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Chariclides

(55 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of comedies in the 3rd cent. BC (cf. the not entirely compelling epigraphical evidence [1. test.]), of which the sole surviving fragment consists of a -- textually uncertain -- invocation of Hecate in versus paroemiaci (from Halysis, ‘The Chain, ‘The Magical Bond?). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 70f.

Phrynichus

(1,156 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne)
(Φρύνιχος/ Phrýnichos). [German version] [1] P. from Athens Tragedian, around 500 BC Tragedian. According to Suda φ 762 (TrGF I 3 T 1) he achieved his first victory in 511/508 BC and died on Sicily (T 6). He is said to have been the first person to bring female roles to the stage and to have 'invented' the trochaic tetrameter (T 1), which probably means that he introduced the metre into the tragic genre. He was famous on account of the quality ('sweetness') of his sung parts (Aristoph. Vesp. 219), whose len…

Epilycus [2]

(212 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin)
(Ἐπίλυκος; Epílykos). [German version] Epilycus Writer of comedies Comedy writer, whose surviving work consists of the title of one play (Κωραλίσκος; Kōralískos, The little lad from Crete? cf. Phot. p. 198,15) and of nine fragments; fr. 3 (remnants of catalectic anapaestic tetrameters) and fr. 4 (catalectic anapaestic dimeter in Doric dialect) show that he belonged to the Old Comedy (late 5th, early 4th cent. BC). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 170-173. [German version] [2] Nephew of Andocides [1], 2nd half of the 5th cent. BC The son of Teisander…

Canticum

(467 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] In the Plautus manuscripts, all scenes in a metre other than the iambic senarius were headed canticum (re exceptions see [3. 220, note]), i.e. all parts accompanied by music (cf. Plaut. Stich. 758-768: while the flute player had a break for a drink, the metre changed to the senarius). Canticum therefore also includes parts that consisted of trochaic and iambic septenarii and octonarii arranged side by side and was generally understood as recitatives (cf. however [3]); canticum in the narrower sense (described by Donat. comm. Adelph. praef. 1,7 as MMC = Mutatis Modis Ca…

Menippus

(1,763 words)

Author(s): Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Et al.
(Μένιππος; Ménippos). [German version] [1] According to Plutarch sub-commander of Pericles In Plut. Pericles 13,10 (cf. Plut Mor. 812d) mentioned as a friend and sub-commander of Pericles (probably between 443 and 430 BC). Like the latter, he was mocked in the comedies. It is uncertain if M. really was a strategos. Plutarch's term for him ( hypostratēgṓn) is the Greek equivalent of the Latin term legatus (Develin, 103). Aristoph. Av. 1294 mentions a M., whom the scholias identify as a horse dealer. Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) Bibliography PA 10033 Traill, PAA 646185 (vgl. 646190 und 646195). …

Evetes

(124 words)

Author(s): Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐέτης; Euétēs). [German version] [1] Tragedian Tragedian, whose plays were performed in Athens at the time of  Epicharmus (486/5 or 485/4 BC; cf. Suda ε 2766; see also [1.34]). A victory at the Dionysia soon after 484 is transmitted (DID A 3a, 12). Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) Bibliography 1 H. Hoffmann, Chronologie der att. Tragödie, 1951. TrGF 6. [German version] [2] Comedian Comic poet; his only transmitted play title Epíklēros (‘The Heiress’) can hardly be made to fit in chronologically with the observation in the Suda (ε 2766) that a playwright named E.…

Parasite

(615 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (παράσιτος/ parásitos; Latin parasitus). The Greek word parásitos was initially a designation for temple servants who participated in banquets in honour of the respective deity (cf. Ath. 6,234c-235e), and also for others who enjoyed official dining (Plut. Solon 24,5; cf. [7. 12]). It was Athenian comedy writers who transferred the term, perhaps before the middle of the 4th cent. BC, to stage figures who tried to obtain meals at other people's tables by all means possible (witty conversat…

Chionnes

(39 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Χιόννης; Chiónnēs). Writer of comedies, from 1st cent. BC Thebes; known only from inscriptions; he was victor at the Amphiareia and the Rhomaea in Oropus [1. test.]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 77.

