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Ibn Abī Zamanayn

(175 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿĪsā al-Murrī , Andalusian poet and particularly jurist, born at Elvira in 324/936, died in the same town in 399/1009. The few verses of his which we have are of a somewhat religious nature and show a rather pessimistic attitude and a leaning to asceticism which is expressed in his Ḥayāt al-ḳulūb . However, he is principally known as an independent Mālikī jurist and author of several works, in particular a commentary on the Muwaṭṭaʾ of Mālik, a summary of Saḥnūn’s Mudawwana , a Kitāb Aḥwāl al-sunna and a formulary which has …

Yazīd b. Zurayʿ

(93 words)

Author(s): Ed,
, Abū Muʿāwiya al-Baṣrī, traditionist of Baṣra, b. 101/720 and d. in Baṣra S̲h̲awwāl 182/Nov.-Dec. 798. His father had been governor of al-Ubulla [ q.v.], presumably under the later Umayyads. He is described as the outstanding muḥaddit̲h̲ of Baṣra in his time, a t̲h̲iḳa and ḥud̲j̲d̲j̲a , and was the teacher of the historian and biographer K̲h̲alīfa b. K̲h̲ayyāṭ [see ibn k̲h̲ayyāṭ ]. Ibn Saʿd says that Yazīd was a supporter of the ʿUt̲h̲māniyya [ q.v.]. (Ed.) Bibliography Ibn Saʿd, vii/2, 44 Ibn Ḥad̲j̲ar, Tahd̲h̲īb, xi, 325-8 Ziriklī, Aʿlām2, ix, 235.

Ibn G̲h̲ānim

(222 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, ʿIzz al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Salām b. Aḥmad b. G̲h̲ānim al-Maḳdisī al-Wāʿiẓ , author of works on mysticism or edification, of whose life little is known. He is said to have died in 678/1279. The best-known of his works is the Kas̲h̲f al-asrār , ʿan ( al-) ḥikam ( al-mūdaʿa fī ) al-ṭuyūr wa ’l-azhār , published and translated by Garcin de Tassy, Les oiseaux et les fleurs, Paris 1821 (tr. reprinted in 1876 in Allégories , récits poétiques , etc.; German tr. Peiper, Stimmen aus dem Morgenlande , Hirschberg 1850; lith. text, Cairo 1275, 1280; Būlāḳ ed. 1270, 1290; Cairo…


(192 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.), literally “chain”, a term used in the terminology of Ṣūfism and the Ṣūfī orders ( ṭuruḳ ) for a continuous chain of spiritual descent, a kind of mystical isnād [ q.v.]. This connected the head of an order, the s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ or pīr , with a person regarded as the order’s founder and back to the Prophet. These ¶ persons might stem from early Islam, such as the Yemeni contemporary of the Prophet, Uways al-Ḳaranī (actually, not initiated directiy but after the Prophet’s death, in a dream), and the Patriarchal Caliphs, especially Abū Bakr, ʿUmar and ʿAlī…


(157 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Mahdī al-Iṣfahānī al-Ṭabarī , rāwī of the 3rd/9th century who was also a poet and man of letters. He was the teacher of Hārūn, the son of ʿAlī b. ʿAlī b. Yaḥyā al-Munad̲j̲d̲j̲im, and transmitted historical and literary traditions, and especially on the authority of al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ. He was in contact with Badr al-Muʿtaḍidī [ q.v. in Suppl.] and exchanged verses with Ibn al-Muʿtazz. His knowledge of adab led him to compose several works, amongst which are cited a Kitāb al-K̲h̲iṣāl , a collection of literary traditions, maxims, proverbs and poetry, a K. al-Aʿyād wa ’l-nawāriz

Meḥmed ʿAṭāʾ Bey

(121 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (1856-1919), Ottoman scholar, journalist, and public official. After the revolution of 1908 he became a member of the Financial Reform Committee and was for one week Minister of Finance. He published many articles in journals and periodicals, under the names of Mefk̲h̲ari and ʿAtāʾ, and also produced a literary anthology called Iḳtiṭāf , which was extensively used as a school text-book. His most important undertaking was the Turkish translation of Hammer’s History of the Ottoman Empire. This version, based on the French tra…


(160 words)

