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Josephinism

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] The “shimmering and ambiguous term Josephinism” (Klueting, Josephinismus, 1) originated in the early 19th century and refers to Joseph II; the phenomenon existed long before 1780. In scholarship, Josephinism initially referred only to the state's policy toward the church (Winter, Maaß). Following Valjavec, Josephinism is now often understood as a shorthand term for all the reforms in the Austrian monarchy which were instituted in the 1740s, reached their apex after 1780, and which can be…

Napoleon

(706 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; Aug 15, 1769, Ajaccio, Corsica – May 5, 1821, St. Helena), emperor of the French. Lieutenant of the French artillery since 1785, Napoleon joined the “Montangards” around M. Robespierre in 1793; after the recapture of Toulon in December of 1793, he was promoted to general. After 9 Thermidor (Jul 27, 1794), he was temporarily dismissed from the army. After the defeat of the royalist uprising in Paris (Oct 5, 1795), he was made commander in chief of the Army of…

Schwendi, Lazarus von

(130 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1522, Mittelbiberach – May 28, 1584, Kirchhofen im Breisgau), imperial diplomat and military commander. After studying at Basel and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he led forces in the Schmalkaldic War, wars with France, and (as commander-in-chief after 1564) in Hungary. In memoranda (esp. 1570 and 1574), he urged improvements in the Empire’s district organization and warfare, with the goal of greater centralization. At the Imperial Diets between 1566 and 1576, he urged public and religious peace, along with religious toleration. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works incl…

Frederick the Great

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jan 24, 1712, Berlin – Aug 17, 1786, Sanssouci near Potsdam), king in (from 1772: of) Prussia. Following a strict religious upbringing, the son of Frederick William I soon turned to a religion of reason, which led to clashes with his father in 1726. The conflict escalated when the crown prince tried to escape in 1730, whereupon he was held under arrest in Küstrin. The price of the reconciliation with his father was Frederick's marriage to Elisabeth Christine v. Braunschweig-Bever…

Turgot, Anne Robert Jacques

(86 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (May 10, 1727, Paris – Mar 20, 1781, Paris), French economic theorist influenced by physiocracy. Appointed comptroller-general of finance in 1774, he sought to avert French national bankruptcy through economies and tax reforms. His reform edicts turned the privileged classes against him and he was dismissed on May 10, 1776. Harm Klueting Bibliography E. Brian, La mesure de l’etat, 1994 M. Hill, Statesman of Enlightenment, 1999 J.-P. Poirier, Turgot. Laissez-faire et progrès social, 1999 B. Plé, BBKL XVIII, 2001, 1402–1436.

Riegger, Paul Joseph von

(221 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1705, Freiburg im Breisgau – Dec 2, 1775, Vienna), canonist. After studying in Leiden and elsewhere, and gaining his Dr.iur.utr. in Freiburg, Riegger served from 1733 to 1749 as professor of natural and imperial law in Innsbruck, was in 1749 at the Savoy Ritterakademie in Vienna, and from 1753 to 1773 professor of canon law at Vienna University. Riegger was ennobled in 1764. Through theoretical separation of church and state, and demarcation of their areas of responsibili…

Lipsius, Justus

(214 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Joest Lips; Oct 18, 1547, Overijse, near Brussels – Mar 23, 1606, Louvain), late Humanist and Latin philologist. Lipsius was professor at Jena from 1572 to 1574, moved to Louvain in 1576, to Leiden in 1578, and back to Louvain in 1592. He changed his religious allegiance frequently. His rediscovery of the Stoics and the spread of neo-Stoicism, e.g. in Brandenburg-Prussia, were of immense importance. Harm Klueting Bibliography Works include: De Constantia, 1584 (Lat.-Ger., 1998) On Lipsius: G. Oestreich, Geist und Gestalt des frühmodernen Staates, 1969 G. Abel, Stoiz…