Sciras

(88 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σκίρας/Skíras). Poet of 'Italic comedy' [1. test. 1] from Tarentum, who in a late record [1. test. 2] is, along with the phlyakes poet Rhinthon and the poet (of Menippian satire?) Blaesus named as a Pythagorean, which is not very credible. Of his work, only two iambic trimeters from the mythological play Μελέαγρος (Meléagros) have survived, a parody of Eur. Hipp. 75f. Hardly any clues exist regarding S.' biographical dates. He is usually associated with Rhinthon (c. 300 BC) Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 CGF 190.

Phlyakes

(281 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φλύακες; Phlýakes). According to the Hellenistic historian Sosibius Laconus (FGrH 595 F 7) the usual term in Graeca Magna for the performers of a local variety of Doric folk burlesque. In antiquity the name is usually derived from φλυαρεῖν/ phlyareîn, 'talk nonsense' (Hsch. s.v.; cf. Poll. 9,149). A derivation from φλέω/ phléō, 'teem, abound' is probably more correct. Phleon (and similar forms) is an old epithet for Dionysus as god of vegetation [2]. Since the late 19th cent. [4. 52], the P. plays have been connected with the representations of comic …

Timotheus

(2,915 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Robbins, Emmet (Toronto) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Et al.
(Τιμόθεος; Timótheos). [German version] [1] T. of Metapontum Greek physician, c. 400 BC Greek physician, fl. c. 400 BC. According to the Anonymus Londiniensis (8,8), T. believed that disease was the result of the blockage of passages through which residues would have been excreted. Residues that have risen up from the entire body are forced to remain in the head until they are transformed into a saline, acrid fluid. They then break out and cause a wide variety of disease, whose character is determined by the place or places to which they flow.. Humoral theory Nutton, Vivian (London) …

Chaerion

(51 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Writer of comedies, attested only epigraphically; he evidently once won first prize at the Attic Dionysia [1. test. *2], and also in 154 BC second place at the Great Dionysia with the play ‘The false self-accuser [1. test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 69.

Menecrates

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Μενεκράτης; Menekrátes). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 5th cent. BC Attic comic poet of the 5th cent. BC. Two titles of his plays have survived, Ἑρμιονεύς/ Hermioneús (or Ἑρμιόνη/ Hermiónē?) and Μανέκτωρ/ Manéktōr (probably ‘Manes as Hector) [1. test. 1], as well as an anapaestic tetrameter (fr. 1) from the latter. It is uncertain whether Menecrates was once victorious at the Dionysia [1. test. *2]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 1-2. [German version] [2] Tragic poet, 5th cent. BC Greek tragic poet, victor at the Great Dionysia in…

Thymoteles

(32 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θυμοτέλης; Thymotélēs). Athenian comic poet of the late 2nd cent. BC recorded only in inscriptions; nothing is known of his work. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 7, 1989, 753.

Diphilus

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Δίφιλος; Díphilos). [German version] [1] Athenian operator of a silver mine c. 330 BC Athenian operator of a silver mine. In 330 BC, he was charged by Lycurgus with illegally mining the mesokrineís (pillars), which served both as markers to separate the various leases within the mine but also as safety props, and sentenced to death. His assets of 160 talents were confiscated and distributed amongst the citizens (Ps.-Plut. Mor. 843D).  Mining Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography J. Engels, Studien zur polit. Biographie des Hypereides, 21993, 224-237 M. H. Hansen, Demography…

Eubulus

(967 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔβουλος; Eúboulos). [German version] [1] Athenian about 400-330 BC E., son of Spintharus of the deme Probalinthus, c. 400 to before 330 BC, possibly identical with the Athenian who in 369 applied for permission for Xenophon to return (Ister FGrH 334 F 32) and a thesmothete attested in Athens about 370/69 (SEG 19,133,4). If that is the case, he was a member of the Areopagus. After 354/3 he achieved significant political influence in Athens as an administrator of the theorikon treasury, and because of his abilities as an orator, his membership in the Areopagus and good con…

Archicles

(71 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] see Little-master cup see  Little-master cup Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet There is epigraphical evidence only of this Attic writer of comedies who, in 181 BC (earlier than Eudoxus), probably won the agon of comedies at the Great Dionysia [1. test. 2], and was also twice a winner at the Lenaea [1. test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 537.

