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Vercingetorix

(616 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] Celt from the people of the Arverni, born in c. 82 BC. His father Celtillus, whom the Romans considered the 'first man' ( princeps) in all of Gaul, was - like Arminius - murdered by members of his tribe, because he aspired to be king (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,1). Knowledge of V. is concentrated entirely on the year 52 BC; the main source, Caesar (= C.), is problematic, because he personalizes the Celtic resistance in V. and does not confront V. without Roman prejudices when recognizing his military performanc…

Drusus

(1,031 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
Initially cognomen in the gens  Livia (ThlL, Onom. 3,256-260). According to Suet. Tib. 3,2, an otherwise unknown Livius (in the 3rd cent. BC) assumed the epithet, after he had won a duel with the Celtic leader Drausus, and passed it on to his family. Through  Livia's first marriage, with Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero, the cognomen passed into the Claudian branch of the domus Augusta through her son Nero Claudius [II 24] (D. Maior), brother of the second Princeps  Tiberius; D. appears in the name of the son of D. Maior,  Germanicus, of the latter's son D. [II 2], …

Caelius

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Schmitt-Pantel, Pauline (Paris) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
Plebeian family name (in MSS frequently confused with  Coelius), attested from the 2nd cent. BC. (ThlL, Onom. 24-26). I. Republican Age [German version] [I 1] C., C. praetor or propraetor in Gallia Cisalpina in 90 BC praetor or propraetor in Gallia Cisalpina in 90 BC (Liv. per. 73; MRR 2,25). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., C. see C.  Coelius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C., M. People's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC People's tribune in the 2nd cent. BC, against whom Cato -- perhaps as censor in 184 BC -- directed a speech (ORF I4 46-48) [1. 86]. Elver…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Paralus

(47 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Πάραλος; Páralos). [German version] [1] Son of Pericles Son of Pericles [1] from his first marriage. He died of the plague in 430/429 BC (Plut. Pericles 36,8). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] (Athenian ship of state), see Salaminia (Athenian ship of state) see Salaminia

Caesar

(5,998 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Rüpke, Jörg (Erfurt)
I. Historical [German version] A. Youth and early career C. Iulius Caesar was born in 100 BC on the 13th of Quintilis (from 44 BC: Iulius/July); his mother was Aurelia, a daughter of L. Aurelius Cotta ( cos. 119 BC; [1. 327]). His father became praetor in 92 BC, and died 85 BC. Nothing is known of C.'s childhood and early youth. As it was the custom for the Roman aristocracy, C., too, presumably spent his first years in the care of his mother, followed between the ages of 7 and 15 by elementary schooling and grammatical tuition (G…

Lysicles

(112 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[German version] (Λυσικλῆς; Lysiklês). L. was a friend of Pericles and like the latter supported aggressive Athenian policy in relation to Sparta (Aristoph. Equ. 765: predecessor of Cleon). A L. was (in 432 BC ?) the petitioner for a decree regarding naval weapons and regarding Apollo of Delos (IG I2 128 l. 3; supplements in SEG 21, 37, IG I3 130a). After 429 BC, L. married Pericles' widow Aspasia (Plut. Pericles 24), in 428/7 as a strategos he fell in battle in Caria (Thuc. 3,19,1f.). Aristophanes has him appear in the ‘Equites’ as a small cattle wholesaler (Aristoph. Equ. 132 with schol.). Wil…

Ancharius

(125 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Q., praetor 56 BC Q., 73 BC legate in Greece (Syll.3 748), 65 (?) proquaestor in Macedonia (IvOl 328). As tribune of the people, 59 he opposed the politics of the consul  Caesar together with his colleague Bibulus (Cic. Sest. 113; Vatin. 16; Cass. Dio 38,6,1: schol. Bob. 135, 146St.). After the praetorship of 56 followed the proconsulate in Maedonia (Cic. Fam. 13,40) Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] C. Rufus (1st half of 1st cent. BC) C., Rufus from Fulginae, accuser (?) of L. Varenus c. 80 BC [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] Priscus (1st …

