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Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Niphates

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νιφάτης/ Niphátēs). Mountain range on the Thospitis Limne (Van Gölü) in Armenia, belonging to the eastern Taurus massif (Doğu Toros Dağları) (Str. 11,12,4; 11,13,3; 14,2; 8; Plin. HN 5,27; Mela 1,15,81; Plut. Alexandros 31,10; Ptol. 5,13,4; 6,1,1; Amm. Marc. 23,6,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. N.; cf. Hor. Carm. 2,9,20; Verg. G. 3,30; Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,2,4) - in a narrower sense probably İhtiyarşahap Dağları with Mevzi Dağı (3446 m) in the south of Van Gölü or Ala Dağları with Tendürek Dağı (3533 m) in the north-east of Van Gölü. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Sy…

Stadiasmos

(188 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (σταδιασμός/ stadiasmós) is the term for distance in stádia (Str. 1,3,2; 4,6; 2,1,17; 4,7; Stadion [1]) analogous to which miliasmós is the term for distance in milia 'miles' (Str. 6,2,1; cf. Eust. ad Hom. Od. 2,133,2: miliasmoû ... ḕ stadiasmoû). Consequently the stadiasmôn epidromḗ (Marcianus, Epit. peripli Menippi 3 = GGM 1,566,23), was an abridgment, made by Timosthenes of Rhodes of his own 10-volume description of harbours (mid-3rd cent. BC), a 'compilation of distance data in stádia' from harbour to harbour. It was not until the 2nd cent. AD that stadiasmos was a…

Polemonium

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πολεμώνιον/ Polemṓnion). Port city on the south shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos; Ptol. 5,6,4; Peripl. m. Eux. 30-33; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.; Plin. HN 6,11; Tab. Peut. 10,3; Hierocles, Synekdemos 37) at the modern Bolaman, 10 km west of Fatsa, where the Sidenus (Str. 1,3,7; 2,5,25; 3,3,14-16; modern Bolaman Irmağı) flows into a broad bay. Named after Polemon [4] I (37-7 BC: EM s. v. Πολεμώνιος). The town was probably built on the site of Side, a settlement which was abandoned by Strabo's (12,3,16) time (cf. Amm. Marc. 22,8,16, who emphasizes the Greek tradition of P.). O…

Mare Germanicum

(573 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (North Sea). This shelf sea, a marginal sea of the Atlantic ( Oceanus), assumed its present form in the Jura. In the west, it is separated from the Atlantic by the Straits of Dover, in the north-west, by the line of the Orkney and Shetland Islands. In the east, the Skagerrak separates it from the Baltic Sea ( Mare Suebicum). There are few bordering archipelagos north-west and south-east. The Mare Germanicum (MG) extends over an area of 0.58 million km2, it contains 0.054 km3 of water, its medium depth is around 94 m, its greatest depth is 725 m near Arendal in th…

Gorgopis limne

(99 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Γοργῶπις λίμνη; Gorgôpis límnē). In Aesch. Ag. 302, it belongs to the chain of fire signals from Ida to Mycenae between  Cithaeron and Aigiplanktos ( Gerania in the Megaris) and is therefore regarded as identical with the eastern part of the gulf of Corinth, the bay of Eleusis, and several lakes on the Isthmus of Corinth (Limni Vouliagmenis to the west of the Gerania, cf. Xen. Hell. 4,5,6; Limni Psatho to the east of Schinos). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. G. 1), RE 7, 1658f. W. Leiner, Die Signaltechnik der Ant., 1982, 59ff. Philippson/Kirst…

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Pirustae

(170 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πειροῦσται/ Peiroûstai). Illyrian tribe (Str. 7,5,3; Ptol. 2,16,8) in the ore-rich region between Lim and Drin in modern Albania, first mentioned in Liv. 45,26,13 in the context of the conclusion of the 3rd Macedonian War, 167 BC, as a civitas libera et immunis. At that time, its relationship with Rome was governed by a treaty. However, in 54 BC the P. undertook excursions into the Roman province of Illyricum for plunder. In reaction, the proconsul of the province, Caesar, restored order in the frontier region by taking h…

Zakoria

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Station on the Pontic coast road (Arr. Per. p. E. 21: Ζάγωρα/ Zágōra; Tab. Peut. 10,1; Geogr. Rav. 2,17: Agoria; 5,10: Z.; Guido, Geographica 101) from Sinope to Trapezus between Gurzubathon (modern Kurzuvet) and Zaliches (at modern Alaçam), presumably at modern Çayağzı at the mouth of the Aksu. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Caecinus

(67 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καικῖνος; Kaikînos). According to Paus. 6,6,4, the C. is the border river between  Locri and Rhegium, where the Athenians under  Laches [1] defeated the Locrians under Proxenus (Thuc. 3,103,3) in what is today Amendolea/Sicily. The Locrian fist fighter Euthymus was worshipped at a hero-shrine and regarded as the son of the river god C. (Ael. VH 8,18). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 955.

Laevi

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian (Liv. 5,25,2; Plin. HN 3,124) or Celtic (Cato in Plin. l.c.; Λάοι, Pol. 2,17,4) tribe which founded the city of Ticinum (modern Pavia), together with the Matrici; Ticinum later fell under the rule of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 179.