Hermippus

(1,024 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἕρμιππος; Hérmippos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Writer of Attic Old Comedy, brother of the comedian  Myrtilus. Active probably around 440 BC: a Dionysian victory is attested for 435 BC [1. test. 3], on the epigraphical list of Dionysian victors H. ranks after  Pherecrates and before  Aristophanes [1] and  Eupolis [1. test. 4], and on the list of Lenaean victors after  Cratinus and Pherecrates and before  Phrynichus, Myrtilus and Eupolis [1. test. 5]. Apart from the Dionysian …

Susarion

(248 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σουσαρίων/ Sousaríōn). Allegedly the earliest Attic comic poet [1. test. 1] and even the inventor of comedy [1. test. 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9]. His origin is given as either the Attic deme of Icaria (Icarium; [1. test. 1, 2], cf. [1. test. 7]) or Tripodiscus in the region of Megara [2] [1. test. 8 and 10]. Different versions of the origins of comedy are connected with these: Icaria as the location of an ancient cult of Dionysus would point to an autochthonous Attic basis for comedy, M…

Actus

(559 words)

Author(s): Schanbacher, Dietmar (Dresden) | Mlasowsky, Alexander (Hannover) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] [1] Legal action An action, especially a legal action (Dig. 49,1,12) i. a. defining characteristic of   alienatio : omnis a., per quem dominium transfertur, Cod. Iust. 5,23,1. Formal legal actions in accordance with the old   ius civile , e.g. the   mancipatio , are described as acti legitimi. Any added condition renders them ineffective. Additionally, actus can mean a utility (  servitus ), for example the right to drive draught animals and beasts of burden over a plot of land, including the right of way ( iter, Dig. 8,3,1pr.). This actus is a res mancipi, and is obtained i…

Euxenides

(39 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐξενίδης; Euxenídēs). Comic poet, whose plays were reputedly performed in Athens at the time of Epicharmus (still before the Second Persian War) [1. test.]; nothing of them has survived. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 544.

Nicomachus

(1,669 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Et al.
(Νικόμαχος/ Nikómachos). [German version] [1] Healing hero See Gorgasus and Nicomachus Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Athenian official, 410-404 BC Allegedly the son of a slave and only later accepted as an Athenian citizen. In 410-404 BC, N. led the commission for recording the laws ( anagrapheîs tôn nómōn). Exiled under the Thirty ( triákonta ), he returned in 403 and again became anagrapheús. In 399/8 BC, N. was accused of manipulating the laws, thus e.g. contributing to the sentencing of the demagogue Cleophon [1] in 404, evading his …

Aristophanes

(5,353 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Redies, Michael (Berlin) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἀριστοφάνης; Aristophánēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician (beginning of the 4th cent. BC) Son of  Nicophemus, a confidant of  Conon. Repeatedly chorēgós and trierarch. In 393 BC he was supposed to win  Dionysius I of Syracuse on Conon's order as an ally for Athens using a marriage alliance with  Evagoras of Salamis. When Athens sent Evagoras 10 triremes against the Persians in 390/89, A. helped in financing them and participated as a delegate. Returning from this unsuccessful campaign, A. and his father were executed by means of the apagoge and their fortune was confisc…

Criton

(316 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Κρίτων; Krítōn). [German version] [1] Wealthy friend of Socrates, of the same age Wealthy friend of  Socrates and of the same age, also from the Alopece demos (Pl. Ap. 33d; Pl. Crit. 44b; Xen. Mem. 2,9,2; 2,9,4); discussion partner of Socrates in Plato's ‘Criton’ and ‘Euthydemus’ and in Xen. Mem. 2,9,1-3. In Plato's ‘Criton’ he unsuccessfully advises Socrates to flee his prison. The Epicurean  Idomeneus claimed that not Criton but Aeschines [1] of Sphettus had done this (Diog. Laert. 2,60; 3,36). Diogenes Laërtios (2,121) lists the titles of 17 dialogues composed by C.  Socratics. Dörin…

Eumedes

(69 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐμήδης; Eumḗdēs). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC ─ two victories at the Lenaea are attested for him in an inscription; on the list of prize-winners his name is entered after that of  Diodorus [10], the brother of  Diphilus [5] [1st test.]. Of his Σφαττόμενος ( Sphattómenos; ‘The Tormented One’) only one fragment in an extremely poor condition is extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 277.

