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(401 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] An Etruscan city lying c. 30 km south of modern Bologna on the Pian di Misano plateau above the River Reno in the northern foothills of the Emilian Apennines. Italian excavations since the 19th cent. have uncovered large parts of the city and an acropolis on the hill Misanello to the west. The city, which was constructed in the last quarter of the 6th cent. BC in an orthogonal compass-aligned layout (cf. site map), was in its earlier mid-6th century settlement only a small collection …


(185 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] (modern San Giuliano). Etruscan settlement near Barbarano Romano (south of Viterbo) on a tuff plateau at the confluence of two streams. Apart from an inscription of an Estruscan sherd, mediaeval geographers pass down the name of M. (or Marturanum). This agrarian centre, which existed from the 8th to the 3rd cent. BC, flourished during the 6th cent. Its second blooming came in the Hellenistic period. The precipices opposite the town of San Giuliano contain rock graves with chambers…


(131 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] In the vicinity of the modern town of B. were several small Etruscan settlements, e.g. on the hill of Pianmiano 2 km to the north-east, and Piano della Colonna 3 km to the north-west, and on Monte Casoli; possibly the ancient Maeonia or Pneonia. The settlement of the region is limited to the period from the Archaic to the early Hellenistic; only Pianmiano was still settled into the 6th cent. AD. The necropoleis were robbed in the 19th cent. The Parco dei Mostri with its rock statues , established in the Renaissance, displays many pointers to ancient influence. Miller, Martin (…


(329 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Villanova Culture Little more than its dimensions is known about the Etruscan-Campanian settlement on a plain rising slightly above the Piana del Sele near the present-day site of P. (10 km south of Salerno) of c. 85 hectares. Only two shrines have been excavated in the western quarter along with some workshops (ovens of brickworks from the 6th and 5th cents. BC and a dye works) in the eastern. The large necropoleis southwest and east of the ancient settlement have been systemat…

Castel di Decima

(188 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval fortress 18 km south of Rome on the via Laurentina. On the hill of the castle there is a settlement from the 8th-6th cents. BC with a large necropolis from which since 1971 c. 350 tombs have been systematically examined. The settlement was protected by two watercourses, the third side was fortified in the 8th cent. BC by an embankment to which a wall made of large regular tuff blocks was bonded at the end of the 7th cent. In the 6th cent. BC a large fortification wall made of regular tuff stone blocks in …

Ghiaccio Forte

(125 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] In antiquity the Etruscan settlement situated on a hill that was flat on top and fell away steeply on the edges, 14 km south-east of Scansano, probably belonged to the area of influence of Vulci. In the 6th cent. BC there was a rural sanctuary here. A settlement can only be proven for the late 4th and early 3rd cents. BC. The settlement that was fortified by a surrounding wall made of large blocks with rough stone filling was violently destroyed in about 280 BC. American excavatio…

Murlo/Poggio Civitate

(309 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria From 1966 on, American excavations have been uncovering a large Etruscan building complex on the Poggio Civitate hill near Vescovado di Murlo, 18 km south-east of Siena. Two different construction phases have been identified. The first building, dating from around 650 BC, was destroyed by fire in the last quarter of the 7th cent. The later, almost square-shaped structure, about 60 m in length, consists of four wings,…

San Giovenale

(213 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Swedish excavations, 1956-1967, uncovered large sections of an Etruscan settlement on a high plateau at the confluence of two water courses in the northeastern foothills of the Tolfa Mountains. The floor plans of houses from three settlement phases are important for the study of the architecture of archaic Etruscan houses (cf. House [II C]): a late Bronze Age hut settlement with timber-framed buildings smaller than the long houses in Luni sul Mignone was located under the courtyar…

Rossano di Vaglio

(170 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Lucanian sanctuary of the Oscan goddess Mefitis Utiana in the mountains above Vaglio Basilicata has been systematically excavated since 1969. Several buildings of sandstone and limestone blocks, belonging to two phases, are grouped around a 27 × 21 m paved courtyard. The centre is formed by an elongated altar along the southern side. A large votive pit with Oscan/Lucanian inscriptions (in the Greek alphabet), chariot wheels, marble statues, terracottas, thymiateria, bronze fibulae and coins shows that the cult there was continually alive from t…

