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Sulpicius

(5,409 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Et al.
Name of a Roman patrician family, probably originally from Cameria (hence the cognomen Camerinus); documented in the fasti from c. 500 BC. The otherwise rare praenomen Servius appears comparatively frequently and at times is even used in place of the nomen gentile (Tac. Hist. 2,48; Plut. Galba 3,1). The number of cognomina within the gens is high, but it has been impossible to identify clear branches. The link between the S. from the 3rd to the 2nd and 1st cent. BC is unclear. In the 2nd cent. BC, the most important branch of the family was that of…

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Valerianus

(929 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] [1] Q. Cornelius V. Author of an antiquarian compilation, 1st cent. Roman equestrian of the 1st cent. AD (probably c.45 praef. vexillariorum in Thracia). Author of an antiquarian compilation mentioned by Plinius [1] (Pliny the Elder) as source of books 3 (?), 8, 10, 14 and 15 of his Naturalis historia, and quoted at 3,108 (?), 10,5 and 14,11. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography PIR2 C 1471. [German version] [2] P. Licinius V. Roman emperor 253-260, born 199 (thus the gist of Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 298; SHA Valer. 5,1 is false); from a noble family (Aur. V…

Titinius

(466 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld)
[German version] [1] Comedy writer, end of the 3rd / beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Roman comedy writer, in the general opinion of scholars a contemporary of Plautus (second half of the 3rd/beginning of the 2nd cent. BC), according to [7], however, from the late 2nd cent. BC. In the latter case, it is not T. but Afranius [4] who would have been the archegetes of the Roman national comedy ( fabula togata ); T. would have been responsible for its flourishing. In 15 plays proved to be his he distinguished himself, according to Varro [2] (in Char. 315…

Latin inscriptions

(7,273 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht I. History of Finds (CT) [German version] A. Historical Overview (CT) The fate of Latin inscriptions (LI) is quite basically determined by their respective inscriptional supports. They run the gamut from major buildings, which never completely perished owing to their sheer bulk, and whose inscriptions were omnipresent from Antiquity down to modern times (for instance the Mausoleum of Augustus at Rome, documented by Suet. Aug. 101, 4, the Mirabilia urbis Romae in the 12th cent., and Baldassare Peruzzi's sketches from the 16th cent. [10; 9. 67]), to the instrume…

Philology

(54,308 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle) | Schmitz, Thomas A. | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schwindt, Jürgen Paul (Bielefeld)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) I. Greek (CT) A. Byzantine Philology (ca. 800-1453) (CT) [German version] 1. Terminology (CT) As the scientific study of the literature and language of Greek Antiquity, Byzantine philology, in the tradition of ancient Greek philology, meant primarily grammar, constitution of texts and explanation of texts. It was essentially humanistic, for it understood itself as a means for the linguistic, literary, intellectual and moral renewal of the present through texts from Antiquity. The…

Statilius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Et al.
Italic nomen gentile. I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] A young friend of M. Porcius [I 7] Cato; in 46 BC he wanted to follow Cato into death, but allowed himself to be dissuaded by philosophical arguments (Plut. Cato Minor 65,10 f.; 66,6-8; 73,7). He then joined cause with M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus, who, because of S.' attitude towards tyrannicide, did not dare let him in on the plot against Caesar. S. was killed in 42 as a scout at Philippi (Plut. Brutus 51,6). Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) [German version] [I 2] S., L. Roman equestrian and leading follower of Catilina (Cic. Cat. 3,6…

Volcacius

(263 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] V. Sedigitus Author of a didactic poem, 2nd cent. BC Author of a Latin didactic poem in senarii (Metre [VI.C.3].) on the history of literature (Plin. HN. 11,244), probably from the end of the 2nd cent. BC. Four fragments (in total 20 verses) are preserved (probably by way of Varro, De poetis) of the genre of the palliata (Comedy [II.C.]). They treat biographies of poets (fr. 2 FPL = 3 GRF on the death of Terentius [III 1]), questions of authenticity (in Gell. NA 3,3,1 on Plautus; fr. 3/4 on the alleged co-operat…

Serenus

(635 words)

Author(s): Touwaide, Alain (Madrid) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Quinctius S. Sammonicus Author of a collection of recipes (also Quintus Serenius). Author of the Liber Medicinalis, a collection of therapeutic recipes which can be neither dated nor identified; Q. has at times been identified with S. [2] Sammonicus or with his son (Septimius [II 6] S. Sammonicus; both died at the beginning of the 3rd cent. AD). The collection (dating between the 2nd and 4th cents. AD) cannot be chronologically ordered with any accuracy. It is written in hexameters and contain…

Circles, literary

(764 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] When referring to antiquity, the modern term ‘literary circle’ describes the Maecenatic patronage of contemporary literature and the encouragement of young poets; however, generalizations and exaggerations (in the sense of the middle-class reading circles of the 19th cent.) have to be avoided (cf. gen.  Literary activity II.). Initially, these circles signify an acculturative boost following the conquest of Greece in the early 2nd cent. BC.   Nobiles such as M.  Fulvius [I 15] Nobilior [1. 536 f.] and L.  Aemilius [I 32] Paull…

Sulpicia

(568 words)

Author(s): Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
[German version] [1] Wife of Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio, 1st cent. BC Wife of Cornelius Lentulus Cruscellio (MRR 2, 391), who after having been proscribed in 43 BC, fled to Sex. Pompeius [I 5] in Sicily. Dressed as a servant she followed him into exile (Val. Max. 6,7,3, App. B Civ. 4,39). Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Poet in the Corpus Tibullianum Granddaughter of Servius Sulpicius [I 23] (cf. [3]), niece of M. Valerius Messala Corvinus. Author of a small collection of poems in the Corpus Tibullianum (3,13-18) in which she expresses her love for a man whom…