Chionides

(189 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Χιωνίδης; Chiōnídēs). Earliest Attic comedy-writer known by name. As πρωταγωνιστής, prōtagōnistḗs (the sense of the term as used here is disputed [2. 132]) of the Old  Comedy, C. is said to have had a play performed as early as ‘eight years before the Persian wars’ (i.e. 486 BC counting inclusively) [1. test. 1]; this date is usually regarded as the beginning of the state-organized comedic agones at the Great Dionysia [2. 82]. Aristotle, too, places C., along with  Magnes, at the beginnings of Attic Comedy [1. test. 2]. Three titles of plays …

Plato

(7,761 words)

Author(s): Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Πλάτων/ Plátōn). [German version] [1] The philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Athenian philosopher, 428/7 - 348/7 BC Szlezák, Thomas A. (Tübingen) [German version] A. Life The Seventh Letter (which is not intended to constitute a complete autobiography) and scattered reports from various ancient authors (of these, Plutarchus' [2] Life of Dion and Philodemus' Academica Gaiser/ Academicorum Historia Dorandi are particularly instructive) are our most important sources of information on the life of P. To these should be added the chronological accounts in Apuleius, De Platone et eius d…

Pherecrates

(809 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φερεκράτης; Pherekrátēs). Important poet of Attic Old Comedy. First worked as an actor [1, testimony 2a], his own performances beginning after Cratinus [1] and Crates [1], but before Hermippus [1], Phrynichus [3], Aristophanes [3], Eupolis (cf. [1, testimony 2a, 5, 6]). There is a reference to a victory (it is unclear in which agon) for 437 BC [1, testimony 2a]; the Lenaea victory list ascribes two victories to P. [1, testimony 6]. He is said to have written 17 [1, testimony 1] or…

Diophantus

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Διοφαντός; Diophantós). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Author of comedies, dates unknown; one fragment and the title of one play (Μετοικιζόμενος) have been preserved. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 42. [German version] [2] Commander under Mithridates VI Eupator From Sinope, son of Asclepiodotus, commander to Mithridates VI Eupator. In 110 BC he provided skilful military and diplomatic support to the inhabitants of the city of Chersonesus and thus enabled them to withstand the Scythians (Str. 7,3,1…

Epicharmus

(990 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἐπίχαρμος; Epícharmos). Earliest and most important writer of Doric comedy. [German version] A. Life Widely varying accounts are given for his origin: Syracuse, the Sicanian city of Crastus or Samos [1. test.1], Cos [1. test. 1. 3] or Megara Hyblaea in Sicily [1. test. 1. 2] have been mentioned; it is most probably a place in Sicily. Establishing dates for E. has to rely on the following details: he is said to have been active as a playwright ‘six years before the Persian Wars’, i.e. 486/5 BC [1. test. 1], o…

Euphanes

(59 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐφάνης; Euphánēs). Writer of Middle Comedy who is entered on the list of victors of the Lenaea directly before  Alexis [1. test. 1] and for whom two play titles and two fragments are attested; fr. 1 from the Μοῦσαι ( Moûsai; ‘The Muses’) presents a number of contemporary Athenian gluttons. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 280f.

Eriphus

(70 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἔριφος; Ériphos). Poet of the Middle Comedy of whom three titles of works and seven fragments have still survived. In the Μελίβοια ( Melíboia), E. appears to have taken up verses of  Antiphanes [1] and varied them (fr. 2; cf. Antiphanes fr. 59); in Πελταστής ( Peltastḗs), a miles gloriosus probably appeared (fr. 6 [2. 326f.]). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 178-182 2 H.-G. Nesselrath, Die att. Mittlere Komödie, 1990.

