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Loci communes

(2,319 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Andreas (Jena) | Fuchs, Thorsten
Fuchs, Andreas (Jena) [German version] A. Introduction (CT) In the ancient world, loci or topoi were used in dialectical and rhetorical reasoning in order to ascertain suitable arguments and thus to attain the goal of the argumentation (Cicero defines loci as argumenti sedes, the seats of an argument, that is, places where it can be found; Cic. Top. 2, 8). Topoi, which in Aristotle were at first defined as methods and forms, were increasingly also set by content [27. 234-237]. They could then also, as in Cicero and the Rhetorica ad Herennium, be used for amplification, for deliberati…


(3,413 words)

Author(s): Fuchs, Andreas (Jena) | Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Le Bohec, Yann (Lyon)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. General The multitude of countries and cultures in the Middle East and Egypt during the period from the 3rd to the 1st millennium BC, each with their own very individual set of conditions, is matched by the variety of their armies in terms of recruitment processes, composition, organization, fighting methods and size. Fuchs, Andreas (Jena) [German version] B. Reference sources The Ancient Orient did not produce any literature on the subject of military theory. Narrative sources are restricted to praising the ruler and his …