Turnus

(290 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] King of the Rutuli Mythical king of the Rutuli, son of Daunus [2] and Venilia, brother of Iuturna, from the city of Ardea; reigning when Aeneas [1] arrived in Italy. According to a (probably earlier ) tradition he and Latinus [1] fight against the invading Aeneas. When Latinus falls, T. flees to Mezentius, and the two take up the battle again; in the end T. himself and Aeneas fall (Cato HRR fr. 9-10). In another variant he fights against Latinus and Aeneas, because, having original…

Sueius

(72 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] Roman poet of the late Republican Period, author of rural idylls in Alexandrian style ( Moretum, Pulli, Nidus, cf. Charisius, Gramm. p. 132 B.) and a poem also in hexameters; he can hardly be identical to the grammarian Sevius Nicanor or the equestrian M. Seius. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography Fragments: J. Granarolo, L'époque néotérique, in: ANRW I 3, 1973, 291f., 331-334  Courtney, 112-117  FPL3 (Blänsdorf), 122-126  A. Traglia, Poetae novi, 21962, 4f., 122-124.

Virgilius Maro

(605 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] 'Pen-name' [8.16f., 26; 13.75f.] of a Latin grammarian of the 7th cent. ( terminus ante quem is AD 658, cf. [10]) and therefore a younger contemporary of Isidorus [9]. His origin ("Land north or south of the Pyrenees" [9.15; 12]) and the area in which he worked (Ireland: [5; 11]; England: [7]; cf. in contrast [10]) are disputed. It may be that VM was a converted Jew ([9.14f.], otherwise [8.22-26; 11.56-61]). Works: (1) Commentarii de mundi creatione adversus paganos ('On Creation against the pagans'; Epist. 7,4); and (2/3) twelve or fifteen instructional l…

Urbanus

(82 words)

Author(s): Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] M. Damatius U., author of a (4th-cent. AD) commentary on the poems of Vergilius, which deals with earlier commentators (Cornutus [4], Velius [3] Longus) and - in addition to Carminius and Donatus [3] - constitutes the foundation of Servius's [2] commentary; its influence on Servius is likely to have exceeded the 11 quotations that survive. Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht Bibliography S. Timpanaro, Per la storia della filologia virgiliana antica, 1986, 129-134 R. Kaster, Guardians of Language, 1988, 438 P. L. Schmidt, in: HLL 5, § 526.3.

Valerius

(11,988 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Et al.
Name of an old patrician family, which was said to have immigrated to Rome under King T. Tatius with V. [I 10] (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,46). The name, derived from the old personal name Valesus/ Valerus, was originally Valesios (cf. V. [I 7]; CIL XII p. 298g: Valesies; Fest. 22; Varro, Rerum divinarum fr. 66 Cardauns [4; 5]); the censor App. Claudius [I 2] introduced the new spelling in 312 BC (cf. Dig. 1,2, 2,36). Because in Antiquity the name was derived (etymologically correctly) from valere, 'to be strong', it was considered to be a good omen ( boni ominis nomen, Cic. Div. 1,102; Cic. Sca…

Titius

(1,112 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
Roman family name, derived from the praenomen Titus II., recorded only in the 1st cent. BC; the bearers of the name are usually not related to each other. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican Period [German version] [I 1] T., C. Equestrian, orator and poet, 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC Roman equestrian of the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC, orator (Cic. Brut. 167) and poet (Fronto p. 15,13 ff. v.d. Hout). Although T. lacked theoretical education and frequent practice of delivering speeches, his own speeches distinguished themselves by their…

Valgius

(303 words)

Author(s): Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] [1] Valg(i)us Father-in-law (Cic. Leg. agr. 3,3) of Servilius [I 26] Rullus. Under Cornelius [I 90] Sulla V. had appropriated estates in Ager Hirpinus and in Casinum (ibid. 2,69; 3,8-14). He may be identical to the C. Quinctius Valgus recorded as patronus (D.) of the Hirpinian Aeclanum, as quinquennalis of a town near Frigento and as a duumvir of Pompeii and in Casinum (ILLRP 523; 565; 598; 645; 646). Bartels, Jens (Bonn) Bibliography P. Harvey, Socer Valgus, Valgii and C. Quinctius Valgus, in: E. Borza, R. Carrubba (eds.), Classics and the Classical Trad., 197…

Competitions, artistic

(3,335 words)

Author(s): Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) | Paulsen, Thomas (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
[German version] I. Stage competitions Competitions, which included the   skēnḗ (the stage and the podium in front of it for the actor's appearance) in Greek theatre, that is dramatic performances. Originally, the skēnḗ was away from the orchḗstra ( Theatre I) and was used only for changing costumes and masks; it probably was not moved into the audience's view and integrated into the play until 458 BC with the ‘Orestia’ of  Aeschylus [1]. Nevertheless, early dramatic competitions are also thought to have been staged. Blume, Horst-Dieter (Münster) A. Greece [German version] 1. Developm…

Verrius

(729 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht
Roman nomen gentile, perhaps of Etruscan origin (Schulze, 287), first recorded in the 1st cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [1] M. V. Flaccus Latin grammarian, Augustan era [German version] I. Life V. was the leading grammarian of the generation after Varro [2], born in Praeneste after 60 BC. Suetonius' biography (Gram. 17) reveals competition with Varro: the freedman ( libertinus) V. stands in opposition to the Roman equestrian ( eques Romanus), the grammarian to the philosopher and poet ( philosophus et poeta), the politician and soldier. V. became famous through h…
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