Euthycrates

(240 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὐθυκράτης; Euthykrátēs). [German version] [1] Olynthian, betrayed his home polis at the instigation of Philippus II E., an Olynthian, allegedly accepted bribes from  Philipus II in 348 BC to betray his home polis, thus bearing part of the guilt for its destruction. Because of this, E. was ostracized by Athens (Diod. Sic. 16,53,2; Dem. Or. 8,40; 9,56; 18,295; 19,265-267; Hyp. fr. 76 Jensen). In c. 345-343, he acted as syndikos for the Delians in their dispute with the Athenians regarding the prostasía of the Delphi sanctuary.  Demades' application to lift E.'s ostracism and…

Lucianus

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Λουκιανός; Loukianós). [German version] [1] L. of Samosata Greek rhetorical-satirical writer, 2nd cent. AD Important Greek rhetorical-satirical writer of the Roman Imperial period. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life and career L. was born between AD 115 and 125 [4. 8] in Samosata on the Euphrates, on the eastern edge of Roman Syria. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘The Dream, or Lucian's Life’, Somn.) portrays vividly (but not necessarily truthfully) L.'s decision for an education modelled on the example of the great classical authors ( paideía)…

Amphis

(171 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀμφις; Ámphis) Attic comic poet possibly from the island of Andros [1. test.], whose writings can only be approximately dated to 350 BC and some time thereafter [2. 197]. Of the 28 titles of works that are preserved, a quarter relate to mythical subjects, amongst these is a reworking of the Callisto story; A. appears to have altered this story in a very unconventional way [2. 234]. Furthermore A. has not forgotten the Attic reality in his works: he deals derisively with the philos…

Cratinus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Giaro, Tomasz (Frankfurt/Main)
(Κρατῖνος; Kratînos). [German version] [1] Poet of the Attic Old Comedy, 5th cent. BC Son of Callimedes, important poet of the Attic Old  Comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Biographical information The first appearance of C. is documented for the late 450s BC [1. test. 4ab; cf. test. 5]; his death probably occurred between 423 ( Terminus post quem: his last piece, the Pytínē/‘The Bottle’; cf. [1. test. 3]) and 421 (in Aristoph. Pax 700-703, he is allegedly dead [1. test. 10]); he allegedly lived to be 94 years old [1. test. 3].…

Lynceus

(534 words)

Author(s): Schlapbach, Karin (Zürich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Λυγκεύς/ Lynkeús, related to λύγξ, ‘lynx’). [German version] [1] Son of Aphareus Son of Aphareus [1], king of Messene, and of Arene; brother of Idas (L. is always mentioned together with him; the pair of brothers is called Apharetidae). The brothers take part in the journey of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,151) and in the Calydonian hunt (Apollod. 1,67; Ov. Met. 8,304). They are said to have abducted Helene and delivered her to Theseus (Plut. Theseus 31,1). In the battle with the Dioscuri, L. dies at the h…

Machon

(186 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Μάχων; Máchōn) from Sicyon or Corinth; lived at the time of Apollodorus [5] of Carystus (3rd cent. BC) [1. test. 1] and was active as a writer in Alexandria, also the place of his death. M. wrote Χρεῖαι ( Chreîai, ‘Anecdotes’) in iambic trimeter (of which a total of about 470 are extant in Ath. Deipnosophistaí XIII) about hetaerae, parasites and poets (Diphilus, Euripides, Philoxenus), as well as important political figures (Ptolemy, Demetrius Poliorcetes); the material, in which sex plays a certain role, comes from anecdotal prose w…

Menestheus

(437 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μενεσθεύς; Menestheús). [German version] [1] Athenian leader at Troy Son of Peteus, great-grandson of Erechtheus. M. led the contingent of Athenians with fifty ships at Troy. Only Nestor was his equal in marshalling horses and warriors for battle (Hom. Il. 2,552ff.). While Theseus was detained in Hades, the Dioscuri conquered Aphidna and installed M. as king of Athens. Theseus's sons fled to Euboea. Because M. gained the favour of the Athenians, they ousted Theseus on his return (Paus. 1,17,5f.). Accord…

