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Phanae

(168 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Φάναι; Phánai). [German version] [1] Southern tip of the island of Chios The c. 300 m high southern tip of the island of Chios (Thuc. 8,24,3; Str. 14,1,35; Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; Liv. 44,28,7; Ptol. 5,2,19), modern Akron Masticho. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) [German version] [2] Port on the southwestern coast of Chios Port on the southwestern coast of Chios about 10 km from P. [1] (Str. 14,1,35), modern Káto Phana. Area famous for viticulture (Verg. G. 2,98 and Serv. Georg. z.St.); palm grove (Str. l.c.). In the bay of P. great fleets were harboured…

Syme

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σύμη/ Sýmē). Island (58 km2, up to 617 m elevation, barren limestone) with many bays, surrounded by islets, off the Carian coast, 24 km to the north of Rhodes (Hom. Il. 2,671 ff.; Hdt. 1,174; Str. 14,2,14; Diod. Sic. 5,53; Ptol. 5,2,32; Plin. HN 5,133), today again called S. Few traces of prehistoric and Mycenaean settlement, settled by Cares and in c. 1000 BC by Dorieis. The polis of S. was at modern S. on the Bay of Aegialus in the northeast (remains of city wall and harbour, Athena sanctuary). From 434/3 BC on, S. was a member of t…

Nisyrus

(274 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νίσυρος/ Nísyros). Island west of Cnidus, belonging to the Dodecanese. Around 35 km2 and pentagonal in shape, between Cos, Telos and the western tip of the Reşadiye peninsula. Volcanic rocks, hot springs (Str. 10,5,16); the collapsed main crater is 692 m high. N. was dedicated to Poseidon. The settlements of Argus (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἄργος/Á rgos), Gigantea and Hypaton (Γιγαντεα/ Gigantea and Υπατον/ Hypaton, IG XII 3,92,2f.), attested in literary sources, cannot be located archaeologically, but the eponymous main settlement of N. has been f…

Oene

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Οἴνη/ Oínē, ethnikon Οἰναῖος/ Oinaîos; in literature also Οἰνόη/ Oinóē, Ath 1,30d; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνόη, Str. 14,1,9). Main town on the island of Icarus [2], on its north coast, 2 km west of modern Evdilos. Cult site of Dionysus and Artemis Tauropolis (chief cult). Numerous inscriptions [1]. O. was a member of the Delian League, paying a tribute of between 4000 and 8000 drachmai (ATL 1, 360f.; 528; 2, 86f.; 3, 190; …

Poeeessa

(152 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ποιήεσσα/ Poiḗessa, Ποιᾶσσα/ Poiâssa, Ποιῆσσα/ Poiêssa). City in the southwest of Ceos [1] at modern Pisses. An acropolis and remains of walls lie on a steep cape. In the area early Cycladic pottery  (3rd millennium BC) has been found. Few remains survive (foundations, columns). Temples to Apollo Smintheus and  Athena Nedousia are recorded in Str. 10,5,6. To the northeast of P. a mighty Hellenistic watchtower has been found. In the Hellenistic Period P. was incorporated into the polis…

Sciathos

(174 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σκίαθος/ Skíathos). Westernmost of the northern Sporades (45 km2, length 11 km, maximum elevation 435 m; Hdt. 7,176,1; 179; 183,1 f.; 8,7,1; 92,1; Scyl. 58; Scymn. 580 ff.; Mela 2,106; Plin. HN 4,72; Ptol. 3,13,47), today also S. The island was settled in the 8th cent. BC by settlers from Chalcis [1]; Palaesciathos was laid out at that time (not located, recorded until the 5th/4th cent. BC). In the 6th/5th cents. BC, the polis of S. was founded on the east coast with a strategically imp…

Syros

(192 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Σῦρος/ Sŷros). Island of many bays among the Cyclades (86 km2, rising to 432 m; Scyl. 58; Str. 10,5,3; 8; Mela 2,111; Plin. HN 4,67; Ptol. 3,15,30), still S. today. The island was settled by the 3rd millennium BC (early Cycladic necropolis on the northeastern coast at modern Chalandriani, settlement with fortification wall on the Kastri hill). Around 1000 BC it was colonised by Iones from Attica (Schol. Dionys. Per. 525). Hom. Od. 15,412 notes two cities on S., the earlier of which can pr…

Zarax

(331 words)

Author(s): Tausend, Sabine | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Ζάραξ/ Zárax). [German version] [1] City on the eastern coast of the Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea City of Laconian períoikoi on a bay (modern Limin Ierakas, Kastri or Ieraka) on the eastern coast of the Parnon, modern Ierax. Remains of ancient city walls on the northern side of the entrance to the harbour. Z. had an extremely advantageous maritime location (natural harbour) but lacked both good connections with the Laconian inland plain and drinking wa…

Oechalia

(347 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰχαλία; Oichalía). [German version] [1] Mythical place in Homer, Catalogue of the Pylians Mythical place in Homer, in the Catalogue of the Pylians (Hom. Il. 2,594ff.). According to the narrative context, O. must be located in north western Messenia. It was from O. that the Thracian singer Thamyris came to Dorium, where the Muses robbed him of his gift of song. Homer's interpreters equate O. with Andania (Str. 8,3,6; 8,4,5; Plin. HN 4,15; Paus. 4,2,2f.). Pherecydes (FGrH 3 F 82a) assumed that O. was 'somewh…

Myrtoon pelagos

(143 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Μυρτῷον πέλαγος; Myrtȏion pélagos, Latin mare Myrtoum). Part of the Aegean between the Peloponnese and the Cyclades; accounts of its size vary from one author to another, generally it includes the Saronic Gulf (Saronikos Kolpos); the term came into use at the end of the Roman Republic (cf. Hor. Carm. 1,1,14; Ov. Epist. 16,208). Its etymology is uncertain; most likely it was derived from the island of Myrto south of Euboea (Plin. HN 4,51) and referred initially only to the sea in that v…

Myonnesus

(58 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Μυόννησος; Myónnēsos). Small island shaped like a mouse (μῦς/ mŷs Greek = ‘mouse’, hence the name) in the Diaulos Oreon (straits between Euboea and the coast of Achaea Phthiotis), south west of Antron, modern Agios Nikolaos (Str. 9,5,14). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenistische Thessalien, 1924, 182  Id., s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 1080.