Clodius

(2,871 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Glock, Andreas (Bremen) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
In the 1st cent. BC, vernacular form of the gentilicium  Claudius (C. [I 4] and  Clodia), since late Republican period also an independent family name. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] C., C. Praefect of M. Brutus in 43/42 BC In 43/42 BC follower and prefect of M. Brutus; he murdered C. Antonius [I 3]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 2] C., Sex. Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex. Cloelius [2] Henchman of P. Clodius [I 4] Pulcher, Sex.  Cloelius [2]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [I 3] C. Aesopus Tragic actor, 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC Tragic …

Ampius

(244 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
Roman gentilicium. [German version] [1] C., praef. socium 201 BC C., praef. socium 201 BC (Liv. 31,2,5-9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Balbus, T., Praetor 59 BC, historian Balbus, T., tribunus plebis 63 BC (Vell. Pat. 2,40,4), praetor 59, finally procos. in Asia (MRR 2, 197). After his return he was an unsuccessful candidate for the consulate in 55 (schol. Bob. 156St.), in the Civil War he fought on the side of Pompey ( Pompeius), for whom he had already as tribunus plebis especially applied himself and who therefore had supported him when he ran for con…

Eucrates

(122 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld)
(Εὐκράτης; Eukrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos 432/1 BC Athenian strategos in 432/1 BC (IG I3 365.5), participated in a campaign to Macedonia. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] [2] Choregos and strategos in Athens about 415 BC Choregos and strategos in Athens. The brother of  Nicias. In 415 BC accused of the mutilation of the Herms but released (And. 1,47; 66). In 412/1 in Thrace as strategos. In 405/4 again strategos, he resisted together with other generals the peace terms negotiated by Theramenes during the blockade of Athens and, therefore,…

Euphranor

(302 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ; Euphránōr). [German version] [1] Sculptor, painter and art critic in Athens, c. 364-361 BC Important sculptor, painter and art critic ( Art, theory of) in Athens with his acme in 364-361 BC. As paintings the ‘Battle of Mantinea’ (362 BC), the ‘Apotheosis of Theseus’ and ‘Twelve Gods in the Stoa Eleutherios’ are described and ‘Democracy and Demos’ and ‘Odysseus’ are mentioned. E. described his ‘Theseus’ as ‘meat-nourished’ in contrast to the ‘rose-nourished’ one by  Parrhasius. Ancient art critics emphasized the versatility and dignitas of his representation of the …

Pericles

(2,303 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Περικλῆς; Periklês). [German version] [1] Athenian Politician Athenian politician. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) [German version] A. Descent and early career P. was probably born between 495 and 490 as the son of Agariste [2] (according to Hdt. 6,131, she dreamt that she would bear a lion), a member of the Alcmaeonid family, and Xanthippus. P. had two sons (Xanthippus and Paralus [1]) from his first marriage and a third son P. from his union with the Milesian Aspasia [2]. Later tradition numbered Anaxagoras [2], Zeno of …

Hagnon

(282 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων; Hágnōn). [German version] [1] Strategos in Athens, 5th cent. BC Father of Theramenes [1. 191], in 440 BC stratēgós in the war of Athens against rebellious Samos (Thuc. 1,117,2). H. founded Amphipolis in 437/6 (Thuc. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). At the beginning of the Peloponnesian War he held the office of strategos again in 431/0 and 429/8 (Thuc. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). According to Plutarch (Pericles 32) he was one of the opponents of  Pericles. In April 421 he signed, among other things, the peace treaty (Peace of Nicias) betwe…

