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Archias

(769 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Volkmann, Hans (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀρχίας; Archías). [German version] [1] Corinthian, founder of Syracuse 733 BC Son of Euagetes of Corinth, probably belonging to the family of the  Bacchiadae. He left Corinth following a serious dispute, and, on the instruction of the Delphian oracle, led colonists to lower Italy. In about 733 BC, he founded  Syracusae in Sicily (Thuc. 6,3,2; Str. 6,2,4; Plut. Mor. 772e-773b).  Colonization Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography W. Leschhorn, Gründer der Stadt, 1984, 13-16 H.-P. Drögemüller, s. v. Syrakus, RE Suppl. 13, 817-819. [German version] [2] Politician from C…

Idomeneus

(647 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἰδομενεύς; Idomeneús). [German version] [1] Commander of the Cret. troops at Troy Son of  Deucalion, grandson of  Minos; the name is indirectly attested as early as in Linear B [1]. I. is one of  Helena's suitors (today fr. 204,56ff. M-W) and a guest of Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,230-233). He commands the rather large Cretan contingent (80 ships) in the Trojan campaign, assisted by his loyal follower  Meriones (Hom. Il. 2,645-652); he is the oldest Greek at Troy after Nestor, still fit for action ( aristeia in Il. 13); I. belongs to the inner circle of Greek army leaders, but does n…

Polycritus

(54 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολύκριτος/ Polýkritos) of Mende, historian from western Greece c. middle of the 4th cent. BC and author of a History of (the Young) Dionysius [2] and a History of Sicily (Sikeliká), whose compass, perspective and extent in time are unknown; only 3 fragments survive (FGrH 559 with commentary). Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Theagenes

(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Me…

Phanodemus

(149 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Φανόδημος; Phanódēmos). Atthidographer, father of the historian Diyllus and follower of Lycurgus' [9] restoration policy (FGrH 325 T 2-5). As a member of the Council he was honoured with a gold wreath in 343/2 BC (IG II2 223 = Syll.3 227). Several inscriptions from the years 332/1 to 329/8 (IG VII 4252-4254) testify to his espousing the cult of Amphiaraus of Ephesus. His Atthís, comprising at least 9 books, which appeared in about 330 and of which 27 fragments survive, also reveals a strong interest in issues of cult. The fragment datable as…

Nymphis

(221 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Νύμφις; Nýmphis). N. from Heraclia [7] on the Pontus, son of Xenagoras, historian, b. c. 310 BC, d. after 246. He played an eminent role among the exiles who returned to their home in 281 BC after the end of the tyranny under Clearchus [3] and the death of Lysimachus [2] (FGrH 432 T 3 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 7,3). In 250, N. was the leader of the delegation that induced the Galatians to withdraw from Heracleotis (T 4 = Memnon FGrH 434 F 1, c. 16,3). Works: 1) ‘On Heraclia in 13 bks.: Extensive local history of his home town, connected with the ‘great’ history and pr…

Gelon

(562 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen)
(Γέλων; Gélōn). [German version] [1] Greatest Sicilian tyrant prior to Dionysius I, about 491-479 BC Son of Deinomenes from Gela, greatest Si…

Heloris

(139 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἕλωρις; Hélōris). Syracusan, close friend, perhaps even the adoptive father of the older  Dionysius [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,8,5). During an uprising of the Syracusans against the tyrant in 404/3 BC he uttered, according to Diodorus (loc. cit.), the remark that was quoted right through to late antiquity: ‘Tyranny is a beautiful shroud’ ( kalòn entáphiòn estin hē tyrannís). Later banis…

Agatharchides of Cnidus

(340 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀγαθαρχίδης; Agatharchídēs). [German version] A. Life Historian and geographer. Particulars about his life and work in a vita by Photius 213. As a consequence of a self-attestation in Photius 250 in 132/1 BC (or already 145?) an old man. Birth therefore before 200. Active as reader and secretary of Heracleides Lembos in Alexandria. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] B. Works 1. History of Asia ( Asiatiká) in 10 books, reaching up to the era of the Diadochi. From book two (as well as book eight of Artemidorus' descriptio…

Diocles

(2,746 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Et al.
(Διοκλῆς; Dioklês). [German version] [1] Hero in Megara Hero in Megara. He supposedly died in battle, bravely covering a youth with his shield. At his grave boys competed for who could give the sweetest kiss. This agon, which took place every spring, was called Dioclea (Schol. Pind. Ol. 7,157; 13,156a; Theoc. 12,27-33 with Schol.: Aition). Perhaps the kisses represented farewell kisses repeated in the cult of the hero ([1]; to the contrary [2]). According to Schol. Aristoph. Ach.774 the agon was founded b…

