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Pan

(1,096 words)

Author(s): Holzhausen, Jens (Bamberg)
[German version] (Πάν/ Pán). Doric form of Arcadian Πάων/ Páōn, probably derived etymologically via Αἰγίπαν/ Aigípan from Mycenaean aiki-pata, which is related to Latin pastor ('shepherd'), pasci ('to graze') [1]; cf. also the ancient Indian god Pusan [15]. As the god of goatherds and shepherds, P.'s home is Arcadia [12] (Pind. fr. 95; hardly any evidence prior to 500 BC); as the twin brother of Arcas, he is a son of Zeus Lycaeus and Callisto (Epimenides fr. 16 DK); he has theriomorphic traits (the feet and head of a goa…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…
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