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Tanager

(51 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tributary of the Silarus, modern Torrente Tanagro in Lucania (Verg. Georg. 3,151 and Serv.: siccus T.; Plin.  HN 2,225 without giving a name; Vibius Sequester 151 R.; ad Tanarum, the station at the river crossing:  It. Ant. 109,5). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Philipp, s. v. T., RE 4 A, 2153.

Nemausus

(770 words)

Author(s): Euskirchen, Marion (Bonn) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] God of the sacred spring of the place of the same name (mod. Nîmes) God of the sacred spring of the capital of the civitas of the Volcae Arecomici in Gallia [B.] Narbonensis, who also gave his name to the city (N. [2], present-day Nîmes). Among the Imperial-period dedications to N., predominantly from the spring and baths district of the Roman city, a few votive offerings have come to light from the spring basin, where the god was presumably worshipped in a cult building with a square ground-plan, con…

Notium

(164 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Νότιον; Nótion). Port founded by Aeolian settlers at the mouth of the River Avci into a bay, now silted up, of the Gulf of Kuşadası, c. 13 km to the south of Colophon (near modern Değirmendere). In natural commonality of interests with Colophon, N. soon developed out the shadow of this inland city, which was still affluent at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, from that point also bore the description ‘Colophon-on-Sea’ (Κολοφῶν ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ / Kolophōn hē epì thalássēi [1]) and was connec…

Celadon

(92 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Κελάδων; Keládōn). Tributary of the  Alpheius between Pylos and Arcadia, rising on Mt. Lycaeum -- its identification is a Homeric problem (Hom. Il. 7,133-135: Nestor's tale of the fight of the Pylians against the Arcadians ‘by the rapid river C. under the walls of Pheia, and round about the waters of the river Iardanus’). Even ancient Homeric philologists tried in vain to determine the location of the C. in the coastal region (cf. Didymus, schol. Hom. Il. 7,135; Str. 8,3,21; cf. also Paus. 8,38,9: Κέλαδος/ Kélados). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Seleucus mons

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Vocontii (It. Ant. 357,8; It. Burdigalense 555; Seleucus is the Latin form of a Celtic personal name [1. 1462]) on the road from the Matrona Pass to Valentia (modern Valence) on the Rhodanus, modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon in the département of Hautes-Alpes, about 6 km to the northeast of Serres. Numerous finds (inscriptions, votive gifts; now in the museum of Gap) attest to its having been a frequently visited cult site (Allobrox, Silvanus, Mars, Victoria, Isis, Mithras). Magnentius was decisively…

Oanis

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὤανις/Ṓ anis). Small river on the south coast of Sicily, probably the present-day Rifrascolaro, which flows into the sea to the east of Camarina. The MS tradition for Pind. Ol. 5,11 wavers between Ὤανις/ Ṓanis and Ὤανος/ Ṓanos; cf. the discussion for [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 K. Ziegler, s.v. O., RE 17, 1675-1677 2 E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 118.

Issorium

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἰσσώριον; Issṓrion). Hill on the northern city border of Sparta, with a sanctuary to Artemis Issoria (Plut. Agesilaus 32,3; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,1,14; Nep. Agesilaus 6,2), possibly the heights known today as Klaraki. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. Sparta, RE 3A, 1350ff.

Leon

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Λέων; Léōn). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved eunomía (‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

Themisonium

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture (Θεμισώνιον/ Themisṓnion). City in southwestern Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; Paus. 10,32,4; Ptol. 5,2,26; Hierocles, Synekdemos 666,3), presumably to the north of Acıpayam at modern Dodurga in the valley of the Kazanes (coins: BMC Phrygia 418 f.); this river can probably be identified as the Casus (modern river Karayük), which Manlius [I 24] crossed on his march from Tabae to Cibyra in 189 BC (cf. Liv. 38,14,1). T. was named after Themison, a fri…

Mylae

(512 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] [1] Town in southern Perrhaebia (Μύλαι; Mýlai). Town in southern Perrhaebia ( Perrhaebi) between Chyretiae und Phalanna, mentioned in literature only about the year 171 BC, when it was captured and plundered by Perseus after a long resistance (Liv. 42,54,1ff.). Starting from the evidence in Livy, M. has been located in a citadel's ruins - the walls had been restored during the Byzantine period - on a steep hill above the Xerias (= Titaresius) near present Damasion, where also inscriptions attributed to M. have been discovered (IG IX 2, 332-337; [1]). Kramolisch, Herwig …

Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Pharnaces

(490 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Φαρνάκης; Pharnákēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King of Pontus, 2nd cent. BC King of Pontus (185-160/154 BC), son of Mithridates [3] III. After the conquest of Sinope in 183 BC, Ph. fought in 182-179 BC (Pontian War Pol. 25,2; Diod. Sic. 29,24) together with the dynast Mithridates of Armenia Minor against a gradually emerging coalition of the kings Eumenes [3] II, Ariarathes IV (Cappadocia), Prusias II and Artaxias [1] I, the dynasts Acusilaus (territory unknown), Gatalos (Sarmate) and Morzius (Paphlagone…

Themiscyra

(87 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Θεμίσκυρα/ Themískyra). Highly fertile coastal region (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 7a; Apollod. 2,101; Plin. HN 6,9; Just. Epit. 2,4,1) or Greek city (at modern Terme, Peripl. m. Eux. 29; Ps.-Scyl. 89; possibly destroyed in the third of the Mithridatic Wars since for later times there is no information) in the north of the Paryadres mountains on the southern shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) on the lower River Thermodon [2], where in Greek myth the Amazons lived (cf. Aesch. PV 724 f.; Hdt. 4,110). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Phrixa

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Φρίξα/ Phríxa). Settlement in western Arcadia or south-eastern Elis or Triphylia (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), east of Pisatis on the left bank of the Alpheius [1], where the Leucyanias flows into it from the north (Hdt. 4,148,4: Φρίξαι/ Phríxai; Paus. 6,21,5f.; Str. 8,3,12; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μάκιστος). It stood on a prominent hill (305 m; modern Paliophanaro) at what today is once more known as Phrixa, 9 km east of Olympia. P. later adopted the name Phaestus, probably also Phaesana (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φαιστός). Even by the tim…

Peltae

(123 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Πέλται; Péltai). Settlement, already in existence by the end of the 5th cent. BC (cf. Xen. An. 1,2,10) and subsequently a Seleucid military colony (coin: HN 682: ΠΕΛΤΗΝΩΝ ΜΑΚΕΔΟΝΩΝ; PELTĒNŌN MAKEDONŌN) in Phrygia (Str. 12,8,13; 13,4,13: τὸ Πελτηνὸν πεδίον; tò Peltēnòn pedíon; Ptol. 5,2,25; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; Hsch. s.v. Βέλτη/ Béltē, possibly misspelled for Π./ P., cf. [1. 120 § 145]; Pelteni, Plin. HN 95; 106) on the upper reaches of the Meander [2] (cf. the coin HN 682: ΜΑΙΑΝΔΡΟΣ; MAIANDROS), presumed south of…

Azanes, Azania

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀζάνες, Ἀζανία; Azánes, Azanía). Tribe and region (of proverbial inhospitableness, cf. Zenob. 2,54; Diogenianus 1,24) between the rivers of Erymanthus and Ladon, at the border of Arcadia with  Elis (Str. 8,3,1; 8,1).  Paeon was a town of the A. (Hdt. 6,127). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3, 1, 1959, 211.

Chalybes

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Χάλυβες; Χάλυβοι; Chálybes, Chályboi, Hecat. FGrH 1 F 203). A people famous for their skill in ironwork; they were even credited with the invention of iron; indeed the extraction and working of gold and silver were associated with the C. Sometimes located on the north shore of the Black Sea (original homeland? Aesch. PV 714f.), but generally in the northern Anatolian mountains west of the  Halys (Hdt. 1,28), extending in the east as far as  Pharnacaea and  Trapezus (Str. 12,3,19ff.), in the south to the territory of the Armenians. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliogra…

Phigalia

(734 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Φιγάλεια/ Phigáleia, Φιγαλία/ Phigalía, from the Hellenistic Period Φιάλεια/ Phiáleia). [German version] I. Location and historical development Town in southwest Arcadia on a very remote mountainous site above the north bank of the Neda (Pol. 4,3,5ff.; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,39,1-42,13; Ptol. 3,16,19; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,13), near present-day Figalia, and with close geographic and historical connections to Messana [2]. The town has a well…

Gerunium

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in Apulia, 200 stadia (= 24 miles) from  Luceria (Pol. 3,100,3) on a side-road reaching the coastal road between Larinum and Teanum Apulum (Tab. Peut. 6,3), can probably be located near Castel Dragona to the south of Fortore. In 217-216 BC, it served as Hannibal's winter quarters (Pol. 3,100ff.; Liv. 22,18ff.; App. Hann. 15f). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 785.
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