Tegianum

(74 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae (modern Teggiano). City in Lucania (Lucani) on the left bank of the Tanager (modern Tanagro) on the via Popilia from Consentia to Aquilonia [1] (Plin. HN 3,98: Tergilani = Tegianenses?; Liber Coloniarum 209). Municipium , which under Nero [1] was elevated to a colonia, tribus Pomptina. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography V. Bracco, Nuove scoperte archeologiche in Lucania, in: RAL 20, 1965, 283 f.

Cotyora

(103 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Xenophon | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius (Κοτύωρα; Kotýōra). Port town on the south coast of  Pontus Euxinus, assumed to be near Ordu, where remains of an ancient harbour pier are located. The ‘Ten Thousand’ of  Xenophon rested there for 45 days before they took to the sea in the west. Under Pharnaces I (185-160/154 BC), C. was united in a synoikismós with Cerasus in Pharnacaea and declined to a small town (πολίχνη, Str. 12,3,17) (Arr. Peripl. p. eux. 24; Peripl. m. Eux. 34). Olshausen, Eckart (S…

Ximene

(78 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ξιμήνη; Ximḗnē). Region in the territory of Amasea, which in the south of Diacopene and Pimolisene "reaches as far as the river Halys... In X. there are salt mines, from which the Halys, it is surmised, took its name" (Str. 12,3,39). According to the sequence of mentions in  Str. loc.cit. the X. is to be looked for in the area between Çorum and the River Kızılırmak. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Olshausen/Biller/Wagner, 174 (with map A 3).

Istros

(32 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴστρος; Ístros). Island documented by Steph. Byz. s.v. I. with homonymous city at the promontory of Triopium (modern Deveboynu Burnu or Kıriyo Burnu) near Cnidus. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

River

(230 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Terrestrial relief and climate determine the size and direction of river courses; and for their part, the major river valleys of the inhabited world determined the trade and commerce of those societies through whose regions they passed, offering them both infrastructural and economic advantages. They seldom represented insurmountable obstacles to traffic. Rather, in varying degree they directed traffic flow over particular routes (fords, bridges). The economic usefulness of river …

Pelorias

(222 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πελωριάς; Pelōriás). Northeastern cape of Sicily (Pol. 1,11,6; 42,5; Diod. Sic. 4,23,1; 5,2,2; 23,1,3; Diod. 4,85,5; 14,56,3; 6; 57,2: Πελωρίς/Pelōrís), modern Capo Peloro or Capo di Faro; in a narrower sense a narrow easterly tongue of land, in a broader sense the whole mountainous promontory running northeast. According to myth, Orion [1] constructed the tongue of land and built a temple to Poseidon there (Hes. fr. 183). According to erroneous ancient ideas about the orientation…

Melanthium

(24 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River flowing into the Pontos Euxeinos to the east of Ordu, modern Melet Irmağı (Plin. HN 6,11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Buphagus

(81 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Βουφάγος; Bouphágos). Right-hand tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising in the north of Buphagium (city wall and other remains near Paliokastro; its source marked the border between Heraea and Megalopolis. The eponymous hero B., son of the Titan  Iapetus, was killed by Artemis in the Pholoe region (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,26,8; 8,27,17). Buthoinas appears, meaning the same as B., as an approximation of Hercules in Lindus (cf. Anth. Plan. 123). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 103ff.

Duranus

(43 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern-day Dordogne; rises at 1680 m. on the Puy de Sancy (Mont-Dore), and after a course of 490 km flows into the Atlantic with the Garumna to its left (Auson. Mos. 464; Geogr. Rav. 4,40). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orcistus

(113 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρκιστός/ Orkistós). Originally probably a polis in Galatia, south of modern Ortaköy (formerly Alikel Yayla), added to Nacolea (Phrygia) at the end of the 3rd cent. AD, but Constantine [1] the Great undid this before 331 AD (MAMA 7, 69-75). The small town of Malcaeteni [1. 2020] was part of the territory of O. Attested as a see from the 5th cent. (Domnus at the Council of Ephesus in 431, Longinus at the Council of Chalcedon in 451: Acta Conciliorum Oecumenocorum 1,1 no. 121; 2,1,1 no. 192). A few ancient or Byzantine remains. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography T. Dr…

Prinus

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρῖνος; Prînos). 1210 m high pass (διὰ Πρίνου καλουμένης: Paus. 8,6,4) leading from Argos [II 1] to Mantinea over Mount Artemisium [2], to the north of the main peak (modern Malevo). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. Meyer, s. v. P., RE 22, 2314 f.  Pritchett 3, 32-46.

