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Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Lysimeleia

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λυσιμέλεια λίμνη; Lysiméleia límē). According to Thucydides (6,101,1ff.; 7,53,2), L. refers to the southern part of the swamp area in the alluvial plain of Syracusae between the necropolis of Fusco, the Anapus and the north-western edge of the Great Harbour in the confluence region of minor watercourses (modern Canale Regina and Canale Pisimotta); cf. Theoc. 16,84, (Syracusae as ‘great city on the waters of the L.’). Identification of the L. with the swamp of Syrako is nevertheless contentious [1. 1f. and n. 10f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Drögemüller, Hans-P…

Namnetae

(163 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] ( Namnetes, Plin. HN 4,107). A Celtic people on the right bank of the lower Liger (modern Loire), which separated them from the Pictones (Str. 4,2,1). Their territory was between the Liger, Vilaine and Semnon (Ille-et-Vilaine). Their capital was Condevincum, in whose modern name of Nantes the name of the N. survives (Ptol. 2,8,9: Κονδιούϊγκον/ Kondioúïnkon; 2,8,6 erroneously Σαμνῖται/ Samnîtai), and their chief port was Portus Nemetum (Tab. Peut 2,2; cf. CIL XIII 3105). At the time of Caesar they were allied with the Veneti (Caes. Gall. 3,9,10).…

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Orneae

(183 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρνε(ι)αί/ Orne(i)aí). Small city c. 120 stadia to the northwest of Argos [II 1], surrounded by the Lirkion, Durmiza and Megalovouni mountain ranges, probably not at Kastro, 3 km to the south of Jimnon on the eastern slopes of the Durmiza mountains (traces of a Mycaenaean town, tower from the Classical period), but rather on a hill (550 m) in the upper valley of the Inachus [2], 2·5 km west of Sterna (remains of a ring wall; [2. 188f.]). O. was an independent polis (cf. Hom. Il. 2,571; Paus. 10,18,5), but from the 5th cent. BC a dependency of Argos as a períoikoi

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Ruscino

(192 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in the Pyrenees River with its source in the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]) which flows past R. [2] into the Mediterranean (Str. 4,1,6: Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn; Pol. apud Ath. 8,332a: Ῥόσκυνος/ Rhóskynos; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ῥουσκίων/ Rhouskíōn; Avien. Ora maritima 567: Roschinus). Plin. HN 3,32 calls the river Tetum (Mela 2,84: Telis); modern Têt. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Celtic oppidum (Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn). Celtic oppidum in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages (Ptol. 2,10,9: Ῥουσκινόν/ Rhouskinón) on the R. […

Leucae

(222 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λεῦκαι; Leûkai). [German version] [1] Town on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf Perioikoi town ( períoikoi ) on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf, neighbouring Acriae (Pol. 5,19,8; Liv. 35,27,3), probably on the north-eastern edge of the plain of Leuce mentioned by Str. 8,5,2. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 143-146; 8, 1992, 157-159 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907/8, 162f. [German version] [2] City in Ionia City in Ionia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna on a raised promontory with two harbour b…

Pyrrhichus

(105 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Πύρριχος/ Pýrrhichos). Lacedaemonian inland town of the períoikoi in the south of the Taygetus. In the Roman Imperial period, P. was a member of the League of Eleutherolakones (Paus. 3,21,7; 3,25,1-3). Remains dating to the Imperial period can be found at modern P. (villa with site of thermae). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. S. Forster, Southwestern Laconia, in: ABSA 10, 1903/4, 160  C. Le Roy, s. v. P., PE, 746  D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, Guida del…

Carnion

(62 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Καρνίων; Karníōn). Tributary of the Gatheatas, modern Xerilas; the Gatheatas rises on the north-western slopes of the Taygetus and discharges into the Alpheius [1] south of Megale Polis (Paus. 8,34,5; Callim. H. 1,24). Plin. HN 4,20 mentions, possibly erroneously, an otherwise unknown Arcadian town of the same name. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 3, 288f.

Manthurea

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μανθ(ο)υρέα; Manthouréa/Manthyréa). The name given both to the south western part of the eastern Arcadian plain near Tegea and to a deme of Tegea (Μανθυρεῖς; Manthureîs). In M. there was originally a cult of Athena Hippia which Tegea adopted at the time of Augustus along with the cult image. Evidence: Paus. 8,44,7; 45,1; 47,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 1255f.

Pyrgos Lithinos

(119 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Πύργος Λίθινος: Ptol. 1,12,8 M.; 6,13,2 N.; literally 'stone tower'). Important station on the Pamir on the Silk Road leading to China from the west via Antioch [7] and Bactra. Despite the favourable situation with regard to sources - Ptolemy uses the itinerary of Marinus [1] of Tyre as his basis, the latter the notes of the silk trader Maēs Titianus - no one has yet succeeded in a full identification; the town is however marked on the map [2. 6 D2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empir…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Notium

(164 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Νότιον; Nótion). Port founded by Aeolian settlers at the mouth of the River Avci into a bay, now silted up, of the Gulf of Kuşadası, c. 13 km to the south of Colophon (near modern Değirmendere). In natural commonality of interests with Colophon, N. soon developed out the shadow of this inland city, which was still affluent at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, from that point also bore the description ‘Colophon-on-Sea’ (Κολοφῶν ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ / Kolophōn hē epì thalássēi [1]) and was connec…
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