Author(s): Ed.
or Tilang , a region of the mediaeval Deccan, i.e. South India. The name comes from telingā , trilingā , referring to the three lingams of Śīva, the region being noted in ancient India for three famous temples there dedicated to the godhead. It lay in the northeastern part of what later became Ḥaydarābād State and the adjacent part of Madras, extending to the shores of the Bay of Bengal and bounded on the northeast by the Godivari river, beyond which lay the other Hindu kingdoms of Kalinga and Orissa. Telingāna figures frequently in accounts of the K̲h̲ald̲j̲ī and then Tug̲h̲luḳī Dih…


(953 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) or Farwa (pl. firāʾ ), ‘a fur; a garment made of, or trimmed with, fur.’ Although farwa can mean also a cloak of camel-hair, it is likely that when this term is encountered in ancient poetry it refers to sheepskins with the wool left on (what in Morocco are called haydūra ), used as carpets, to cover seats, or for protection against the cold; the farwa which Abū Bakr had with him and which he spread on the ground in the cave for the Prophet to rest on (al-Buk̲h̲ārī, v, 82) was presumably a sheepskin. The wearing of costly furs was introduced only after th…


(139 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(t., from Persian pand̲j̲a “palm of the hand”), a term of Ottoman Turkish diplomatic. It was a mark, somewhat resembling an open hand and extended fingers, affixed (on either of the left- or right-hand margins or at the foot of the scroll) to documents, such as fermāns [see farmān ] and buyuruldus [ q.v.], issued from the Ottoman chancery by higher officials such as viziers, beglerbegs and sand̲j̲aḳ begs . (Ed.) Bibliography F. Kraelitz-Greifenhorst, Studien zur osmanische Urkundenlehre. 1. Die Handfeste ( Penče) der osmanischen Wesire, in MOG, ii (1923-6), 257 ff. İ.H. Uzunçarşili, Tuğr…


(256 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Bakr Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ b. ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz , the preferred disciple of Ahmad b. Ḥanbal [ q.v.], who, it is said, appreciated al-Marwazī’s piety and virtues. His mother was originally from Marw al-Rūd̲h̲. whence his nisba , whilst his father was a K̲h̲wārazmian. Hardly any of the events of his life are known, in as much as he seems to have lived within his master’s shadow, although he is depicted as once setting out on an expedition in the midst of a crowd of admirers. The biographical notices devoted to him stress Abū Bakr al-Marwazī’s role in the transmission of ḥadīt̲h̲s…


(25 words)

Author(s): Ed.
[see d̲j̲ināḥ ]. The name, commonly believed to be from Arabic d̲j̲anāḥ , is in fact from jheeṇā , Gujerati for “thin”. (Ed.)

Ibn ʿAzzūz, called Sīdī Ballā

(262 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd Allāh al-Ḳuras̲h̲i al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī al-Marrākus̲h̲ī , a cobbler of Marrakesh to whom thaumaturgic gifts were attributed and who died in an odour of sanctity in 1204/1789. His tomb, situated in his own residence at Bāb Aylān, has been continuously visited because of its reputation of curing the sick. Although he had not received a very advanced education, Ibn ʿAzzūz nevertheless succeeded in leaving behind an abundant body of works, dealing mainly with mysticism a…


(1,261 words)

Author(s): Ed.
(a.) “knowledge”, the opposite of d̲j̲ahl “ignorance”, is connected, on the one hand, with ḥilm [ q.v.], and on the other hand with a number of terms a more precise definition of which will be found in the relevant articles: maʿrifa , fiḳh , ḥikma , s̲h̲uʿūr ; the most frequent correlative of ʿilm is however maʿrifa. The verb ʿalima is used in the Ḳurʾān both in the perfect and in the imperfect, and also in the imperative, with the meaning of “to know”, but in the imperative and in the perfect it seems often to mean basically “to learn” (without effort, the fifth form taʿallama

Raʾs (al-) Tannūra

(161 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, a cape in eastern Saudi Arabia on the Persian Gulf, in lat. 26° 40ʹ N., 50° 13ʹ E., north of al-Ḳaṭīf [ q.v.]. The word tannūr occurs in Kurʾān, XI, 42, and XXIII, 27, in the story of Noah, meaning “oven”. It also indicates any place from which water pours forth (Lane, Lexicon , s.v.). In July 1933 King ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz gave the concession for drilling oil in the eastern part of Saudi Arabia to the Standard Oil Company of California. The first consignment of Saudi oil was sent away from Raʾs Tannūra in 1939. Its refinery is connected by a pipeline with the Dammām field, about 60 km/37 miles away. (Ed.) Bibl…