Local chronicles, local history

(563 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] Historical or antiquarian works on particular areas or localities, often dated according to eponymous officials. According to [1], Greek local chronicles and local historiography grew out of official lists and indices (officials, priests, victors in competitions) in which notes on all sorts of events were scattered. From these preliterary town chronicles, local chronicles and histories supposedly developed in the 6th/5th cents. BC, with the Hóroi (Annual Books) of Samos being the earliest; later the Atthís followed. This opinion, whic…

Phintias

(496 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Falco, Giulia (Athens) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Town on the southern coast of Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily (Φιντιάς; Phintiás). Town on the southern coast of Sicily, modern Licata, founded in

Damocles

(90 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Δαμοκλῆς; Damoklês). Courtier and sycophant of the tyrant  Dionysius [1] I (according to Timaeus FGrH 566 F 32 of Dionysius II). The anecdote of the ‘sword of Damocles’ became famous through Cicero (Tusc. 5,61f.): as D. consid…

Andriscus

(174 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Ἀνδρίσκος; Andrískos). [German version] [1] (Pseudophilippos) the Macedonian; king Philippus VI (149-148 BC) (Pseudo-Philippus) from Adramyttium, incited 153 BC a rebellion in Syria as alleged son of  Perseus and was handed over by  Demetrius I to the Romans, but he fled and 151 arrived at Pergamum, where he came into possession of a diadem, in an ominous way, before he sought restoration of the Antigonid throne from Thrace with the help of his ‘relative’ Teres; 149 in Pella he was named king (Philip VI), 148 he defeated Juventiu…

Mnesiptolemus

(93 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Μνησιπτόλεμος/ Mnēsiptólemos). Son of Calliarchus from Cyme, a city in Asia Minor (IG XI 697), Greek historian at the court of king Antiochus [5] III of Seleucia (222-187 BC). In his Historía, now completely lost, he was ‘probably more concerned with the deeds of Antiochus the Great than with the entire history of the Syrian kings’ [1]. Because of the many trivial details about the court in his writings, he was ridiculed in comedy (cf. Ath. 10,40 p. 432bc = T 2). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography 1 FGrH 164 with commentary.

Heracleon [1-4]

(362 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡρακλέων; Hērakléōn). [German version] [1] Favourite of Antiochus [10] VII, 1st cent. BC from Beroea, a favourite of Antiochus [10] VIII, caused the latter's death in 96 BC during a plot to become king, but was foiled by the succession of Seleucus VI to the throne. H.'s son Dionysius ruled parts of northern Syria incl. Bambyce, Beroea and Heraclea (Pomp. Trog. prologus 39; Str. 16,2; 7; Jos. Ant. Iud. 13,365; Ath. 4,153b). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) [German version] [2] Pirate leader, 1st cent. BC Pirate leader, defeated the fleet of Syracuse in 72 BC ( Heraclius [2]) and pe…

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Terias

(48 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Τηρίας; Tērías). River on the eastern coast of Sicilia with Leontini on its upper reaches (Scyl. 13; Diod.  Sic. 14,14,3;  cf. Thuc. 6,50,3; 6,94,2; Plin. HN 3,89), modern San Leonardo di Lentini. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography E. Manni, Geografia fisica e politica della Sicilia antica, 1981, 125.

Sicanus

(74 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
[German version] (Σικανός; Sikanós). From Syracuse, son of Execestus; in the autumn of 415 BC he, Hermocrates [1] and Heracleides [2] were elected plenipotentiary strategoi (Thuc. 6,73). Sent in 413 to conquer Acragas, he returned without achieving anything (Thuc. 7,36; 7,50,1). His attempt to set fire to the ships salvaged by the Athenians from a lost sea battle (at the beginning of September 413) failed (Thuc. 7,70-74). Peloponnesian War Meister, Klaus (Berlin)

Memnon

(1,680 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μέμνων; Mémnon). [German version] [1] Mythical King of the Ethiopians Mythical King of the Ethiopians, son of Tithonus and Eos, brother of Emathion (Hes. Theog. 984-5). His entry into Troy as an ally of the Trojans after the death of Penthesilea, his successful single combat with Antilochus, his death at the hands of Achilles and the immortality conferred upon him by Zeus at the behest of Eos were, as the summary of Proclus (Chrestomathia 172) shows, depicted in the lost Cyclic epic Aithiopís . Hom. Od. 4,187…
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