Iuventius

(1,470 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nadig, Peter C. (Duisburg) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman cognomen [1. 281; 482; 2. 735]. The gens belonged to the municipal nobility of Tusculum, came into Roman politics around 200 BC and with I. [I 6] achieved the sole consulate in the middle of the 2nd cent. BC, to which they referred to also later (Cic. Planc. 12, 15; 18f. and others; cf. Catull. 24,1-3). The most important families were the Thalnae (also Talnae in inscriptions) and the Laterenses. I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] Alleged first curule aedile of the plebs, 4th cent. BC According to fictitious family tradition, the first curule aedile of the plebs at the end …

Euphranor

(258 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rom) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Εὐφράνωρ). [English version] [1] Kunstschriftsteller in Athen, um 364-361 v. Chr. Bedeutender Bildhauer, Maler und Kunstschriftsteller (Kunsttheorie) in Athen mit Akmé 364-361 v.Chr. An Gemälden werden die ‘Schlacht v. Mantinea (362 v.Chr.), die ‘Apotheose des Theseus und ‘Zwölf Götter in der Stoa Eleutherios beschrieben, ‘Demokrateia und Demos und ‘Odysseus genannt. Seinen ‘Theseus beschrieb E. als “fleischgenährt” im Gegensatz zum “rosengenährten” des Parrhasios. Ant. Kunsturteile betonen Vielseitigkeit und dignitas seiner Götterdarstellung und sind wahrsche…

Arrius

(533 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Lat. Gentilname ital. Herkunft [1]. I. Republik [English version] [I 1] A. (1. H. 1. Jh. v. Chr.) von Catull (carm. 84) wegen affektierter Aussprache verspottet. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 2] A., C. Nachbar Ciceros Nachbar Ciceros auf dessen Formianum (Cic. Att. 2,14,2; 15,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 3] A., L. Stadtpraetor von Cales Stadtpraetor von Cales (ILLRP 560). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [English version] [I 4] A., Q. Praetor 73 v.Chr. Praetor 73 v.Chr. [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze, 422-42…

Drusus

(979 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Köln)
Cognomen zunächst in der gens Livia (ThlL, Onom. 3,256-260). Nach Suet. Tib. 3,2 nahm ein nicht näher bekannter Livius (im 3. Jh.v.Chr.) nach seinem Sieg im Zweikampf über den Keltenführer Drausus den Beinamen an und vererbte ihn. Durch die erste Ehe der Livia mit Ti. Claudius [I 19] Nero gelangte das Cognomen über ihren Sohn Nero Claudius [II 24] D. (D. Maior), den Bruder des zweiten Princeps Tiberius, in den claudischen Zweig der domus Augusta: D. erscheint im Namen des Sohnes des D. Maior, Germanicus, bei dessen Sohn D. [II 2], beim Sohn des Tiberius (D. Minor [II …

Allienus

(73 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
[English version] 61 - 59 v. Chr. Legat des Q. Tullius Cicero in Asia (Cic. ad Q. fr. 1,1,10), 55 Volkstribun (MRR 2, 217), 49 praetor (Cic. fam. 10,15,3), 48-46 procos. in Sicilia (MRR 2, 275; 288; 296). In dieser Funktion unterstützte er Caesar während des afrikanischen Feldzuges im Jan. 46 mit Truppen (Bell. Afr. 34,4). 44/43 war er zunächst Legat des Trebonius, dann Dolabellas (MRR 2, 352). Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)

Hagnon

(256 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἅγνων). [English version] [1] strategos in Athen, 5. Jh. v.Chr. Vater des Theramenes [1. 191], 440 v.Chr. stratēgós im Krieg Athens gegen das aufständische Samos (Thuk. 1,117,2). H. gründete 437/6 Amphipolis (Thuk. 4,102,3; 5,11,1). Zu Beginn des Peloponnesischen Krieges übte er 431/0 und 429/8 erneut das Strategenamt aus (Thuk. 2,58,1; 6,31,2; 2,95,3 [2. 117, 121]). Nach Plutarch (Perikles 32) zählte er zu den Gegnern des Perikles. Im April 421 unterzeichnete er neben anderen den Friedensvertrag (sog. Nikias-…
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