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Sipylus

(102 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σίπυλος/ Sípylos). Mountain range in Lydia (modern Manisa Dağı), extending between the Hermus [2] and Smyrna and about 30 km inland. Lake Saloe, in which the city of S. and its predecessor Tantalis are supposed to have been submerged, are presumed to be on the mountain range of S. (Plin. HN. 2,205; 5,117; Paus. 7,24,13; Tantalus). At the S. some 100 m above the Hermus valley, near two Hittite graffiti there is a rock sculpture the interpretation of which has been discussed since Antiquity [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 B. André-Salvini, M. Salvini…

Tyraeum

(71 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τυραῖον; Tyraîon). City on the Royal Road from Sardis to Susa near Philomelium (Xen. An. 1,2,14; Artem. in  Str. 14,2,29: Τυριαῖον; Plin. HN 5,95: Tyrienses; Anna Komnene, Alexias 3,211 f.) in the area of modern Ilgın. On his march against his brother Artaxerxes [2] II in 401 BC, Cyrus [3] the Younger also passed through T. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography W. Ruge, s. v. T. (1), RE 7 A, 1800-1802  Belke/ Mersich, 409f.

Mare Nostrum

(941 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (μεγάλη θάλασσα/ megálē thálassa, Mediterranean). Because of various earth movements that are still ongoing (rising, sinking; formation of numerous islands, e.g. the archipelago between Greece and Anatolia and Cyprus, Crete, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, the Balearic Islands; still active volcanoes and earthquakes) the appearance of the Mare Nostrum (MN) changed constantly (connections to the various adjoining seas, e.g. the Atlantic, the Miocene seas in the northern foothills of the Al…

Nesactium

(94 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Settlement in Istria at modern Vizac̆e, approx. 8 km north-east of modern Pula/Croatia (Plin. HN 3,129). Suburb of the Histri on a bank with a sanctuary dated to 1,000 BC; conquered by the Romans in 177 BC (Liv. 41,11,1: oppidum Nesattium). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography K. Mihovilić, Rezultati sondanog istraivanja u sjevernoj bazilici u Nezakciju (1977 godine), in: Histria Archaeologica 15/6, 1984/5, 5-29  M. Zaninović, Apsorus, Crexa e Nesactium. Badò sulla rotta marittima adriatica, in: Quaderni dell' Antiquità di Venetia 10, 1994, 179-188  V.Ved…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Gaeson

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γαίσων; Gaísōn). Small river on the southern slopes of the Mycale mountains (Samsun Dağı), cf. Hdt. 9,97; Mela 1,87 ( Gaesus); Plin. HN 5,113 ( Gessus). Scolopoeis (Σκολοπόεις) with a temple of the Eleusinian Demeter was located at the G.; it was the location of the battle between Greeks and Persians in 479 BC (Hdt. 9,97). A lake named after the river (Γαισωνὶς λίμνη; Gaisōnìs límnē, Ath. 7,311e) is also to be located in the vicinity. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sebaste

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σεβαστή/ Sebast ). City in Phrygia, founded under Augustus by means of synoikismós (involving, i.a., Διοσκωπητεῖς/ Dioskōpēteís, probably also Φλημεῖς/ Phlēmeís; [1. 85 f. no. 16]) on the eastern edge of the valley of the Sinder (Σινδρός/ Sindrós, coins HN 684; modern Banaz river) (IGR IV 635; 682 l. 18). Hellenistic wall remains at modern Selçikler, 2 km to the southwest of Sivaslı (cf. name!) suggest that a polis already existed there. A portion of the ancient road to the east of Selçikler has been discovered. Bishopric in Late Antiquity (Hierocles, Synekdemos 6…

Apuli, Apulia

(385 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Oscan tribe between the Daunii and the  Frentani (Str. 6,3,8); after the establishment of Roman rule (Liv. 8,25; 37; 9,12 ff.; 20,4 ff. for 317 BC) they gave their name to the territory from the Adriatic (with the Diomedeae insulae, today Isole Tremiti) to the  Appenninus, with the Bradanus (today Brádano) flowing into the Gulf of  Tarentum, from the  Tifernus to  Calabria. Mesozoic limestone and dolomite determine the soil on   mons Garganus (today Monte Gargano with the Montenero 1012 m), and their topsoil does on the Apulian pl…

Paryadres

(128 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Παρυάδρης/ Paryádrēs, Lat. Pariades, Parihedri montes). Part of the Alpide belt in the region of Pontus and Armenia, which may be roughly identified with the eastern part of the North Anatolian border range (Karadeniz Dağları, with the Kaçkar Dağı, 3937 m) and the Alborz (with the Damāvand, 5604 m). In the north, the P. slopes down over a narrow coastal plain to the Pontos Euxeinos (river valleys: Halys, Iris [3]); to the south, it slopes down along the earthquake-prone North Anatolia…

