Haedui

(314 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Powerful, rich people of the Gallia Celtica (later Lugdunensis;  Gallia). In the west the region of the H. was essentially bounded by the rivers Doubs and Saône; in the north their neighbours were the  Senones, the  Mandubii, and the  Lingones. Alliances with the  Bituriges in the west and the Senones,  Parisii, and  Bellovaci in the north made it possible for the H. to control trade from the Mediterranean to the English Channel; close relations with the  Boii gave them access to the ri…

Bracata

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] South-eastern Gaul, later ‘Togata’ or ‘Narbonensis’, named after the trousers worn by the barbarians (Mela 2,74; Plin. HN 3,31). By contrast, the rest of Gaul was called comata (‘hairy’, cf. Cic. Phil. 8,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Py, Les Gaulois du midi, 1993.

Alba

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Main city of the  Helvii in  Gallia Narbonensis, called Aps in the Middle Ages, since 1903 once again carrying the ancient name that is mentioned only in texts from the 1st cent. AD on (Plin. HN 3,36; 14,43). A. was built in the course of the first two cents. AD, but the settlement of the area is documented since prehistory. Secured knowledge about the history of A. does not exist. The city's wealth was based on viticulture, crafts and commerce (four   collegia ). Destruction of A. by barbarians in the 3rd cent. AD is no longer accepted today.…

Parisii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A tribe of Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, on the middle Sequana (the modern Seine); their main town was Lutecia Parisiorum (the modern Paris). P. lived in Britannia in the mid-3rd cent. BC. On the Sequana, the P. were neighbours of the Senones, to whom they were first allied around the turn of the 2nd/1st cents. BC, then tributary. They minted gold coins [1]. In 53 BC Caesar moved the concilium Galliae to Lutecia (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4). In 52, the P. sided with Vercingetorix (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,6; 34,2; 57,1; 75,3). A collegium of the nautae Parisiaci is attested from the …

Phere

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηρή/ Phērḗ, Φηραί/ Phēraí). Town in West Arcadia on the river Alpheus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.; Hom. Od. 3,488ff.; 15,186ff.). Home of Orsilochus [1], the son of the river god Alpheus [2], and his descendants. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88.

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Gergovia

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later in Aquitania, west of the Elaver, 6 km south of  Augustonemetum on a high plateau that is hard to reach, today Gergovie. Besieged unsuccessfully by Caesar in 52 BC (Vercingetorix: Caes. B Gall. 7,34; Liv. Per. 107; Str. 4,2,3; Suet. Iul. 25; Polyaenus 8,23,9; Cass. Dio 40,35; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,152). Excavations of the large and the small camp and the connec…

Lugdunensis

(223 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Roman province, result of the partitioning of Gallia Comata into three provinces ( Tres Galliae: Belgica, L., Aquitania) by Augustus between 27 and 13 BC. Gallia L. comprised the tribes of Armorica, the Veliocasses and the Caletes. Several Celtic tribes of the southern Loire region belonged to Aquitania. Through the incorporation of the Lingones, Sequani, Raurici and Helvetii in the province of Belgica (in 10 or 8 BC), the L. no longer had access to the Rhine (Str. 4,3,1; Plin. HN 4,106). Gallia…

Abia

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ἀβία; Abía). Coastal town in eastern  Messenia (Plin. HN 4,22; Ptol. 3,14,31), the modern Palaiochora, 6 km south of Kalamata. Its equation with Ἱρή (Hire), one of the seven towns mentioned in Hom. Il. 9,150, is questionable.  Perioikoi-polis of Sparta, from 338 BC controlled by  Messene, with the exception of 183-146 BC, when A. was an independent member of the  Achaean Confederacy (Pol. 23,17); sanctuaries of  Heracles and  Asc…

Mandubii

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gaulish people who are only mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 7,68,1 and Str. 4,2,3. Capital Alesia ( oppidum Mandubiorum). Their territory is probably identical to the modern region of Auxois ( pagus Alisiensis in the Middle Ages). In Roman times the M. appear to have merged with the Haedui people. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P.-M. Duval, Chronique gallo-romaine, in: REA 61, 1959, 368-370.