Rijswijk Clause

(360 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] name given to the stipulation in art. 4 of the Treaty of Rijswijk (Rijswick, near The Hague, the Netherlands), by which Louis XIV’s war with the Great Alliance ended on Sep 29/Oct 30, 1697, having begun in 1688. The Treaty forced Louis XIV to restore all the “reunion” territories obtained since 1679, and to give back the Palatinate, militarily occupied since 1688 (but not Strasbourg, annexed in 1681). Diverging from the “norm year” (Annus normalis; 1624) otherwise applied in the Peace of Westphalia, art. 4 guaranteed the Catholic confessional status ¶ of the restored re…

Simultaneum

(627 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] In the broader sense (1), a simultaneum is the coexistence of two or more denominations in one territory, in parity or under constraint for one party. In a narrower sense (2), it involves the shared use of church facilities, especially church buildings, by members of two or more denominations. An example of (1) is the coexistence of Reformed, Lutherans, and Catholics in the Electoral Palatinate and the restored occupied territories under the Rijswijk Clause (1697). Prior to 1679/1…

Schwendi

(108 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Schwendi, Lazarus von (1522 Mittelbiberach – 28.5.1584 Kirchhofen im Breisgau), kaiserlicher Feldoberst, studierte in Basel und Straßburg, nahm am Schmalkaldischen Krieg, an den Kämpfen gegen Frankreich und, seit 1564 als Oberbefehlshaber, in Ungarn teil. In Denkschriften, v.a. von 1570 und 1574, trat er für Verbesserungen der Kreisverfassung und des Kriegswesens des Reiches mit dem Ziel einer stärkeren Zentralisierung und auf den Reichstagen zw. 1566 und 1576 für den Land- und Religionsfrieden und für rel. Toleranz ein. Harm Klueting Bibliography Vf. u.a…

Werkmeister

(402 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Werkmeister, Leonhard (1808: v.; Klostername: Benedikt Maria; 22.10.1745 Füssen – 16.7.1823 Stuttgart), trat 1764/65 in das Benediktinerkloster Neresheim ein, studierte in Benediktbeuern und wurde 1769 zum Priester geweiht. 1770 Novizenmeister, lehrte W. 1772–1774 und 1778–1780 Philos. in Freising und wurde 1780 in Neresheim Leiter der Studien, bis er 1784 von dem kath. Herzog Karl Eugen von Württemberg als Hofprediger berufen wurde. 1791 verließ er den Orden und wurde 1796 (–1819) …

Spifame

(161 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Spifame, Jacques (1502 Paris – 23.3.1566 Genf), Seigneur de Passy, nach Studium der Rechte Staats- und Parlamentsrat in Paris und seit 1548 Bf. von Nevers. S. resignierte 1559, floh nach Genf und wurde Protestant, nachdem er schon seit längerer Zeit prot. Neigungen verdächtigt wurde. Dahinter stand ein länger zurückliegender Ehebruch und die Absicht auf Legitimation eines Liebesverhältnisses und der daraus hervorgegangenen Kinder. S. spielte neben Th. Beza zu Beginn der Bürgerkrie…

Napoleon I.

(560 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] (Napolione Buonaparte; 15.8.1769 Ajaccio, Korsika – 5.5.1821 St. Helena), Kaiser der Franzosen. 1785 franz. Artillerieleutnant, 1793 der »Bergpartei« um M. Robespierre verbunden und nach der Rückeroberung von Toulon (Dezember 1793) zum General befördert, wurde N. nach dem 9. Thermidor (27.7.1794) vorübergehend aus der Armee entlassen. Nach der Niederschlagung des royalistischen Aufstandes in Paris (5.10.1795) 1796 Oberbefehlshaber der Italienarmee, führten seine Siege zum Frieden…