Deinolochus

(122 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δεινολόχος; Deinolóchos). Writer of Doric Comedy, in our sources dated to the 73rd Olympiad (488-485 BC) and attested as the son or pupil [1. Test. 1], but also the rival [1. Test. 2], of  Epicharmus. He is supposed to have written 14 plays; thanks to a papyrus [2. no. 78] the sum of known titles by him has now grown to 12, of which ten suggest a mythical theme. Scarcely anything more can be said about the content and structure of these plays (except that they were probably comparable with those of Epicharmus). A single fragment of verse survives. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Gö…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the Laios of Aeschylus), became infatuated with the extraordinarily beautiful youth and abducted him either from his father's house or the Nemean games …

Paramonus

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Παράμονος; Parámonos). Attic comic writer who won third place at the Dionysia of 183 BC, sixth place at those held in 169 and who was posthumously awarded first place at the Dionysia of 167 [1. test. 1-3]. Only two titles of plays, Ναυαγός (Nauagós; 'the Shipwrecked') and Χορηγῶν ('The Sponsor), are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 101.

Euphronius

(649 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Wehgartner, Irma (Würzburg) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg)
(Εὐφρόνιος; Euphrónios). [German version] [1] Writer of Old Comedy Writer of Old Comedy who in 458 BC won the Great  Dionysia [1. test. 1. 2]. Neither titles nor fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 293. [German version] [2] Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period, c. 520-500 BC Attic vase painter and potter of the late archaic period who is considered like  Phintias and  Euthymides to belong to the group of ‘pioneers’ who helped red-figure vase painting achieve its breakthrough. E. wor…

Pyrrhen

(32 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πυρρήν; Pyrrhḗn). 4th century BC Attic comic poet, who was victorious at the Lenaea on one occasion; nothing else is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583.

Anaxandrides

(395 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξανδρίδης; Anaxandrídēs). An Attic writer of comedies from Rhodes or [1. test. 1] Colophon (apparently he also produced dithyrambs [1. test. 2]), of whom, thanks to IGUR 218 [1. test. 5], more exact dates are known than of any other of his rivals: from this inscription it is clear that A. was an active theatre poet at least between 376 and 349 BC and also in the years in-between frequently performed; even earlier was the Protesilaus, which reflects the great wedding of the Athenian general Iphicrates to a Thracian princess (an event of the early 380s…

Epinicus

(207 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἐπίνικος; Epínikos). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Comic poet; two titles of his plays and two fragments are extant. The dating of his life (late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC) is based on the title of his play, Mnēsiptólemos: it refers to the court historiographer (FGrH 164) of Antiochus III (223-187 BC), a remarkably late example for the mockery of a named character (ὀνομαστὶ κωμῳδεῖν; onomastì kōmōideîn). Fr. 1 sees Mnesiptolemus speaking for himself, parodying the ornate, almost dithyrambic style, in which he describes the banalest of acts performed by his sovereign. Nesselrath…

Hipparchus

(1,790 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Et al.
(Ἵππαρχος; Hípparchos). [German version] [1] Second son of Peisistratus, around 530 BC Second son of  Peisistratus and an Athenian woman. Together with his older brother  Hippias [1] and the younger Thessalus, H. assumed his inheritance (528/527 BC) after his father's death (Thuc. 6,55; [Aristot.] Ath. Pol. 18,1). In contrast to Hippias, H. exhibited no political profile. He dedicated himself to aristocratic social life and culture and invited, among others,  Anacreon [1] of Teos and  Simonides of Ceos to A…

Diverbium

(111 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] With few exceptions [2.220] all scenes in the manuscripts of Plautus’ plays that are written in iambic senarii bear the direction diverbium (cf. Donat. II p. 5 W.), marking those sections of the play to be performed without musical accompaniment (cf. Plautus Stichus 758-768: the metre changes to the iambic senarius during a pause by the flautist). The oldest testimony (Liv. 7,2,10) confirms this. In late antiquity the grammarian Diomedes (1,491,22-24) was alone in taking diverbium in its literal Greek sense of ‘dialogue’ (and  canticum as ‘monologue’ [2. 220]). Nesse…

