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(4,609 words)

Author(s): Clemens, Lukas
Clemens, Lukas [German version] A. Townscapes in Late Antiquity (CT) Beginning in the second half of the 3rd cent., the ancient town in the western Roman Empire underwent a change in structure, primarily as a reaction to military threats by external enemies, but also to internal political conflicts. Alongside public monumental structures - such as fora, baths, water supply facilities, theatres and cult buildings - military architecture characterized the new appearance of urban centres in many places. Fortifications - in part built on foundations ma…


(9,982 words)

Author(s): Clemens, Lukas | Kuhnen, Hans-Peter (Trier) | Kreikenbom, Detlev (Mainz RWG)
Clemens, Lukas [German version] I. Post Antiquity (CT) Clemens, Lukas [German version] A. History (CT) After the loss of its function as a (Roman) Imperial residence and the removal of the praetorian prefecture to Arles, Trier (T.) was under permanent military threat. It has been established that the city was taken four times by Frankish (and Burgundian) forces, and retaken each time, all in the first half of the 5th cent. alone. The city also seems to have been affected by the Hunnish expedition into Gaul in …


(13,779 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Clemens, Lukas | Faveri, Lorena De | Gastgeber, Christian | Klopsch, Paul
Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) I. Material Remains (CT) A. General (CT) [German version] 1. Introduction (CT) The present article offers a survey of the ways in which material remains from the ancient world have been transmitted to the modern age. Not included are the active acquisition of antiquities for display or their representation in art museums, or the systematic post-Classical acquisition of remains for research purposes (cf. Antiquarianism; Antiquities, collections of; Classical Archaeology;  Art works, acquisition of/ Art theft; Museum). Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) …