Prinkipos

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρίγκιπος/ Prínkipos). Δημόνησοι/ Dēmónēsoi (Hesych. s. v. Δημονήσιος χαλκός) or Πριγκίπιοι νῆσοι/ Prinkípioi nêsoi (Synaxiarium ecclesiae Constantinopolitanae 158,26 Delehaye) is the description by which an archipelago of nine islands in the northern Propontis is known in the Byzantine literature of Late Antiquity: (from north to south) Prota (modern Kınalı ada), Orea (modern Sivri ada), Panormus (later Antigone, modern Burgaz adası), Pita (modern Kaşık adası), Chalce (modern Heybeli adası),…

Dahae

(242 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Δάαι; Dáai, Δάοι; Dáoi; Latin: Dahae) The D. were a nomadic tribe in Persis; according to Strabo, they were originally one of the Scythian tribes in the region by the Caspian Sea (Str. 11,8,2; 11,9,2f.). Like the Mardi, Dropici and Sagartii, the D. are mentioned by Herodotus in connection with the revolt of Cyrus II against Astyages in 550 BC (Hdt. 1,125,4); in the Persepolis Inscription they are called Daha. The D. fought under Darius ─ and, after his death, under Spitamenes ─ against  Alexander [4] the Great (Arr. An. 3,11,3; 3,28,10; Curt. 4,12…

Naro

(254 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νάρων; Nár ōn). River in Dalmatia (Dalmates; Strab. 7,5,5; 9; Mela 2,57: Nar; Tab. Peut. 6,4 without name), modern Neretva (in Hercegovina). It rises on the Dumos Planina (1879 m high), passes through the karst mountains in a deeply incised gorge, forms - after a course of 230 km - a swampy delta and flows into the Adriatic. In antiquity the N. flowed into the sea farther to the northwest than today. In its original bed the Norino, which used to join the N. after a much shorter course furthe…

Pontos Euxeinos

(3,083 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Boroffka, Nikolaus
[German version] I. Geography (Πόντος Εὔξεινος; Póntos Eúxeinos), modern Black Sea. The ancient description may trace back to the Iranians, who described the sea as achshaenas, 'dark'; transcription into Greek gives áxeinos 'inhospitable'(cf. Ov. Tr. 4,4,55), a description which was euphemistically reinterpreted by sailors as eúxeinos, 'hospitable'; the Greeks also knew the PE as the 'Black Sea' (Eur. Iph. T. 107: πόντος μέλας; póntos mélas). The PE, a subsidiary sea of the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum), extends, including Lake Maeotis, over an area of about 450,000 km2 (extent …

Proconnesus

(398 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προκόννησος/ Prokónnēssos, Lat. Proconnesus). Largest island of the Propontis, with an area of c. 130 square km, c. 10 km to the northwest of Arctonnesos, present-day Marmara Adası. The name P. is derived from πρόξ/ próx, 'doe' (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 148); Plin. (HN. 5,151) in addition also calls the island Elaphonnesos (derived from ἔλαφος/ élaphos, 'stag', cf. Ἐλαφόνησος/ Elaphónēsos, Schol. ibid.) and Neuris (from νεῦρον/ neûron, 'sinew, bow-string'). EM s. v. Προικόννησος/ Proikónnēsos offers a derivation from προΐξ/ proḯx, 'gift' (namely 'of marble'); a…

Propontis

(364 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Προποντίς; Propontís). A sea between the Pontos Euxeinos (Black Sea) in the northeast (Bosporus [1]) and the Aigaion Pelagos (Aegean) in the southwest (Hellespontus), between Thrace in the north and Mysia in the south, greatest length (from Callipolis to Nicomedia) 252 km, greatest breadth 74 km, modern Sea of Marmara. The P. was brought into existence by an early quaternary rift. The largest part of the area of the sea ( c. 11,500 km2) is formed by an area of land lowered 200 m, on which the islands perch (cf. the list of the islands in Plin. HN 5…

Petrocorii

(218 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πετροκόριοι; Petrokórioi). Tribe of Gallia Celtica (later Aquitania), on both banks of the Duranus (Dordogne) in what is now the Périgord (Str. 4,2,2 mentions the Petrokórioi among the 14 tribes of Aquitania between Garumna and Liger; Ptol. 2,7,9: Πετροκόριοι καὶ πόλις Οὐέσσουνα/ Petrokórioi kaì pólis Ouéssouna). Their neighbours to the north west were the Santoni, to the west the Bituriges Vivisci, to the south the Nitiobriges, to the south east the Cadurci and to the north east the Lemovices (Plin. HN 4,109; Not. Galliaru…

Pellene

(428 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē, Πελλάνα/ Pellána, ethnic name Πελληνεύς/ Pellēneús, Πελλανεύς/ Pellaneús). Town in the easternmost part of Achaea (Achaeans, with map), to the west of Sicyon (Paus. 7,26,12-27,12). From the Mycenaean Period (place name pre-Greek., Hom. Il. 2,574) onwards and into the 7th/6th cents. BC, P. was possibly located on the site of the kṓmē of the same name mentioned in Str. 8,7,5 . The town found itself in lengthy quarrels with Sicyon (POxy. 11,1365; 1…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Thermodon

(132 words)

Author(s): Fell, Martin (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in Boeotia (Θερμώδων; Thermṓdōn). River (Hdt. 9,43,2: potamós; Paus. 9,19,3: cheímarros, ‘torrent’) of uncertain location in Boeotia, between Tanagra and Glisas, probably closer to Glisas. Possibly the modern Kalamítis, which flows on the south side of the Hypatus mountains (modern Sagmatás) and passes Glisas to the south [1. 222f.]. Identification with the Haemon [6] (Plut. Theseus 27,6; Plut. Demosthenes 19) is incorrect. Fell, Martin (Münster) Bibliography 1 Fossey. [German version] [2] River in Asia minor Coastal river (modern Terme); r…

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3,2, 357 F. Kiechle, Messenische Studien, 1959, 86ff.