Meris

(141 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (ἡ μερίς; merís, ‘part, portion’, Verb μερίζειν; merízein). As a term in Greek administrative language, meris describes any type of systematic division and is used e.g. generally in Hellenistic administrative practice, especially e. g. in the Ptolemaic-Roman administration of Egypt in which the Arsinoite nomós [2] was divided into three merídes (OGIS 177,8 f., 2nd cent. BC). There is another interpretation in the territorial administrative classification in Egypt which describes it as the smallest element in the series nomós, tópos [1], kṓmē (B.), meris and henc…

Grumentum

(91 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae Town in Lucania ( Lucani) where the Sora (modern Sciaura) flows into the Aciris (modern Agri) (cf. Str. 6,1,3; Ptol. 3,1,70); ruins 1.5 km east of Grumento. Place of fierce battles in the 2nd Punic War (Liv. 23,37,10; 27,41,3) and in the Social War (cf. App. B Civ. 1,41). Municipium, tribus Pomptina ( regio III). Pliny speaks of the good wine from Lagarina near G. (HN 14,69). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caeadas

(77 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καιάδας; Kaiádas). A ravine in Taygetus into which the Spartans pushed criminals and prisoners of war condemned to death. It is presumed to be located south-east of Mistra near Parori [1] or north-west of Mistra near Tripi [2]. Documented in: Καιάδας, Thuc. 1,134,4; Κεάδας, Paus. 4,18,4; Καιέτας, Str. 8,5,7. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 E. Curtius, Peloponnesos 2, 1852, 252 2 O. Rayet, in: Annales de la Faculté des Lettres de Bordeaux 2, 1880, 353 n. 2.

Gazioura

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni (Γαζίουρα). Fortress of the Pontic kings in Zelitis on an isolated mountain peak near Turhal with a flight of steps from the Hellenistic period and late Byzantine wall remains. Also an inscription from the time of Mithridates VI, and two Roman milestones on the road from  Amasea to Nicopolis [1. 251-253 no. 278; 2. 348f. no. 960f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Anderson/Cumont/Grégoire 3,1 2 D. French, Roman Roads and Milestones of Asia Minor 2 (British Institute of Arc…

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Thymbrium

(86 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θύμβριον; Thýmbrion). City in eastern Phrygia, 10 parasangai ( Parasángēs ; 57 km) both from Caystru Pedion [2] in the west and Tyriaeium in the east, to be found in the area of modern Doğanhisar to the southeast of Akşehir (Xen. An. 1,2,13; Plin.  HN 5,95: Thymbriani in Lycaonia in the early Imperial period  province of Asia; Hierocles, Synecdemus 673,9: Τιμβριάδων in the late Antiquity  province of Pisidia). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 792 f.

Zabida

(127 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάβιδα/ Zábida). Village settlement in the centre of a large oasis in the interior of Arabia Felix (Arabia), on the Wādī Zabīd to the northeast of modern Zabīd (in Yemen), mentioned by Uranius [3] in the third book of his Arabiká (in Steph. Byz. s. v. Z.). Z. and its port on the Erythra Thalatta [1] was the starting point of an important trade route into the high mountains through Achoma (modern Aḫum) and Adana (modern Al-Udain) to Tarphara (modern Ẓafār), the chief town of the Homeritae, the Ḥimyar of Arab literature. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Dietric…

Xodrace

(44 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξοδράκη; Xodrákē). City in the western part of India, left of the lower reaches of the Indus [1] (Ptol. 7,1,60), on the southeast border between modern Pakistan and India; not precisely locatable. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2149-2152.

Zaliches

(124 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζαλίχης/ Zalíchēs). Coastal city on the coastal river of the same name (Marcianus [1], Epit. Peripl. Menipp. 10: Ζάληκος/ Zálēkos; Peripl. m. Eux. 24; Ptol. 5,4,3: Ζαλίσκος ποταμός/ Zalískos potamós) in Pontus, in late Antiquity one of the seven cities of the consular province of Helenopontus: Σάλτος ( Saltus ) Ζαλίχης/ Sáltos Zalíchēs (Hierocles, Synekdemos 701,6 - an imperial domain?) with the suffragan bishopric of Amasea, now also called Leontoupolis (possibly from the reign of the emperor Leon [4] I, 457-474, onwards; Not. Episc. 1, 240: Ζ. ἤτοι Λεοντούπολις/ Z.…

Mithridatic Wars

(1,388 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Mithridatic Wars (MW) is the term for the military conflicts between Mithridates [6] VI Eupator, the ruler of the kingdom of Pontus, and Rome. The wars each originated in Mithridates' attempts to expand his domain in the manner of the Diadochi in Asia Minor and constantly led to conflicts with Rome, which did not wish to permit a concentration of power in the region. [German version] A. The First Mithridatic War (89-85 BC) It was out of the attempt by Mithridates after the death of Nicomedes [4] III (94) to pass over the legitimate successor, enthrone Nicomedes' brot…
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