Rijswijker Klausel

(290 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Rijswijker Klausel, Bez. der Regelung des Art.4 des Friedensvertrages von Rijswijk (bei Den Haag), mit dem am 29.9./30.10.1697 der Pfälzische Krieg (seit 1688) endete. Der Frieden zwang Ludwig XIV., alle seit 1679 erlangten Réunionsgebiete zu restituieren und die seit 1688 militärisch besetzte Kurpfalz (nicht das 1681 annektierte Straßburg) zurückzugeben. Art.4 garantierte, entgegen der Normaljahrsregelung (annus normalis) des Westfälischen Friedens, den kath. Konfessionsstand in…

Richelieu

(598 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Richelieu, Jean Armand Du Plessis Duc de (9.9.1585 Paris – 4.12.1642 ebd.), franz. Staatsmann und Kardinal (1622), wurde 1607 Dr. theol. der Sorbonne, 1608 mit päpstl. Dispens wegen fehlenden kanonischen Alters Bf. von Luçon und nahm als solcher an der Generalständeversammlung von 1614 teil, in deren Schlußsitzung er eine Rede hielt und die Politik der Regentin Maria von Medici unterstützte, die ihn 1616 zum Minister im Staatsrat berief. Nach Beginn der Herrschaft Ludwigs XIII. (1617) …

Retz

(146 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[English Version] Retz, Jean-François-Paul de Gondi de (getauft 20.9.1613 Montmirail, Département Marne – 24.8.1679 Paris), nach Theologiestudium 1644 Koadjutor, 1652 Kardinal, 1654 Erzbf. von Paris, 1662 Abt von St. Denis. R. war polit. Gegner J. Mazarins und Ludwigs XIV. Er organisierte den Aufstand der Fronde 1648–1653, wurde 1652 verhaftet, konnte aus der Haft heraus den Erzbischofsstuhl von Paris erlangen, wurde zur Demission gezwungen (von Papst Innozenz X. nicht anerkannt), konnte 1654 fliehen …

Richelieu, Jean Armand du Plessis, Duke of

(700 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Sep 9, 1585, Paris – Dec 4, 1642, Paris), French statesman and cardinal (1622). Richelieu gained the degree of Dr.theol. at the Sorbonne in 1607; in 1608, with papal dispensation because he was under the canonical age, he became bishop of Luçon, and in that capacity took part in the assembly of the States-General of 1614. In its final session he made a speech supporting the policies of the regent Marie de Medici, who in 1616 appointed him a minister in the council of state. After…

Keckermann, Bartholomäus

(327 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (1571/1573, Danzig – Aug [Jul?] 25,1608, Danzig), Reformed philosopher and polymath. He studied at the Danzig Gymnasium, in Wittenberg, Leipzig, and Heidelberg and graduated as Mag.phil. in 1595 and Lic. theol. in 1600, and was professor of Hebrew in Heidelberg from 1600 onward. He returned to Danzig in 1601 and became deputy principal at the Gymnasium. As a philosopher, Keckermann was the most prominent representative of an Aristotelian, anti-Ramist (P. Ramus) scholastic philosop…

Illuminati

(294 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (Enlightened). The secret society of the Illuminati was founded in 1776 by Adam Weishaupt, banned in 1785, and dissolved in 1787. It was especially widespread in Bavaria, but also in the rest of Germany and in Austria. The Illuminati were a radical Enlightenment order, which was reflected in the self-designation “Illuminatos” (see also Alumbrados; Enlightenment [Spiritual]: III). They differed from the Freemasons in their atheist orientation (reading P.H.D. Baron v. Holbach and He…

Montgelas, Maximilian Joseph

(158 words)

Author(s): Klueting, Harm
[German Version] (from 1809, Count; Sep 10, 1759, Munich – Jun 14, 1838, Munich), son of a Bavarian general of Savoyard descent. Montgelas wrote in 1789 the Mémoire instructif sur les droits des ducs de Bavière en matière ecclésiastique, and in 1796 the Ansbach Memorandum with a program of reform for Bavaria, whose policies he directed as foreign minister from 1799 to 1817 (at times also as minister of finance and of the interior). Grounded in secularization and mediatization, Montgelas's policies (reforms of administration, society, econ…
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