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the First Messenian War (Paus. 4,9-13). During the major uprising of the helots in 464 BC, the…

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Morgantina

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Μοργαντίνα, Μοργαντίνη/ Morgantína, Morgantínē; Latin Morgentia, Murgantia). City of the Siculi in Sicily, some 15 km northeast of Piazza Armerina (Serra Orlando). Pottery finds attest to an immigration of Italic settlers in the 11th cent. BC (cf. Str. 6,1,6; 2,4). The development of the city of M. began in about 560 BC with a settlement of Greeks on the modern Cittadella (578 m). In 459 BC Ducetius conquered the city (Diod. 11,78,5) and destr…

Gela

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Palermo, Dario (Catania)
This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Γέλα; Géla) [German version] A. History City on the south-west coast of Sicily, named after the river Gelas, at the mouth of which G. lies. G. was founded as a Dorian colony with the name ‘Lindioi’ by Antiphemus of Rhodes and the Cretan Entimus forty-five years after the founding of  Syracusae (Thuc. 6,4,3), in other words in 690 BC. Herodotus also names as founder Gelon of Telos (Hdt. 7,153), an ancestor of the tyrant o…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Lysimeleia

(98 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Λυσιμέλεια λίμνη; Lysiméleia límē). According to Thucydides (6,101,1ff.; 7,53,2), L. refers to the southern part of the swamp area in the alluvial plain of Syracusae between the necropolis of Fusco, the Anapus and the north-western edge of the Great Harbour in the confluence region of minor watercourses (modern Canale Regina and Canale Pisimotta); cf. Theoc. 16,84, (Syracusae as ‘great city on the waters of the L.’). Identification of the L. with the swamp of Syrako is nevertheless contentious [1. 1f. and n. 10f.]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Drögemüller, Hans-P…

Namnetae

(163 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] ( Namnetes, Plin. HN 4,107). A Celtic people on the right bank of the lower Liger (modern Loire), which separated them from the Pictones (Str. 4,2,1). Their territory was between the Liger, Vilaine and Semnon (Ille-et-Vilaine). Their capital was Condevincum, in whose modern name of Nantes the name of the N. survives (Ptol. 2,8,9: Κονδιούϊγκον/ Kondioúïnkon; 2,8,6 erroneously Σαμνῖται/ Samnîtai), and their chief port was Portus Nemetum (Tab. Peut 2,2; cf. CIL XIII 3105). At the time of Caesar they were allied with the Veneti (Caes. Gall. 3,9,10).…

Prote

(191 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πρωτή/ Prōtḗ). The only island off the western coast of Messenia apart from Sphacteria (Scyl. 45; Plin. HN 4,55; Ptol. 3,16,23; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π.; ethnicon: Πρωταῖος/ Prōtaîos), today still Proti, whose small west-facing harbour on its southern side offered north-bound seafarers protection from the Etesiai (cf. Pol. 5,5,3; 6); cf. the numerous inscriptions on the craggy eastern coast of the island with petitions for a good voyage  (IG V 1, 1533-1588; SEG 11,1005-1024a; 14,337-345; from the 6th cent. BC …

Salpia

(285 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] City in Daunia (Str. 6,3,9: Σαλαπία/ Salapía; Plin. HN 3,103: Salapia; It. Ant. 314,7; Tab. Peut. 6,3; Geogr. Rav. 5,1; Guido, Geographia 22). It was established twice; the first site was where remains are to be found on the road from Zapponeta to Torre Pietra, on the Ionios Kolpos northwest of the salterns of Margherita di Savoia on the Lago di Salpi (drained in the modern period). Despite various foundation myths (founded by Trojans, Lycoph. 1129; different account in Vitr. De arch. 1,4,12, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἐλπία; Str. 14,2,10), it was most probably a pure…

Orneae

(183 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρνε(ι)αί/ Orne(i)aí). Small city c. 120 stadia to the northwest of Argos [II 1], surrounded by the Lirkion, Durmiza and Megalovouni mountain ranges, probably not at Kastro, 3 km to the south of Jimnon on the eastern slopes of the Durmiza mountains (traces of a Mycaenaean town, tower from the Classical period), but rather on a hill (550 m) in the upper valley of the Inachus [2], 2·5 km west of Sterna (remains of a ring wall; [2. 188f.]). O. was an independent polis (cf. Hom. Il. 2,571; Paus. 10,18,5), but from the 5th cent. BC a dependency of Argos as a períoikoi

Mutustratum

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Μυτίστρατον; Mytístraton/ Lat. Mutustratum). Town of the Siculi in Sicily. According to the distribution of coin finds (from the period of Timoleon, HN 158), probably located near Marianopoli (30 km west of Henna [1] (modern Enna)). At the beginning of the 1st Punic War, M. was besieged for seven months by the Romans without success. The Romans suffered great losses (Diod. Sic. 23,9,3) and only conquered the town in 258 BC. After the withdrawal of the Carthaginian garrison and the c…

