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Issorium

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἰσσώριον; Issṓrion). Hill on the northern city border of Sparta, with a sanctuary to Artemis Issoria (Plut. Agesilaus 32,3; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,1,14; Nep. Agesilaus 6,2), possibly the heights known today as Klaraki. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. Sparta, RE 3A, 1350ff.

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Rhypes

(195 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ῥύπες/ Rhýpes). Town in Achaea (Achaeans, Achaea [1], with map), probably to be identified with the few ancient remains (including traces of Mycenaean settlement [2. 123-127; 3. 35]) on the plateau of Trapeza at Koumaris, c. 6 km southwest of Aegium. The find sites on the fortified hill on the left bank of the Phoenix, c. 8 km northwest of Aegium [1. 193, 417-418] and on the right bank of the Tholopotamus, 5.2 km north west of Aegium, have also been suggested. With eleven other ci…

Plemmyrium

(189 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Πλημ(μ)ύριον/ Plēm(m)ýrion). The north cape of the peninsula of Maddalena to the south of Syracusae, today Punta della Maddalena (cf. [1. 13, 95f., 10223]. Together with the southern tip of the island of Ortygia to the north, the P. formed the entrance into the great harbour (στόμα τοῦ λιμένος/ stóma toû liménos) of Syracuse (Thuc. 7,4,4). A necropolis containing 53 graves from the Mycenaean Period attests to a coastal base; there was a village settlement here during the Greek period (grave group of the 5th cent. BC). During the…

Phryges, Phrygia

(1,046 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] (Φρύγες/ Phrýges, Φρυγία/ Phrygía). An Indo-European people who emigrated from Thracia, and an area on the Anatolian plateau in central Anatolia. Previously, scholars believed that the P. were identical with the Muški known from cuneiform sources, and that the Muški king Mita attested for the 8th cent. BC was identical with the Phrygian king Midas - on the assumption that the P. initially moved eastwards from Anatolia via the Euphrates [2] before they were stopped by Tiglath-Pileser …

Nitiobroges

(229 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe in south-western Gaul on the middle Garumna (Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 46,5; Str. 4,2,2; Ptol. 2,7,14: Νιτιόβριγες/ Nitióbriges; Tab. Peut. 2,4f.; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,11,1: Nisiobroges) where they settled during the 4th cent. BC. Their neighbours to the north were the Bituriges Vivisci and the Cadurci, to the east were the Cadurci and Ruteni, to the south the Volcae Tectosages and the Ausci (to the river Tarnis, CIL XIII p. 117; Plin. HN 4,109) and to the west there were the Vasates. The capital of the N. was Aginnum (modern Agen). Originally amici populi Romani (‘friends…

Euripus

(288 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Strait between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia (Εὔριπος ὁ Χαλκιδικός; Eúripos ho Chalkidikós). This strait, 9 km in length between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia, with three narrows, lies at the approximate mid-point of the sound between  Euboea and the Greek mainland (Anon. in GGM 1,105 § 29: ἡ τῶν Εὐβοέων θάλατττα). Originally, two channels ran through the most northerly narrows at Chalcis, one at the western shore, 0.5 m deep and 15 m wide, bounded on the seaward side by a reef, and with a…

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Lycastus

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λύκαστος; Lýkastos). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.; Plin. HN 4,59; Mela 2,113), about 11 km south of Knossos, modern Kanli Kastelli. In Hom. Il. 2,647 participant in the Trojan War. Autonomous in phases but mostly dependent on Knossos and belonging to its territory. In 184 BC, conquered by Gortyn (Pol. 22,19) until revised by Roman arbitration [1]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996, 281-285, no. 40. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1992, 154. [German version] [2] River River f…

Indus

(317 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰνδός; Indós). [German version] [1] The Indus The River Indus. Probably from Old Indian Sindhu (for the etymology cf.  India); the Indian name is better attested as Sindus in Plin. HN 6,71, than Σίνθος; Sínthos in Peripl. m.r. 38; 40 and as Σίνδων/Σίνθων; Síndōn/ Sínthōn in Ptol. 7,1,2 (here a branch of the delta). According to general Greek opinion (with the exception of  Megasthenes), the I. is the largest river in India, known to the Greeks since the end of the 6th cent. BC (Scylax in Hdt. 4,44). The lower reaches for instance downstr…

Penestai

(518 words)

Author(s): Cartledge, Paul A. (Cambridge) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Social class Penestai (πενέσται/ penéstai, sing. πενέστης/ penéstēs) is probably etymologically related to the word πένης ( pénēs), 'poor'. Penestai was applied as the collective term for the class of dependent Greeks who formed the economic and military foundation of the aristocracy in the towns of Thessaly (Crannon, Larissa, Pherae). Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus compared them with the thétai and pelátai at Athens (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,9); they were thus accorded the social status of dependents or clientes. Most ancient authors, esp. Theopompus (FG…

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between…

Europe/Europa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη; Eurṓpē). [German version] [1] Geographic concept Originally reserved for the female mythological figure ( E. [2]; cf. Hes. Theog. 357, 359), as a geographical term E. initially referred to central Greece (cf. Hom. H. ad Apollinem 251, 291) and the Thracian-Macedonian north (cf. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8), as opposed to the Peloponnese in the south, the Ionian Islands in the west and the Aegean islands, and separated from the Asiatic land-mass by the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont, Propontis, the Bosporus and Pontus Euxinus. As awareness grew during the ‘great colonisation’ that the…

Ameria

(309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in  Umbria between  Tiber and Nera, on the via Amerina (a branch of the   via Cassia , which led to  Tuder) 56 miles out from Rome (CIL IX 5833), today Amelia (Terni). According to Cato very old (HRR Cato fr. 49; Plin. HN 3,114). 406 m high chalk walls, which especially on the north side offer protection; these were strengthened with massive polygonal masonry.   Municipium of the   tribus Clustumina . Cults of Jupiter, Mars, Fortuna and seviri augustales are attested. Base of a temple (S. Mar…

Phea, Phia

(131 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φεά/ Pheá, Φαιά/ Phaiá, Φεαί/ Pheaí). Foothills and port on the coast of Elis [1] on the isthmus of the peninsula of Ichthys (modern Katakolo) (Hom. Od. 15,297; H. Hom. 1,427; Thuc. 2,25,3f.; 7,31,1; Pol. 4,9,9; Diod. Sic. 12,43,4; Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; Str. 8,3,12; 26f.; Paus. 5,18,6; Pol. 4,9,9; Plin. HN 4,13; 22) near modern Katakolo, harbour for Olympia. Traces of a settlement were found on the hill of Pontikokastro (acropolis) and under water in the Bay of Hagios Andreas as well as …

Comana

(251 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states [German version] [1] City in Cataonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Education / Culture (Κόμανα; Kómana). City in  Cataonia (Str. 12,2,3), Hittite Kummanni; temple state of the goddess Ma-Enyo (Artemis Tauropolios;  Enyo; Roman  Bellona). Bishopric as early as the Severian period (2nd/3rd cents AD); today's Şar. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Komana, RE 11, 1127f. Hild/Restle, 208f. [German version] [2] C. Pontica This item can be found on the foll…

Nola

(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,1…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…
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