Marsiliana d'Albegna

(166 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Of the Etruscan settlement (possibly Caletra in antiquity) on the confluence of Albegna and Elsa in the Maremma/south Etruria only the necropoleis are known, and they provide evidence for a significant agrarian centre in the late 8th to 6th cents. BC. Earliest phase: pozzetto graves dating from the late Villanovan period for cremations and fossa graves for inhumations. Later fossa graves were placed within a stone circle made of …

Castel d'Asso

(184 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] Medieval fortress west of Viterbo on the site of the Roman Castellum Axia (Cic. Caecin. 7,20), situated on a tuff plateau that falls away steeply to water courses to the west, north and south. The tuff spur is protected from the hinterland by three ditches. In archaic times, the settlement stretched as far as the eastern ditch, but in the Hellenistic period it was situated only on the western part of the spur. On the steep slopes on the north opposite the medieval castle there is …

Luni sul Mignone

(226 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Place of settlement in early history in the northern foothills of the Tolfa mountains c. 80 km northwest of Rome. On a 560 by 150 metre tuff plateau with steeply dropping edges bounded in the north and south by valleys. Swedish excavations (1960-1963) were able to reveal three phases of settlement. The Bronze Age settlement (14th-11th cents. BC) belongs to the Apennine culture. In three adjacent long houses, fragments of Mycenaean ceramics wer…


(230 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria The Etruscan settlement lay on a high plateau at the confluence of two watercourses south-west of Viterbo. A late Bronze Age settlement (2nd half of 2nd millenium BC) was followed initially by a hiatus lasting into the 6th cent. BC. N. experienced a cultural peak in the late Etruscan period, when the Tarquinii expanded into the interior of Etruria in the mid-4th cent. The plateau was 10.5 ha in size; it was fortified…


(183 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria The now almost entirely abandoned episcopal city of S. near Pitigliano, to the west of Lake Bolsena, was called Suana in the Roman period. Like the Etruscan settlement which belongs to Volci/Vulci territory, it lies on a steep-sided tuff outcrop at the confluence of two water courses. Excavations by the University of Pisa and surveys by the Tuscan Monument Authority have mainly studied the necropoleis. Two periods of prosperity h…


(173 words)

Author(s): Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Port in Gedrosia (Μουσάρνα; Mousárna). Port in Gedrosia, visited by Nearchus [2] (Arr. Ind. 26,10-27,2). He found a pilot here who was able to guide the fleet as far as Carmania. According to Ptol. Geog. 6,8,9, M. was the easternmost settlement of Carmania, west of the Gedrosian frontier. Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) [German version] [2] Settlement at Viterbo The civitas of M. is generally identified with a small, late Etruscan settlement discovered in 1849 on the Poggio della Civita, 10 km west of Viterbo. French excavations undertake…


(206 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan settlement to the south of the later Roman colony  Ferentium. A. is situated on a high altitude plateau of 32 hectares with steep drops along its edges to water courses at lower levels. The easy access from the south was secured with defensive moats. Swedish excavations since 1966 discovered that A. was flourishing from the late 7th cent. until its violent destruction in c. 500 BC. At the edge of the settled area, smaller, two- to three-roomed rectangular houses were located in an ar…

Heba (Magliano)

(157 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria The Roman colony H., established in the 3rd or 2nd cent. BC, lay on a hill south-east of Magliano. The equation with the H. mentioned by Ptol. 3,1,43 and Plin. HN 3,52 is confirmed on the basis of an inscription on a  cippus. A previous Etruscan settlement is assumed only because of necropoleis which are documented from the late 7th cent. BC and were esp. wealthy in the 6th cent. A lead plate of the 5th-4th cents. BC found in the ar…

Poggio Buco

(180 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Etruscan settlement of PB near Pitigliano (Prov. Grasseto, Italy) is most often identified with the Statonia (Etruscan Statne) mentioned in Str. 5,2,9 [1; 2]. The latter, however, is also located in the Monti Cimini west of Viterbo [4]. Of the ancient settlement on the rock plateau Le Sparne only minimal remains of the surrounding wall and a temple area remain. The necropolis, excavated since 1897, has rock chamber graves dating to the 7th and 6th cent. BC as well as to the 3rd and 1st. The site was not settled continuously. The finds (ceramics and terracotta, i.a.) of th…