Ruscino

(192 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] River in the Pyrenees River with its source in the Pyrenees (Pyrene [2]) which flows past R. [2] into the Mediterranean (Str. 4,1,6: Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn; Pol. apud Ath. 8,332a: Ῥόσκυνος/ Rhóskynos; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ῥουσκίων/ Rhouskíōn; Avien. Ora maritima 567: Roschinus). Plin. HN 3,32 calls the river Tetum (Mela 2,84: Telis); modern Têt. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Celtic oppidum (Ῥουσκίνων/ Rhouskínōn). Celtic oppidum in the territory of the Volcae Tectosages (Ptol. 2,10,9: Ῥουσκινόν/ Rhouskinón) on the R. […

Leucae

(222 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λεῦκαι; Leûkai). [German version] [1] Town on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf Perioikoi town ( períoikoi ) on the east coast of the Laconian Gulf, neighbouring Acriae (Pol. 5,19,8; Liv. 35,27,3), probably on the north-eastern edge of the plain of Leuce mentioned by Str. 8,5,2. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 143-146; 8, 1992, 157-159 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, South-Eastern Laconia, in: ABSA 14, 1907/8, 162f. [German version] [2] City in Ionia City in Ionia, on the northern shore of the Gulf of Smyrna on a raised promontory with two harbour b…

Pyrrhichus

(105 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (Πύρριχος/ Pýrrhichos). Lacedaemonian inland town of the períoikoi in the south of the Taygetus. In the Roman Imperial period, P. was a member of the League of Eleutherolakones (Paus. 3,21,7; 3,25,1-3). Remains dating to the Imperial period can be found at modern P. (villa with site of thermae). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. S. Forster, Southwestern Laconia, in: ABSA 10, 1903/4, 160  C. Le Roy, s. v. P., PE, 746  D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, Guida del…

Carnion

(62 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg)
[German version] (Καρνίων; Karníōn). Tributary of the Gatheatas, modern Xerilas; the Gatheatas rises on the north-western slopes of the Taygetus and discharges into the Alpheius [1] south of Megale Polis (Paus. 8,34,5; Callim. H. 1,24). Plin. HN 4,20 mentions, possibly erroneously, an otherwise unknown Arcadian town of the same name. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Doris (Strasbourg) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten, vol. 3, 288f.

Manthurea

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μανθ(ο)υρέα; Manthouréa/Manthyréa). The name given both to the south western part of the eastern Arcadian plain near Tegea and to a deme of Tegea (Μανθυρεῖς; Manthureîs). In M. there was originally a cult of Athena Hippia which Tegea adopted at the time of Augustus along with the cult image. Evidence: Paus. 8,44,7; 45,1; 47,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 1255f.

Pyrgos Lithinos

(119 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
[German version] (Πύργος Λίθινος: Ptol. 1,12,8 M.; 6,13,2 N.; literally 'stone tower'). Important station on the Pamir on the Silk Road leading to China from the west via Antioch [7] and Bactra. Despite the favourable situation with regard to sources - Ptolemy uses the itinerary of Marinus [1] of Tyre as his basis, the latter the notes of the silk trader Maēs Titianus - no one has yet succeeded in a full identification; the town is however marked on the map [2. 6 D2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) Bibliography 1 J. I. Miller, The Spice Trade of the Roman Empir…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Notium

(164 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Νότιον; Nótion). Port founded by Aeolian settlers at the mouth of the River Avci into a bay, now silted up, of the Gulf of Kuşadası, c. 13 km to the south of Colophon (near modern Değirmendere). In natural commonality of interests with Colophon, N. soon developed out the shadow of this inland city, which was still affluent at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, from that point also bore the description ‘Colophon-on-Sea’ (Κολοφῶν ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ / Kolophōn hē epì thalássēi [1]) and was connec…

Issorium

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἰσσώριον; Issṓrion). Hill on the northern city border of Sparta, with a sanctuary to Artemis Issoria (Plut. Agesilaus 32,3; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,1,14; Nep. Agesilaus 6,2), possibly the heights known today as Klaraki. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. Sparta, RE 3A, 1350ff.

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Rhypes

(195 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ῥύπες/ Rhýpes). Town in Achaea (Achaeans, Achaea [1], with map), probably to be identified with the few ancient remains (including traces of Mycenaean settlement [2. 123-127; 3. 35]) on the plateau of Trapeza at Koumaris, c. 6 km southwest of Aegium. The find sites on the fortified hill on the left bank of the Phoenix, c. 8 km northwest of Aegium [1. 193, 417-418] and on the right bank of the Tholopotamus, 5.2 km north west of Aegium, have also been suggested. With eleven other ci…

Plemmyrium

(189 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Drögemüller, Hans-Peter (Hamburg)
[German version] (Πλημ(μ)ύριον/ Plēm(m)ýrion). The north cape of the peninsula of Maddalena to the south of Syracusae, today Punta della Maddalena (cf. [1. 13, 95f., 10223]. Together with the southern tip of the island of Ortygia to the north, the P. formed the entrance into the great harbour (στόμα τοῦ λιμένος/ stóma toû liménos) of Syracuse (Thuc. 7,4,4). A necropolis containing 53 graves from the Mycenaean Period attests to a coastal base; there was a village settlement here during the Greek period (grave group of the 5th cent. BC). During the…

