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Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Rhinthon

(243 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ῥίνθων/ Rhínthōn). Poet, composer of literary Phlyakes plays (of which he is said to have written 38 [1. test. 2 and 3]), from Syracuse [1. test. 1], active at Tarentum [1. test. 2 and 3] in the reign of Ptolemy I (Ptolemaeus [1]) (322-283 BC, reigned from 305). Of nine surviving titles, eight are identifiable as parodies of tragedies by Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ Amphitryon , Ἡρακλῆς/ Heracles , Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/ Iphigeneia at Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ Iphigeneia among the Taurians, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/ Meleager the Slave, Μήδεια/ Medea , Ὀρέστας/ Orestes , Τήλεφο…

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Procleides

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Προκλείδης; Prokleídēs). Attic comedic poet, victorious at the Dionysia in 332 BC [1. test. 1] and at an agon at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]; otherwise nothing is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 582.

Ameinias

(69 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the Attic New Comedy, who in 311 BC at the comedy agon of the Greater Dionysia gained third place with an Ἀπολείπουσα [1 test. 2] and in 280 BC participated in comedy performances on Delos [1 test. 3]. Also a victory in the comedy competition of the Lenaea is attested for him [1 test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 196.

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Alexis

(451 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἄλεξις; Álexis). Writer of Attic comedies from Thurii in Lower Italy, who is said to have been the uncle and teacher of  Menander [1. test. 1.2]. A victory in the comedy contest at the great Dionysia of 347 BC is the earliest concrete evidence of A.'s career [1. test. 6], although there are references to his conducting performances even earlier: on the inscription listing the winners of the Lenaea he appears only four places after  Antiphanes [1. test. 8]; fr. 19 has the bad writer…

Anaxilas

(206 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξίλας; Anaxílas) Attic writer of comedies, who can be dated only on the basis of a few pieces of circumstantial evidence in his fragments to approximately the middle of the 4th cent. BC and thereafter [2. 199 f.]. 22 titles of plays (of which about a quarter relate to mythical themes) and also 30 verse fragments are preserved of A.'s works, including one in dactylo-epitrites (fr. 12), one in glyconic (fr. 13) and one in anapestic ‘dimeters’. In at least three works, there are derisive thrusts against Plato (frs. 5, 14, 26), in the Euandria, A. makes fun of Demosthene…

Eupolis

(972 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔπολις; Eúpolis). Apart from Aristophanes and Cratinus, the most important writer of Attic Old Comedy, son of Sosipolis. [German version] A. Life E. is said to have already begun his performances at the age of 17 [1. test. 1]; varying times for his debut are stated: in 429 [1. test. 2a], 427 [1. test. 6a], 426 [1. test. 6b] or between 427 and 424 BC [1. test. 7. 8]. The epigraphical lists of the winners at the Dionysia and the Lenaea show that he began his performances about the same time as  Aristophanes (or short…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Phormis

(107 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φόρμις/ Phórmis) or Phormus (Φόρμος/ Phórmos in Ath. 14,652a; Them. Or. 27 p. 337b; Suda ε 2766, φ 609 = [1. test. 1]). P. was a Syracusan, and like his contemporary Epicharmus, a poet of comic dramas, allegedly also tutor to the sons of the tyrant Gelon [1. test. 1]. This, however, may rest upon a confusion with a military commander of the same name (Paus. 5,27,1 and 7). Aristotle declares P. and Epicharmus inventors of the coherent comic plot [1. test. 2]. The seven plays ascribed to him (no fragments survive) seem to have dealt with mostly mythical subjects. Nesselrath, Hein…

Evages

(47 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγης; Euágēs). Comic poet, life dates unknown, from the island of Hydrea (near Troezen). It is supposed that E. started out as an uneducated shepherd, but then turned into a comic poet of good repute [1. test.]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 183.

Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Eubulides

(521 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὐβουλίδης; Euboulídēs). [German version] [1] E. from Miletus Megarian of the 4th cent. BC Member of the  Megarian school. The time when E. lived (mid 4th cent. BC) is determined by his intense attacks against Aristotle, which are repeatedly mentioned in the sources. In part these are personal attacks (Euseb. Praep. evang. 15,2,5), in part criticism of certain logical theorems by Aristotle (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Possibly, Aristotle may in turn have discussed the teachings of E. There is evidence tha…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Thugenides

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θουγενίδης; Thougenídes). Poet of the Old Comedy (I. C.); it is uncertain whether he was on the list of victors at the Dionysia in fifth place after Cratinus [1. test. *1]. Of his only recorded play, Δικασταί ( Dikastaí, ‘The Judges), two short fragments survive; five other play fragments without titles are also uninformative. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 750-752.

Sannyrion

(126 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαννυρίων/ Sannyríōn). Attic comedic poet of the end of the 5th cent. BC, mocked by his competitors for his skinniness [1. test. 3]. The titles of three plays and 13 fragments with a total of eight and a half verses have been handed down: the Γέλως ( Gélōs, 'Laughter') featured a talking god (fr. 1) and mocked the tragedian Meletus [3] (fr. 2) and Aristophanes [3] (fr. 5); in the Δανάη ( Danáē), dated to 407-404 BC, Zeus considers what shape would be best for him to get to his Danae and in the process makes fun of the tragedic actor Hegelochus (fr. 8); the Ἰώ ( Iṓ), also on a mythical…

Antheas

(84 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A bon viveur and poet originally from Lindus in Rhodes, who was the first person to use collated poetic (dithyrambic?) expressions and is said to have written ‘comedies’ as well as many other works; Jacoby (in FGrH 527 F 2) doubts his actual existence. A.'s period cannot be determined more precisely; he is said to have been a ‘relative’ of Cleobulus of Lindus, one of the Seven Sages. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 SH, 1983, no. 46 2 PCG II, 1991, 307.

Augeas

(42 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic comic poet documented only through a short article in the Suda [1. test.]; the Suda counts him as belonging to the Middle Comedy and lists three titles of plays. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 17.

Pandaetes

(30 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πανδαίτης; Pandaítēs). Attic comic writer of the 3rd cent. BC only attested in inscriptions on the Lenaean victors' list. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 100.
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