(348 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, (i) name of a Kurdish tiibe, who from ancient times have inhabited the practically inaccessible mountain districts south and east of Lake Van, a region called after them Hakkāriyya by Arab geographers and historians [see kurds ], and hence (2) the name of the extreme south-east vilâyet of the modern Turkish republic (modern name: Hakkâri), population (1960) 67,766 (the most sparsely populated area of Turkey, with a density of only 7 persons per sq. km.); the chief town is Čölemerik [ q.v.]. Named by Yāḳūt ( Muʿd̲j̲am , s.v.) as a town, district and some vill…

Ibn Zurʿa

(643 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abū ʿAlī ʿĪsā b. Isḥāḳ b. Zurʿa , Jacobite Christian philosopher, apologist and translator, born at Bag̲h̲dād in D̲h̲u ’l-Ḥid̲j̲d̲j̲a 331/August 943, d. on 6 S̲h̲aʿbān 398/16 April 1008 (the respective dates of 371/981 and 448/1056 given by Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa should not be accepted, since Ibn Zurʿa is mentioned by Ibn al-Nadīm (circa 377/987), and Ibn Abī Uṣaybiʿa himself speaks of his relations with Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī, d. 364/975). He studied literature, physics, mathematics and then philosophy under the direction of Yaḥyā b. ʿAdī [ q.v.]; he seems also to have studied medicine, since…

Iskandar Ag̲h̲a

(309 words)

Author(s): Ed.
b. Yaʿḳūb b. Abkār , an Armenian of Beirut, better known by the name abkaryus (d. 1885). Becoming devoted to the study of Arabic literature, he endeavoured to provide his readers with anthologies based upon works still unpublished and thereby rendered great service to orientalism in the 19th century. His best known work is the Nihāyat al-arab fī ak̲h̲bār al-ʿArab (Marseilies 1852; revised ed. under the title Tazyīn Nihāyat al-arab , Beirut 1867). In Beirut he also edited (1864, 1881) the Dīwān of ʿAntara ( Munyat al-nafs fī as̲h̲ʿār ʿAntar ʿAbs ), and published in the same town Rawḍat al-ada…

Ibn al-S̲h̲ad̲j̲arī al-Bag̲h̲dādī

(250 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, Abu ’l-Saʿādāt Hibat Allāh b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Ḥamza , a descendant of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib (he is thus called al-S̲h̲arīf al-Ḥasanī al-ʿAlawī), was a grammarian and poet of Bag̲h̲dād, born in Ramaḍān 450/November 1058. After making the traditional studies under the direction of numerous teachers (see how, at the end of his Nuzha , Ibn al-Anbārī [ q.v.], who was his pupil, traced back his grammatical knowledge to ʿAlī through an unbroken line of teachers), he taught grammar for 70 years. At the same time he was nāʾib of the naḳīb [ q.v.] of the Ṭālibīs in al-Kark̲h̲, where he lived. He d…

Aḥmed Ḥilmī

(94 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, known as S̲h̲ehbenderzāde, a Turkish journalist who first achieved prominence after the revolution of 1908, when he returned to ¶ Istanbul from exile in Fezzan, and started a periodical called Ittiḥād-i Islām . He also contributed to Iḳdām , Taṣwīr-i Efkār , and, later, the weekly Ḥikmet [see d̲j̲arīda , iii], and wrote a considerable number of books, some of which were published. These include a history of Islam and books on the Sanūsī order and on Ibrahim Güls̲h̲anī [ qq.v.]. He died in 1913. (Ed.) Bibliography Babinger, 397 ʿOt̲h̲mānli̊ müʾellifleri, ii, 156-7.


(349 words)

Author(s): Ed.
, the name by which the Arab historians designated the town of Narbonne. Reached by the early Muslim expeditions, it was taken in 96/715 under ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Mūsā b. Nuṣayr, was probably then lost or abandoned, and was retaken in 100/719 by al-Samḥ b. Mālik al-Ḵh̲awlānī. In 116/734, two years after the battle of Poitiers [see balāṭ al-s̲h̲uhadāʾ], the Duke of Provence concluded a treaty with the governor of Narbonne, Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān, whereby the latter was allowed to occupy a certain number of places in the valley of the Rhône, in order to pr…
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