Arelate

(390 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage Town in Gallia Narbonensis, the modern Arles. Originally called Theline by the Greeks (Avien. 689ff. – Phocian foundation?), the town had a Celto-Ligurian name (It. Ant. 299,4; Plin. HN 3,36). Settled from the 6th cent. BC; A’s shipping trade was severely hampered by the silting-up of the Rhône delta, but enjoyed a marked resurgence thanks to the canals built by→ Marius …

Garumna

(92 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Garunna, Γαρούνας / Garoúnas). One of the main rivers of Gaul (Tib. 1,7,11), the modern Garonne and Gironde, the boundary between the Gauls and the Aquitanians (Caes. Gall. 1,1,1; 5; 7; Str. 4,1,1; 2,1f.; 3,3; 5,2; Mela 3,20f.; Plin. HN 4,105; Amm. Marc. 15,11,2). According to Str. 4,2,1 navigable over more than 370 km. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Boudet (ed.), Les Celtes, la Garonne et les Pays aquitains, 1992 Y. Roman, Les Celtes, les sources antiques et la Garonne, in: Aquitania 12, 1994, 213-219 H. Sion, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 33/1 (Gi…

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Aigeira

(325 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Makedonia, Makedones | Orakel (Αἴγειρα). Stadt in Achaia, ca. 1,3 km von der Küste (Pol. 4,57,5), ca. 2,2 km vom gleichnamigen Hafen entfernt (Paus. 7,26,1), im Westen des h. Dorfes Derveni. An drei Seiten durch Steilhänge geschützt und auf der vierten nur über einen schmalen Kamm zugänglich, war A. leicht zu verteidigen und beherrschte gleichzeitig die Küstenstraße. Die Höhensiedlung (ca. 416 m), seit spätmyk. Zeit (12. Jh. v.…

Kanathos

(45 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Κάναθος). Quelle, in der Hera nach argivischer Legende durch jährliches Bad ihre Jungfräulichkeit zurückgewann (Paus. 2,38,2); wohl die h. große Quelle im Kloster Hagios Moni 2 km östl. von Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J.G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 3, 21913, 304f.

Darioritum

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Hauptort der Veneti in der Gallia Lugdunensis, h. Vannes am Golf von Morbihan. Belegstellen: Ptol. 2,8,6; Tab. Peut. ( Dartoritum); Not. Galliarum 3,8 ( civitas Venetum). Zur röm. Kaiserzeit wohlhabend, wurde D. in den unruhigen Zeiten des 3. Jh. von einem Mauerring geschützt, der - was die Überreste zeigen - nur einen Teil von D. umschloß. Inschr.: CIL 13, 3140f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Pape, La Bretagne romaine, 1995.

Mases

(96 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Μάσης). Ort und Hafenbucht an der SW-Küste der argolischen Halbinsel, am Ostrand der Bucht von Koilada im NW des h. Dorfes Kampo, mit geringen ant. Resten. Schon bei Hom. Il. 2,562 erwähnt, in histor. Zeit Hafen von Hermion(e). Belegstellen: Strab. 8,6,17; Paus. 2,35,11; 36,1f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Eust. in Hom. Il. 288,11. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 240f.  M. Jameson, Inscriptions of the Peloponnesos, in: Hesperia 22, 1953, 167f.  C.N. Runnels, T.H. van Andel, The Evolution of Settlement in the Souther…

Carnutes

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Volk der Gallia Lugdunensis, den Senones benachbart, zw. Seine und Loire (Strab. 4,2,3; 4,3,4; Tib. 1,7,12; Ptol. 2,8,10). Nach heftigem Widerstand von Caesar unterworfen (Caes. Gall. 2-8 passim; Plin. nat. 4,107; Carnuti foederati). Ihre bedeutensten Städte waren Cenabum und Autricum. Bei den C. hielten die Druiden alljährlich an geheiligter Stelle Gericht. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Provost, Le Val de Loire dans l'Antiquité, 1993.
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