Phryges, Phrygia

(1,046 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen)
[German version] (Φρύγες/ Phrýges, Φρυγία/ Phrygía). An Indo-European people who emigrated from Thracia, and an area on the Anatolian plateau in central Anatolia. Previously, scholars believed that the P. were identical with the Muški known from cuneiform sources, and that the Muški king Mita attested for the 8th cent. BC was identical with the Phrygian king Midas - on the assumption that the P. initially moved eastwards from Anatolia via the Euphrates [2] before they were stopped by Tiglath-Pileser …

Nitiobroges

(229 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Tribe in south-western Gaul on the middle Garumna (Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 46,5; Str. 4,2,2; Ptol. 2,7,14: Νιτιόβριγες/ Nitióbriges; Tab. Peut. 2,4f.; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 2,11,1: Nisiobroges) where they settled during the 4th cent. BC. Their neighbours to the north were the Bituriges Vivisci and the Cadurci, to the east were the Cadurci and Ruteni, to the south the Volcae Tectosages and the Ausci (to the river Tarnis, CIL XIII p. 117; Plin. HN 4,109) and to the west there were the Vasates. The capital of the N. was Aginnum (modern Agen). Originally amici populi Romani (‘friends…

Euripus

(288 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Strait between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia (Εὔριπος ὁ Χαλκιδικός; Eúripos ho Chalkidikós). This strait, 9 km in length between Chalcis on Euboea and Boeotia, with three narrows, lies at the approximate mid-point of the sound between  Euboea and the Greek mainland (Anon. in GGM 1,105 § 29: ἡ τῶν Εὐβοέων θάλατττα). Originally, two channels ran through the most northerly narrows at Chalcis, one at the western shore, 0.5 m deep and 15 m wide, bounded on the seaward side by a reef, and with a…

Pachynus

(236 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Πάχυνος/ Páchynos). Promontory in the extreme south-east of Sicily (more precisely: 8 km northeast from there), today's Capo Pássero, 5 km southeast of today's Pachino. P. was of great importance for navigation as a landmark and measuring point (cf. Str. 2,4,3: distance from Crete; 6,2,11: from Malta; Plin. HN 3,87: from the Peloponnese). Because of the way the island was thought to be orientated, in antiquity P. was usually referred to as the east cape (Str. 6,2,1; Plin. HN 3,87;…

Lycastus

(200 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Λύκαστος; Lýkastos). [German version] [1] City in Crete City in Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ.; Plin. HN 4,59; Mela 2,113), about 11 km south of Knossos, modern Kanli Kastelli. In Hom. Il. 2,647 participant in the Trojan War. Autonomous in phases but mostly dependent on Knossos and belonging to its territory. In 184 BC, conquered by Gortyn (Pol. 22,19) until revised by Roman arbitration [1]. Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 A. Chaniotis, Die Verträge zw. kret. Poleis in der hell. Zeit, 1996, 281-285, no. 40. I. F. Sanders, Roman Crete, 1992, 154. [German version] [2] River River f…

Indus

(317 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰνδός; Indós). [German version] [1] The Indus The River Indus. Probably from Old Indian Sindhu (for the etymology cf.  India); the Indian name is better attested as Sindus in Plin. HN 6,71, than Σίνθος; Sínthos in Peripl. m.r. 38; 40 and as Σίνδων/Σίνθων; Síndōn/ Sínthōn in Ptol. 7,1,2 (here a branch of the delta). According to general Greek opinion (with the exception of  Megasthenes), the I. is the largest river in India, known to the Greeks since the end of the 6th cent. BC (Scylax in Hdt. 4,44). The lower reaches for instance downstr…

Penestai

(518 words)

Author(s): Cartledge, Paul A. (Cambridge) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Social class Penestai (πενέσται/ penéstai, sing. πενέστης/ penéstēs) is probably etymologically related to the word πένης ( pénēs), 'poor'. Penestai was applied as the collective term for the class of dependent Greeks who formed the economic and military foundation of the aristocracy in the towns of Thessaly (Crannon, Larissa, Pherae). Dionysius [18] of Halicarnassus compared them with the thétai and pelátai at Athens (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,9); they were thus accorded the social status of dependents or clientes. Most ancient authors, esp. Theopompus (FG…

Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between…

Europe/Europa

(1,029 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich)
(Εὐρώπη; Eurṓpē). [German version] [1] Geographic concept Originally reserved for the female mythological figure ( E. [2]; cf. Hes. Theog. 357, 359), as a geographical term E. initially referred to central Greece (cf. Hom. H. ad Apollinem 251, 291) and the Thracian-Macedonian north (cf. Hdt. 6,43; 7,8), as opposed to the Peloponnese in the south, the Ionian Islands in the west and the Aegean islands, and separated from the Asiatic land-mass by the Aegean Sea, the Hellespont, Propontis, the Bosporus and Pontus Euxinus. As awareness grew during the ‘great colonisation’ that the…