(132 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The small Etruscan settlement of S. was on the Colle di San Lorenzo in Viterbo near the papal palace and the cathedral which is separated by a passage from an adjacent hill which was also built over by mediaeval Viterbo. Parts of the encircling wall and the sewerage system are still visible. Of the Roman municipium of Surrina Nova, on a hill between Viterbo and Lake Bullicame, there are only limited remains. Finds from the surrounding area, e.g. from Acquarossa, Blera, Ferentis, Ferentium, Manturanum, Musarna [2], Norchia and San Giov…


(221 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Umbri, Umbria | Coloniae | Regio, regiones A small town, nowadays insignificant, on the River Albegna in the hinterland of Volci/Vulci. According to Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 1,20 and Plin. HN 3,52, S. was called Aurinia in the Etruscan Period; with the institution of a Roman military prefecture after 280 BC its name was changed to S. In the 6th cent. BC, after the decline of Marsiliana d'Albegna (perhaps Caletra), the agrarian se…


(2,871 words)

Author(s): Burckhardt, Leonhard (Basle) | Miller, Martin (Berlin) | Blech, Michael (Madrid) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[German version] I. Greece After the massive Mycenaean fortified palaces had been abandoned, several centuries passed before larger fortifications were again built in Greece. During the Geometric Period fortification construction in the motherland remained modest. Simple structures were built that left few if any remains, and the ruins of Mycenaean fortifications sufficed for protection requirements. However, citadels (acropoleis), peninsulas, and other topographically suitable locations were fortif…


(266 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] A Samnite federal sanctuary which may possibly be equated with Bovianum Vetus lay near the village of P. (in the province of Isernia). Numerous dedications of weapons dating from the late 5th cent. BC up to the Samnite Wars in the early 3rd suggest that a god, no longer identifiable, here received a tithe of the booty of war. Shortly after the mid 3rd cent., an Ionic temple replaced the first square, walled enclosure from the 4th cent; the temple was violently destroyed at the end…


(210 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] The Faliscan settlement of N. lay on three steep-sided tufa plateaux, 9 km south of Cività Castellana. The three plateaux (Narce, Monte li Santi and Pizzo Piede) successively formed the centres of the settlement. Evidence has been found of late archaic temples on the Pizzo Piede and west of the Monte li Santi; a large flight of steps and a rock throne south of the Monte li Santi also belonged to a sanctuary. The rich necropoleis attest to the importance of the site from the 14th c…


(156 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria At the northern town exit lies a large Etruscan grave tumulus (so-called Monte Calvario; diameter 53m; height 40 m) with chambers facing the four points of the compass. The south and west tombs have rectangular burial chambers, dromos and two dromos cells, the central burial chamber is missing in the east tomb, whilst the dromos cells are missing in the north tomb. All the tombs are built of limestone slabs corbelled to the ceili…

Blera, Bieda

(225 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Etrusci, Etruria Etruscan city near Tarquinii, in the hills of tufa rock between Ricanale (in the north) and Biedano (in the south); now Blera (Bieda in the Middle Ages; in the province of Viterbo). Roman municipium of the tribus Arnensis, Augustales (CIL XI p. 507). Stopping-place on the via Clodia with the bridges della Rocca and del Diavolo. Necropolis of tumuli and burial mounds from the 7th cent. BC. Heyday in the 6th and 5th cents. BC. Ancient Bieda is situated on a narrow, high plateau with s…

Castellina del Marangone

(174 words)

Author(s): Miller, Martin (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Etrusci, Etruria Small settlement close to the coast on a hill above the mouth of the river Marangone between  Tarquinia and  Caere; the walled settlement was continuously settled from the late Bronze Age to 1st cent. BC. A few remnants of the buildings have been excavated or are visible in the terrain. Sprawling necropolises to the coast; shrines outside the town on the coast at Punta della Vipera and at the mouth of the Marangone. Since the 6th…
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