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Anyte

(319 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] (Ἀνύτη; Anýtē). Epigrammatic poetess of the ‘Garland’ of Meleager (Anth. Pal. 4,1,5), acclaimed representative of the Peloponnesian School. Born in Tegea, Arcadia, (not in Mytilene, as the lemmata of Anth. Pal. 7,492 erroneously states, cf. Poll. 5,48; Steph. Byz. 610,16), she lived in all probability at the turn of the 4th to the 3rd cent. BC and was also the author of lost epic and lyric poems (SH 80 f.). At least 19 epigrams (in addition, the following are uncertain or disputed;…

Democritus

(1,541 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Δημόκριτος; Dēmókritos). [1] of Abdera Atomist philosopher, 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC [German version] A. Life and Writing D. was active in the 2nd half of the 5th cent. and one of the main representatives of ancient  Atomism, which he adopted from  Leucippus. Their respective contributions to the theory of the atom are difficult to differentiate. It is characteristic in this context that the ‘Great World Order’ (Μέγας διάκοσμος; Mégas diákosmos) listed in an index of D.'s writings (by Diog. Laert. 9,45 = 68A33 DK) was a treatise by Leucippus according to Theoph…

Antipater

(2,083 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
[German version] [1] Macedonian commander (320-319 BC) Son of Iolaus,  399/398 BC, was certainly already active militarily and diplomatically under  Philippus and under his father  Amyntas and brothers. He was especially connected with  Alexander [4] and secured his throne after the murder of Philippus. During Alexander's invasion in Asia he remained with half of the Macedonian army as governor of Europe. He monitored Greece and sent mercenaries and Macedonian contingents during the first year of the …

Agathias

(349 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] (Ἀγαθίας; Agathías). Historian and poet from Myrina in Asia Minor, son of the rhetor Memnon. Born c. 532, died shortly after 580 AD. He studied rhetoric in Alexandria and law in Constantinople, where he then successfully practised as a lawyer (and this is why he was named Σχολαστικός; Scholastikós). His historical work continues that of Procopius, recounts in five books -- with long ethnographic and chronological digressions (up until 579) -- events of the years AD 552-559. He attempts to imitate Herodotus and Thucydides, meticu…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded…

Erycius

(114 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] (Ερύκιος; Erýkios) Author of 14 epigrams in the ‘Garland’ of Philippus: dedicatory, funerary and epideictic epigrams treating traditional (often bucolic, cf. Anth. Pal. 6,96; 255; 7,174 etc.) themes with remarkable elegance. Internal evidence assigns him to the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC and suggests that he probably visited Rome (cf. 6,96,2 Ἀρκάδες ἀμφότεροι and Verg. Ecl. 7,4 Arcades ambo). The heading of 7,230 attests to his having come from Cyzicus (that of 7,397, Ἐρυκίου Θετταλοῦ, seems to confirm the existence of a second E.); he i…

Alpheius

(550 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
(Ἀλφειός; Alpheiós). [German version] [1] River in the Peloponnese At 110 kms it is the longest river with the largest volume of water flow of the  Peloponnese, which, with its tributaries (especially the  Ladon,  Erymanthus,  Lousius) drains a large part of  Arcadia and  Elis. The eastern spring, called A. surfaces on the valley watershed near the Eurotas (483 m above sea level at Ambelakion; possibly some tapping of the water flow). The A. has so far for the most part preserved the character of a mount…

Antigonus

(1,768 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀντίγονος; Antígonos). [German version] [1] Monophthalmus Diadoch (‘The One-eyed’), 382-301 BC.  Hetairos of  Philippus and  Alexander [4], married to  Stratonice, was the father of  Demetrius. During Alexander's invasion of Asia, commander of the Greek hoplites, satrap of Greater Phrygia from 333 until Alexander's death [323]. He defeated rebels and remnants of Persian troops, he gained Lycaonia and in 331 he received in addition the administration of Lycia-Pamphylia. In Priene he was honoured for an achievement, the nature of which is unknown. (IPriene 2). After Alexander's…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Barbucallus, Iohannes

(97 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[German version] with the epithet Γραμματικός ( Grammatikós). Epigram poet of the ‘ kyklos’ of Agathias, lived in the 6th cent. AD, author of 12 reasonable, for the most part ecphrastic and epideictic epigrams (some uncertainty remains, furthermore, concerning Anth. Pal. 7,555-555b and 9, 628f.; the first are titled Ἰωάννου Ποιητοῦ, the others Ἰωάννου Γραμματικοῦ). Noteworthy are the epigrams about the destruction of Berytus (Beirut) by the earthquake of 551 (9,425-427; the influence of Nonnus, Dion. 41 is obvious in 426,1f.). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography Av. & A. Cameron, …

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Asclepiades

(2,568 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀσκληπιάδης; Asklēpiádēs) [German version] [1] of Samos Epigrammatic poet Epigrammatic poet of the ‘Garland’ of Meleager, who addresses him in the preface by the dark pseudonym Σικελίδης (Anth. Pal. 4,1,46; cf. Hedylus, GA I 1, 101 6, 4; Theoc. 7,40); an outstanding representative of the Ionian-Alexandrianschool, he lived around the turn of the 4th/3rd cent. BC. A. was highly praised by Theocritus (7,39-41), but attacked by Callimachus (schol. Flor. Callim. Fr.1,1). From the latter he differed, among other things, through a diametrically opposed appraisal of the Lyde of Antimach…