Ameria

(309 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Umbria This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria Town in  Umbria between  Tiber and Nera, on the via Amerina (a branch of the   via Cassia , which led to  Tuder) 56 miles out from Rome (CIL IX 5833), today Amelia (Terni). According to Cato very old (HRR Cato fr. 49; Plin. HN 3,114). 406 m high chalk walls, which especially on the north side offer protection; these were strengthened with massive polygonal masonry.   Municipium of the   tribus Clustumina . Cults of Jupiter, Mars, Fortuna and seviri augustales are attested. Base of a temple (S. Mar…

Phea, Phia

(131 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Φεά/ Pheá, Φαιά/ Phaiá, Φεαί/ Pheaí). Foothills and port on the coast of Elis [1] on the isthmus of the peninsula of Ichthys (modern Katakolo) (Hom. Od. 15,297; H. Hom. 1,427; Thuc. 2,25,3f.; 7,31,1; Pol. 4,9,9; Diod. Sic. 12,43,4; Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; Str. 8,3,12; 26f.; Paus. 5,18,6; Pol. 4,9,9; Plin. HN 4,13; 22) near modern Katakolo, harbour for Olympia. Traces of a settlement were found on the hill of Pontikokastro (acropolis) and under water in the Bay of Hagios Andreas as well as …

Comana

(251 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states [German version] [1] City in Cataonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Education / Culture (Κόμανα; Kómana). City in  Cataonia (Str. 12,2,3), Hittite Kummanni; temple state of the goddess Ma-Enyo (Artemis Tauropolios;  Enyo; Roman  Bellona). Bishopric as early as the Severian period (2nd/3rd cents AD); today's Şar. Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) Bibliography W. Ruge, s.v. Komana, RE 11, 1127f. Hild/Restle, 208f. [German version] [2] C. Pontica This item can be found on the foll…

Nola

(572 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Villa | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Pilgrimage Town in Campania, north east of the Vesuvius (Str. 5,4,8; It. Ant. 109,2; Tab. Peut. 6,4); it still bears the same name today. N. lies at the foot of the Appennines, on a broad plain approximately halfway from Capua to Nuceria, on a major traffic artery leading from Etruria to Poseidonia/Paestum, subsequently known as via Popilia. We do not know what part the inhabitants of Chalcis [1] played in its foundation (Sil. Pun. 12,161; Just. Epit. 20,1,1…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…

Pontus

(931 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ὁ Πόντος/ ho Póntos, Lat. Pontus). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Location Region on the south coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) between Paphlagonia (west), Colchis (east) and Cappadocia (south), divided into a narrow northern coastal plain with various Greek towns (cf. Amisus, Cotyora, Pharnaceia, Trapezus) and an interior south of the northern Anatolian frontier mountain range around Iris [3] and Lycus [19], still known into the 1st cent. BC as Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον/ Kappadokía hē perì tòn Eúxeinon (Pol. 5,43,1; cf. ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία/ hē …

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Uranopolis

(169 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Οὐρανόπολις/ Ouranópolis). [German version] [1] City on Acte City on Acte (Athos I), founded by Alexarchus, the younger brother of Cassander; according to Plin. HN 4,37 and Str. 7a,1,35, it is to be found on the isthmus of Acte. U. can be connected with the extensive ruins south-west of the modern Ierissos, the extent of which agrees with the size of the city given by Str. loc cit. (30 stadia). U. was probably built c. 315 BC, minted its own coins according to a standard uncommon in Macedon at the time, but does not appear to have lasted long and may have merged wit…

Zenobia

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ζηνοβία; Zēnobía). [German version] [1] Wife of Radamistus, 1st cent. AD The wife of the Armenian king Radamistus is the heroine of an episode in Tacitus (Ann. 12,51): when her husband was forced to flee to Iberia in AD 54, she was apparently unable to cope with the hardships of the journey due to her pregnancy and supposedly asked to be killed. Injured by her husband and thrown into the Araxes, Z. was rescued and brought to Radamistus' rival Tiridates [5] I, who treated her honourably. These events were …

Lampetia

(181 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Waldner, Katharina (Berlin)
[German version] [2] (Pol. 13 in Steph. Byz. s.v. Λαμπέτεια/ Lampéteia; Λαμπέτης/ Lampétēs, Lycoph. Alexandra 1068 [promontory, modern Capo Súvero]; Liv. 29,30,1; 30,19,10; Plin. HN 3,72; Clampetia, Mela 2,69; Geogr. Rav. 4,32; 5,2; Clampeia, Tab. Peut. 7,1). Harbour town in Bruttium ( Bruttii) near modern Amantea. Conquered by the Romans in 204 BC, probably deserted since then. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Nissen 2, 928. [German version] [1] Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera (Λαμπετίη; Lampetíē). Daughter of Helios and the nymph Neaera. As a girl s…

Pisatis, Pisa

(362 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισάτις/ Pisátis, Πίσα/ Písa). Region and city or two terms for one region in westernPeloponnesus. The question of the historicity of the city P. is controversial today [1] just as in antiquity (Str. 8,3,31) and often answered in the negative (Str. l.c.). The earliest mention gives the name Πίσα/ Písā (, cf. Pind. Ol. 2,3; 3,9; Pind. Nem. 10,32), in Attic literature Πῖσα/ Pîsa (, Eur. IT 1; Eur. Hel. 386; Hdt. 2,7, with long /i/); the classical ethnikon is always Πισάτης/ Pisátēs (Pind. Ol. 4,11; Eur. IT 824), and since the Hellenistic Period Πισαῖος/ Pisaîos (cf. Paus…

