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Pietismus

(3,072 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Evangelische Kirchen 1.1. Begriff und AbgrenzungDer aus dem lat. pietas (›Frömmigkeit‹) abgeleitete Begriff P. setzte sich seit der sog. Leipziger Bewegung um August Hermann Francke (1689/90) zur Bezeichnung der bedeutendsten religiösen Reformbewegung innerhalb des kontinentaleurop. Protestantismus nach der Reformation durch. Unter Aufnahme v. a. vorreformatorischer und radikaler Einflüsse des 16. und 17. Jh.s (Täufer; Spiritualisten) zielte der P. auf eine Weiterführung der Reformation der Lehre durch eine ›Reformation des Lebens‹.Trotz unterschiedlicher kon…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pfarramt

(1,951 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. Begriff und geschichtliche Entwicklung bis zum 15. Jh.P. bezeichnet zum einen das Amt des Pfarrers, zum anderen das Pfarrhaus als Verwaltungszentrum einer Pfarrei, die entweder die Gläubigen eines bestimmten Bezirks (Territorialgemeinde) oder einer bestimmten Gruppe (Personalgemeinde) umfasst (zur Etymologie der dt. Worte Pfarrei und Pfarrer vgl. [4. 153]).Die christl. Gemeinden der Antike, deren Territorium mit dem einer Stadt identisch war, wurden von einem Bischof unter Mithilfe weiterer Kleriker geleitet. Als das Christentum sich auch…
Date: 2019-11-19

Seelsorge

(3,694 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. EinleitungS. bezeichnet den Beistand kirchlicher Amtspersonen (Seelsorger) für Einzelne und Gruppen von Gläubigen in Fragen des Glaubens und der relig. Lebensgestaltung. In der Regula pastoralis (»Pastoralregel«, um 590) Papst Gregors I., der bis in die Nz. maßgeblichen S.-Anleitung, werden dafür die Begriffe cura pastoralis (lat.; »Hirtensorge«; davon engl. pastoral care, franz. la pastorale) und regimen animarum (»Seelenleitung«) verwendet. Das wörtliche lat. Äquivalent von S., cura animarum, begegnet erst im FrühMA und bestimmte von da an den kirchl. Spr…
Date: 2019-11-19

Pastoral care

(3,956 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Möller, Christian | Schneider, Johann
1. IntroductionPastoral care refers to the assistance church officials (pastors) provide for individuals and groups of the faithful in questions of faith and the religious conduct of life. The  Regula pastoralis (“Pastoral Rule,” c. 590) of Pope Gregory I, the normative guide to pastoral care well into the early modern period, uses the Latin terms  cura pastoralis (“pastoral care,” French  la pastorale) and regimen animarum (“guidance of souls”). The literal Latin equivalent of German Seelsorgecura animarum (“care/cure of souls”), does not occur until the earl…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pastorate

(2,146 words)

Author(s): Walter, Peter | Weyel, Birgit | Oswalt, Julia | Schneider, Johann
1. To the 15th centuryThe term “pastorate” in English refers to the office of pastor, but the German term Pfarramt encompasses in a kind of personal union both the pastorate and the  rectory or parish house as the administrative center of a parish, which comprises either the faithful within a specific area (territorial parish) or belonging to a specific group (personal parish). (On the etymology of the German words  Pfarrei, “parish,” and  Pfarrer, “pastor,” see [4. 153]).The Christian parish (Congregation) of Roman late antiquity, whose territory was coextens…
Date: 2020-10-06

Pietism

(2,996 words)

Author(s): Breul, Wolfgang | Waczkat, Andreas | Schneider, Johann
1. Protestant churches 1.1. TerminologyThe term Pietism, from Latin  pietas (piety), came into use after the so-called Leipzig movement spearheaded by August Hermann Francke (1689/1690); it denoted the most significant religious reform movement within continental Protestantism after the Reformation. Adopting primarily pre-Reformation and radical 16th- and 17th-century ideas (Anabaptists; Spiritualism [Protestantism]), Pietism aimed to complement the reformation of doctrine with a “reformation of life.”Despite confessional, regional, and individual variati…
Date: 2020-10-06

Exarch,

(165 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Greek ἔξαρχος, leader, was originally a military rank (officer) in the Roman Empire. In the time of Justinian I, the exarch commanded a major, exposed army unit. From the 6th century onward, exarchs in the western Byzantine Empire were the military-administrative governors of a region called an exarchate (Ravenna…

Ordination and Post-Ordination Education and Training

(5,505 words)

Author(s): Bauer, Karl-Adolf | Rau, Stefan | Schneider, Johann | Pobee, John
[German Version] I. Early Church and Middle Ages – II. Protestantism (Germany) – III. Roman Catholic Church after Trent – IV. Orthodox Church – V. Non-Catholic Churches outside Germany I. Early Church and Middle Ages The New Testament contains scattered statements about the personal qualifications required of someone holding ministerial office in the church (e.g. 1 Tim 3:2–13; Tit 1:6–9) but says nothing about their training. Since the gospel implies understanding and address persons, the question of the theological education and…

Piety

(3,477 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Sparn, Walter | Koch, Traugott | Seiferlein, Alfred | Weismayer, Josef | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Piety (recently often also “spirituality”) is understood, first, as the forms of expression of lived religiosity; research in this area is particularly the subject of folklore studies and church history for the idividual, secondly, piety has to do with particular qualities of feeling, such as reverence, with which the psychology of religion (Gruehn, Sundén) is concerned. Objective and subjective components are combined in various ways in the historical developme…

