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Equites Romani

(1,554 words)

Author(s): Lintott, A. W. (Oxford)
[German version] A. Definition The term equites Romani ( ER) originally described the mounted contingent of the Roman citizenry; in the course of the history of the Republic it came to denote the second rank ( ordo) after that of the senators; it thus concerned citizens from whom mounted service was no longer required, but who were definitely entitled to serve as officers in the army. This evolutionary process is not clearly described in any of the sources, and is at present the subject of some controversy. Lintott, A. W. (Oxford) [German version] B. Kingdom and early Republic Later Roman au…

Cliens, clientes

(844 words)

Author(s): Lintott, A. W. (Oxford)
[German version] Lat. name for free dependants of powerful Roman citizens of higher social status. Although this kind of dependancy was a widespread phenomenon in antiquity (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,9 mentions the pelátai of Athens and the penéstai of Thessaly), Rome can be regarded as a special case in that here rights and duties of the cliens were precisely defined and his status in respect of his patronus was protected in Twelve Tables law (8.21). The cliens was in a relationship of allegiance ( in fide) to his patronus, or, put another way, under his protection. There is no indica…


(1,107 words)

Author(s): Lintott, A. W. (Oxford) | Schiemann, Gottfried (Tübingen)
[German version] A. Definition In Roman hierarchical relationships, the term patronus refers to the person of higher rank and correlates thus with the term cliens ; the patronus took the cliens into his fides. Lintott, A. W. (Oxford) [German version] B. Private law The patronus was the holder of a right to control, initially probably as a comprehensive authority over friends (guests) and freedmen, but from about the 2nd cent. BC only as a bundle of rights of the former slave owner in relation to the freedmen manumitted by him. In the 12 Tables (tab. 8,21; Tabulae duodecim), the term patronus