Pellana

(254 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] A City of perioeci, northwest of Sparta on the Eurotas This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Πελλάνα/ Pellána, Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē). A city of perioeci (Perioikoi) north-west of Sparta on the Eurotas (Xen. Hell. 7,5,9; Pol. 3,21,2f.; 4,81,7; 16,37,5; Diod. Sic. 15,67,2; Str. 8,7,5: κώμη/ kṓmē). Its exact location is uncertain: near the modern Vurlia [1. 371] or on the Palaeokastro hill near Castania [2. 125f.] near the modern P. (formerly Kalyvia). According to Plut. Agis 8,1, the land of the Spartans began at …

Trapezus

(981 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Pontos Euxeinos | Syria | Byzantium | Urarṭu | Christianity | Xenophon | | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Limes | Pompeius | Patricius (Τραπεζοῦς/ Trapezoûs; Lat. Trapezus; the modern Trabzon, Turkey). [German version] I. Geographical Situation A Greek city in the region of Colchis (Xen. An. 4,8,22; 5,3,2) on the southeast coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos), situated in a favourable setting with a secure acropolis. T. may have been first founded as early as 756 BC (…

Sabelli

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] S. is not, as Strabo's source ( cf.  Str. 5,4,12) implies, a diminutive of Sabini , but is derived from the same root as Samnites , and from the time of Varro onwards is a term for them. For the modern linguistic use of S., see Oscan-Umbrian. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography E. T. Salmon, Samnium and the Samnites, 1967.

Neda

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Νέδα; Néda). A river in the western Peloponnese which in historical times formed the border between Triphylia (later Elis) and Messana [2]. Although its main source is close to Hagios Sostis, it actually rises on Mt. Lycaeum, then, after a distance of 37 km, it flows into the Gulf of  Cyparissia. The N. is a raging torrent with many waterfalls which rushes through a narrow, rugged, for the most part, inaccessible valley. The fortress of Hira was situated in the mountainous region …

Nacolea

(360 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Wörrle, Michael (Munich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Education / Culture (Νακόλεια; Nakóleia). City in northeastern Phrygia (Phryges; Str. 12,8,12: in Phrygia Epictetus; Ptol. 5,2,22: in Phrygia Megale) on the river Parthenius (modern river Seydi), modern Seyitgazi. The earliest evidence (Str. loc. cit.) is no later than the time of Augustus, historical notes are provided by Amm. Marc. 26,9,7-9 (defeat of Procopius in a battle with Valens at N. in AD 366) and Philostorgius in 138 (rebellion…

Heraeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἥραιον; Hḗraion). The outermost cape (today Cape Melangavi) of the peninsula that is formed by the foothills of the Geraneia opposite Corinth with a settlement, fort and sanctuary of Hera Akraia and Limenia (rich finds from the 9th cent. BC onwards) on a small bay on the south side of the cape (Xen. Hell. 4,5,5ff.; Xen. Ages. 2,18f.; Str. 8,6,22; Plut. Cleomenes 20,3; Liv. 32,23,10). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography H. Payne et al. (ed.), The Sanctuaries of Hera Akraia and Limenia, 2 vols., 1940/1962.

Cronion

(53 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κρόνιον). A hill with pine growth (123 m) above the Altis in  Olympia with a Cronos cult only attested in literature (priesthood of the Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. Hell. 7,4,14; Pind. Ol. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,34,3. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Mygdonia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μυγδονία; Mygdonía). [German version] [1] Region in northwestern Asia Minor Region in northwestern Asia Minor whose name is derived from the Thracian Mygdones who, like the Doliones and the Mysi (Mysia), migrated to the northwestern part of Asia Minor in the 12th cent. BC. The area in which they settled was bordered at the northwest by the Dascylitis (Δασκυλῖτις, now Kuş Gölü), at the northeast by Apameia [1]; in the southwest their settlements reached to the Mysian Olympus [13] (modern-day Uludağ), in t…

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Arginusae

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀργινοῦσ(σ)αι; Arginoû(s)sai). Name of three small islands at the southern entry into the  Lesbos Sound at the Aeolian coast (main island modern Garip Adası), famous because of the naval victory of the Athenians over the Spartans under the leadership of the strategos  Callicratidas, which was followed by the ‘Trial of the Generals of the Arginusae’ (406 BC). In this trial, the Athenians condemned the leading strategoi en bloc, because of their failure to rescue survivors and casualties of the storm which followed the battle.  Socrates was the …

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Eurotas

(200 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Εὐρώτας; Eyrṓtas, ‘the abundantly-flowing’). The 82 km-long river (mythological derivation from king E. in Paus. 3,1,1f.) rises with its source-streams on the flat valley-watershed of the Alpheius between Mt. Parnon and Mt. Taygetus on the Asea plain, and in the north-western foothills of the Arcadian Mt. Parnon (the presumption of subterranean links in the region of its source between the E. and Lake Taka, made in Paus. 8,44,4, is improbable), and, following a tectonic depression (‘the E. trough’), enters the 18 km-long and c. 10 km-wide Laconian basin north o…
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