Demiourgos

(1,214 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
[German version] [1] Poet of epigrams of unknown dating Epigram poet of an unknown period (with a peculiar, otherwise undocumented name), author of an insignificant distich on Hesiod (Anth. Pal. 7,52). Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibliography FGE 38. [German version] [2] Union of craftsmen and officials Dēmiourgoí (δημιουργοί, ‘public workers’) were occupied with public matters at various levels, depending on time and place. 1. In the Linear B tablets from Pylos dḗmos is found but not demiourgoi; it has been suggested [2] but not universally accepted that in the Mycenaean world demiourgoi…

Damocharis

(100 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[English version] (Δαμοχάρις). Epigrammdichter aus justinianischer Zeit, grammatikós, Freund und Schüler des Agathias (so das Lemma von Anth. Pal. 7,206, ein Grabepigramm auf das vom Meister geliebte Rebhuhn, vgl. Agathias 7,204f.). Auf Kos geboren, wie man aus dem Epitaphios des Paulus Silentiarius erfährt (7,588), war er Proconsul und Statthalter von Asien, der sowohl in Smyrna (vgl. das anon. Gedicht 16,43) als auch in Ephesos besondere Verehrung erfuhr (vgl. SEG 18,474). Erh. sind vier Epigramme von mittlerem Niveau aus dem “Kyklos” des Agathias. Degani, Enzo (Bologna) Bibli…

Ablabius /-os

(317 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Schwarcz, Andreas (Wien)
[English version] [1] Flavius A. (4.Jh. n. Chr.) Flavius A. gehörte zu den einflußreichsten Beamten unter Constantinus dem Gr. Er stammte aus Kreta (Lib. or. 42,23), war das Kind armer Nichtchristen (Eun. vit. soph. 6,3,1-7), konvertierte später zum Christentum (Athan. epist. fest. 5). 324/6 n. Chr. war er vicarius von Asia (CIL III 352), 329-337 praef. praet. Orientis, 331 cos. ord. Auf sein Anstiften soll der heidnische Philosoph Sopatros von Constantin hingerichtet worden sein (Eun. vit. soph. 6,2,12; 3,7,13; Zos. 2,40,3). Er war evtl. noch 338 als praef. im Amt, wurde aber noc…

Ennoios

(57 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[English version] Verfasser eines Grabepigramms auf einem Marmorblock, der in Catania wiederentdeckt wurde (Anth. Pal. append. 2,491 Cougny = GVI 883) und in die Zeit zwischen dem 3. und 4. Jh.n.Chr. zu datieren ist. Der Name des Dichters, der unter den drei ebenso faden wie beschädigten Distichen steht, ist sonst nicht belegt. Degani, Enzo (Bologna)

Euodos

(59 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[English version] Epigrammdichter der Kaiserzeit (1. oder 3. Jh. n.Chr.), von dem Planudes zwei kurze Gedichte erhalten hat, drei Hexameter insgesamt, in Form von Rätseln (Anth. Pal. 16,116 und 155): das erste beschreibt einen Kentauren, das zweite das Phänomen des Echos, das unter anderem als ‘Rückstand (τρύγα) der Stimme’ und ‘Schwanz des Wortes’ bezeichnet wird. Degani, Enzo (Bologna)

Euenos

(606 words)

Author(s): Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[1] von Paros [English version] A. Zur Person Eratosthenes unterscheidet zwei Elegiker aus Paros namens E. (Harpokr. s.v. Εὔηνος 139,15 Dindorf), andere behaupten, es gäbe nur einen [1]. Platon erwähnt einen E. von Paros, einen Dichter und “Philosophen” (Plat. Phaid. 60d; 61b), der um 400 v.Chr. polit. Rhet. lehrte (Plat. apol. 20a-b) und einige Tropen “entdeckte” (Plat. Phaidr. 267a). Sowohl Sprache als auch Themenwahl einiger Fragmente, z.B. Mäßigung beim Trinken (2 Gentili-Prato/West, evtl. eine Antw…

Erykios

(109 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[English version] Verfasser von 14 Epigrammen aus dem “Kranz” des Philippos; es handelt sich um Weihe-, Grab- und epideiktische Epigramme, die traditionelle (oft bukolische, vgl. Anth. Pal. 6,96; 255; 7,174 usw.) Themen mit bemerkenswerter Eleganz behandeln. Interne Indizien legen die 2.H. des 1. Jh. v.Chr. nahe und machen einen Aufenthalt in Rom wahrscheinlich (vgl. 6,96,2 Ἀρκάδες ἀμφότεροι und Verg. ecl. 7,4 Arcades ambo). Daß E. aus Kyzikos stammte, bezeugt das Lemma von 7,230 (das Lemma von 7,397, Ἐρυκίου Θετταλοῦ, scheint die Existenz eines zweiten E…

Besantinos

(123 words)

Author(s): Degani, Enzo (Bologna)
[English version] (Βησαντῖνος). Dichter aus hadrianischer Zeit, vielleicht aus Rhodos (so das Lemma von Anth. Pal. 15,27, einem Gedicht, das allerdings nicht ihm gehört, sondern Simias von Rhodos; weiterhin falsch zugewiesen 9,118 = Thgn. 527f., vgl. Stob. 4,50,44). Ihm weisen die Hss. F Y der Bukoliker einen βωμός zu, ein Figurengedicht in der Gestalt eines Altares: 26 Verse in verschiedenen Metren, die das glückwünschende Akrostichon Ὀλύμπιε πολλοῖς ἔτεσι θυσείας, das gewiß an Hadrian gerichtet ist (vgl. ThGL 5,1924A). Es ist auch anon…
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