Archimandrite

(120 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] from the Greek ἀρχιμανδρίτης, literally, leader of a flock, is translated from the Syriac Riš-dayra. Originally (4th cent.) a designation for the abbot of a Syrian monastery, the Greek term Archimandrite spread throughout the entire Christian East. From the 6th century, the Archimandrite was the leader of an important monastery, and from the 11th…

Saguna, Andrei

(185 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (baptized Anastasiu; Jan 1, 1809, Miskolc – Jun 28, 1873, Sibiu/Herrmanstadt). Saguna, born to an Aromanian merchant family, studied law and philosophy in Pest and attended the Serbian Orthodox seminary in Vršac. A monk since 1833, he was ordained priest in 1837 and consecrated bishop of the Orthodox Romanians in Transylvania in 1848 in Sremski Karlovci. In 1864 he became the first archbishop of the autonomous Romanian Orthodox metropolitanate in Hungary. He created an independent…

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Romania

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. General 1. State. The name of the state of Romania (România) is derived from (Daco-)Romanian, which because of its Latin origin belongs to the Romance branch of languages. The modern state of Romania, with its capital Bucharest (Bucureşti), arose after 1859 to the north of the Danube through successive unification and secession of six relatively independent provinces inhabited by a majority of Romanians and by other ethnic groups. The principalities of Moldova and Wallachia, united…

Peasants, Liberation of

(954 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] I. General Peasant liberation is a collective term for a variety of measures taken between 1777 and 1817 to break up the traditional lifelong bonds of seigniory and serfdom; they gave the peasants personal freedom, eliminating socage and domestic service, abolishing the hereditary subserviency that tied the peasant to the land and transforming a portion of the estate cultivated under feudal tenancy into the private property of the peasants. At the same ¶ time, these measures freed the lord of the estate from his obligation to protect the formerly subservient peasants. I…

Akathistos Hymn

(200 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] , Gk ʾΑκάθιστος ῞Υμνος, “not sitting,” i.e. a song of praise and thanksgiving to the mother of God, sung standing, that lauds the mystery of the incarnation of God. The original Akathistos Hymn contained a proemium and 24 alphabetical strophes that ended alternately with the refrain χαῖρε, νύμφη ἀνὐμφευτε ( chaire, nýmphē anýmpheute) or ʾΑλληλούϊα ( Allēlouia). The Akathistos Hymn was apparently composed anonymously in the 5th/6th or 7th century in the Christian East as a kontakio…

Clergy and Laity

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Neuner, Peter | Schneider, Johann | Winkler, Eberhard | Guder, Darrell | Denis, Philippe | Et al.
[German Version] I. European Christian Churches – II. Churches Worldwide – III. Islam I. European Christian Churches 1. Catholic Church A division of the church into clergy and laity does not coincide with New Testament evidence. The designation “laity” derives from laikós, the adjective form of λαός/ laós, “people.” In the Septuagint (LXX), this term describes the people of Israel in contrast to the (pagan) nations. In all important passages in the NT, it describes the people of God consisting of believers and dis…

Cross, Exaltation of the

(359 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (also Triumph of the Cross). The liturgical observance of the Exaltation of the Cross, still celebrated in the Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic Church on Sep 14, goes back to the veneration of the relics (II, 3) of the cross after the “finding ¶ of the true cross” ( inventio verae crucis) at Calvary in the 4th century. The Itinerarium of the pilgrim Egeria (c. 384) describes an annual feast on Sep 14 in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre (Anastasis), commemorating the finding and exaltation of the cross at Golgotha. In the l…

Subdeacon

(136 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] (Gk ὑποδιάκοvος). In the liturgical hierarchy (II, 2) of the Orthodox Church, the subdeacon stands in fourth place: in first place stands the bishop (III, 2); then follow priest/presbyter (Priesthood: III, 2), deacon (VII), subdeacon ( Ipodiakon), reader, psalm singer, baptized laypersons, and, finally, catechumens. The subdeacon assists the bishop serving at the altar in a particular manner. He receives the Eucharist (Communion: III, 3), as do baptized laypersons, before the iconostasis (wall of images). In the worship service today, the subdeacon wears the stoi…

Clothing and Vestments

(3,745 words)

Author(s): Berlejung, Angelika | Köpf, Ulrich | Allen Jr., Horrace T. | Schneider, Johann | Miletto, Gianfranco
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Christianity – III. Judaism I. Religious Studies 1. General Clothing fulfills the need for ornamentation and presentation, protection against the weather, and, in certain cases, magic. Appearance and materials follow climatic conditions, economic and technical capabilities (sewing, weaving, etc.), social or fashion conventions, and can be specified according to function (professional attire) or situation (festal attire). Clothing increases the complexity of the optical appearance of its ¶ wearer. It visualizes and makes m…

Walachia

(387 words)

Author(s): Schneider, Johann
[German Version] Walachia, region in southern Romania divided by the Olt into Greater Walachia (Muntenia) and Lesser Walachia (Oltenia). An extension of the Eurasian Steppe, until well into the modern era Walachia was settled by various steppe peoples. In the context of the Danube Bulgarian Empire (Bulgaria), historical sources also mention Orthodox Vlachs/Walachians (Romanians) in Walachia, canonically under Ochrid or Târnovo. In the 12th century, pagan Cumans ruled Walachia; they were evangelize…
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