Oche

(43 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὄχη/ Ochē). Highest mountain to the south of Euboea (1347 m), with three main peaks; famous in the Imperial period for the marble of Carystus [1] (Str. 10,1,3; 1,6; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κάρυστος; Eust. 2,54,43ff.; Hsch. s.v. Ὀχή). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)

Telos

(238 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] [1] Island (Τῆλος/ Têlos). Island to the northwest of Rhodes with deeply incised bays, 16 km in length, up to 9 km in width, 63 km2 in area, rising to 651 m in height, predominantly of slate and limestone formations with broad tuff valleys in between; originally named Agathoussa (Hesych. s. v. Ἀγάθουσσα, Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). Settled in the 3rd millennium BC (settlement remains at Kastello near Livadia in the south) and in the Minoan period (17th/16th cent. BC, at Megalo Chorio in the north). Settled c. 1000 BC by the Dorieis, in the 7th cent. BC linked polit…

Myrina

(670 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster)
(Μύρινα; Mýrina). [German version] [1] Amazon Amazon (Dionysius Chalcidensis FHG 4 F 2), daughter of Cretheus, wife of Thoas (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,601); eponym of the city of the same name (M. [3]) on Lemnos (Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 138c). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Daughter of Teucer Daughter of Teucer, wife of Dardanus [1], first mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,814; her burial mound was displayed outside Troy as Batieia (Strab. 12,8,6). She was regarded as an Amazon in ancient times. Extensive raids are mentioned in Diod. 3,54f. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] City in southw…

Pholegandros

(136 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Φολέγανδρος; Pholégandros). Island in the southern Cyclades (33 km2, 19 km long, up to 4 km wide) to the southeast of Melos (Strab. 10,5,1; 5,3; Plin. HN 4,68; Ptol. 3,15,31), named after a son of Minos (Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.), today once again called P.; its highest elevation is Hagios Eleutherios (411 m). P. was settled as early as the Cretan-Mycenaean Period, later it was Doric. P. was a member of the Delian League (tribute 1000 drachmai: ATL 1,434f.; 2,83). The ancient city of P. was above modern P. on the southeastern coast (graves, marble spolia and walls from the …

Nea

(100 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Νέα/ Néa, Νέαι/ Néai). Small island between Lemnos and the Hellespontus (Plin. HN 2,202), considered part of the Thermaios Kolpos in Plin. HN 4,72 and of Thracia in Anth. Pal. 15,25,25; probably not the same as the Byzantine N., modern Hagios Eustratios (30 km southeast of Lemnos), but rather submerged, apart from the meagre remains of the rocky reef of Charos east of Lemnos. Sacred to Athena. According to  Steph. Byz. s.v. Νέαι, Philoctetes was bitten by the serpent here (but acc. Paus. 8,33,4 on the submerged Chryse). Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography J. Koder, Ai…

Tenedos

(321 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τένεδος; Ténedos). Island in the north east of the Aegean Sea (Ptol. 5,2,27; Dionys. Per. 135; Hierocles Synékdēmos 686,8), 5 km off the coast of Troas, 20 km south west of the Hellespont and therefore always of strategic importance; made up of limestone, slate, trachite with Neogene deposits; 10 km long, 5 km wide, 41 km2 in area, rising to 191 m in the northeast, present day Bozcaada. Various earlier names for T. are documented: C…

Ogylus

(34 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ὤγυλος; Ṓ gylos). Island between the Peloponnese and Crete (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὤγυλος); identification uncertain, most plausibly Cythera or Anticythera. Külzer, Andreas (Vienna) Bibliography J. Schmidt, s.v. Ogylos, RE 17, 2078-2080.

Tenos

(639 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Τῆνος/ Tênos). Island in the northern Cyclades; 27 km in length, up to 12 km wide, area of 195 km2; numerous coastal bluffs, a few open bays, primarily slate along with marble and granite; in the east, up to 714 m high (Tsiknias, probably the ancient Gyraíē pétrē, Hom. Od. 4,500; 4,507; Lycoph. Alexandra 390 ff.); it still bears the same name. T. was not very fertile, but the cultivation of garlic on T. was proverbial (Aristoph. Plut. 718); there were many snakes and scorpions (ibid.). Epithets for T. were h ydroûssa ('abundant in water') and o phioûssa ('abundant in sn…

Psyttalea

(130 words)

Author(s): Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
[German version] (Ψυττάλεια; Psyttáleia). Rocky island in the strait between Salamis [1] and the Piraeus bay (1,5 km long, 400 m wide, 51 m high), modern Psyttalia. The uninhabited island was consecrated to Pan (Aesch. Pers. 447 ff.; Paus. 1,36,2). On the eve of the battle of Salamis in 480 BC, Xerxes disembarked troops there, which were defeated by the Greeks (under Aristides [1]?); foundation remains of a triumphal monument are still extant. Cf. Plut. Aristides 9; Hdt. 8,76,1; 95; Aristodemus FGrH 104 F 1; Str. 9,1,14; Plin. HN 4,62; Steph. Byz. s. v. Ψυττάλεια. Külzer, Andreas (Vien…
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