Baton

(224 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Βάτων; Bátōn). [German version] [1] Charioteer to Amphiaraus  Amphiaraus' charioteer. Both B. and Amphiaraus were descendants of Melampus. In the battle of Thebes, he was swallowed by the earth together with Amphiaraus and his chariot. In Argus, he was given a sanctuary near the Amphiaraus sanctuary (Apollod. 3,77; Paus. 2,23,2). The Argives consecrated Amphiaraus' chariot with B.'s statue to Delphi (Paus. 10,10,3). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibliography I. Krauskopf, s.v. B.I, LIMC 3.1, 83-87. [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 3rd cent. BC Attic author of comedies in the 3r…

Eteagoras

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἐτεαγόρας; Eteagóras). Writer of comedy in the 3rd cent. BC; one comedy is epigraphically attested to have won the Lenaea. Neither the titles nor fragments of his plays have survived. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG V, 183.

Protarchus

(265 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Πρώταρχος/ Prṓtarchos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Thespiae, 1st cent. BC Comic poet from Thespiae, victorious on one occasion in the 1st cent. BC at the Soteria of Acraephia, and son or father of the epic poet Protogenes; otherwise, nothing is known of him. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 583. [German version] [2] Epicurean from Bargilia, 2nd cent. BC P. of Bargilia. Teacher of Demetrius [21] Lacon (Str. 14,20; 2nd cent. BC), perhaps in Miletus. It is unlikely that he was the head of the Epicurean 'Garden' ( kḗpos ). Dorandi, Tiziano (Paris) Bi…

Evangelus

(43 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγγελος; Euángelos). Comic poet of the 3rd cent. BC (uncertain), of whose Ἀνακαλυπτομένη ( Anakalyptoménē) a fragment in trochaic tetrameters has survived: the master of the house and a cook make preparations for a wedding. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 184f.

Euthycles

(28 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθυκλῆς; Euthyklês). Poet of the late Old Comedy (?). Two titles of plays and two fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 541f.

Lysippus

(811 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Λύσιππος; Lýsippos). [German version] [1] Writer of the Old Comedy, c. 400 BC Poet of the Old Comedy who perhaps as early as the 430s BC won at the Dionysia [1. test. *2] and about whom further victories are attested in 409 and later [1. test. 3]. Only three titles of plays are extant; fragments (apart from three without a title) are only attributed to the ‘Bacchae’ (Βάκχαι): In fragment 1 a man by the name of Hermon (who had been thrown into a well by his father) talks to his brother. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1PCG V, 1986, 618-622. [German version] [2] Bronze sculptor…

Apollodorus

(3,070 words)

Author(s): Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pressler, Frank (Heidelberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλόδωρος; Apollódōros). Political figures [German version] [1] Athenian politician (4th cent. BC) Son of  Pasion of Acharnae, Athenian rhetor and supporter of Demosthenes (394/93, died after 343 BC). A. was one of the richest Athenian citizens after 370. He undertook costly trierarchy liturgies (cf. IG II2 1609,83 and 89; IG II2 1612, b110; Dem. Or. 50,4-10; 40 and 58) and in 352/51 gained a victory as   choregos (IG II2 3039,2) but had only limited success in obtaining a political post commensurate with his wealth. From 370 to 350 BC he indulged in litigat…

Eunicus

(57 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εύνικος; Eúnikos) Poet of Attic Old Comedy, of whom we have two play titles (and two fragments, the second uncertain). For a play about hetaerae, Ἄντεια/ Ánteia (test. ii), Philyllius is also cited as the author while for the Πόλεις/ Póleis Philyllius and Aristophanes are also named as authors. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG 5, 278f.

Xenarchus

(885 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Furley, William D. (Heidelberg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | A.FA.
(Ξέναρχος; Xénarchos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer, 4th cent. BC Comedy writer of the (probably late) 4th cent. BC. Eight play titles (quite typical of this period) and 14 fragments have been preserved (exclusively in Athenaeus [3]). In fragment 1, a speaker (perhaps a slave, also the eponym character, Butalíōn) laments in exuberant dithyrambistic language, that there is no means of curing his master's impotence [2. 263]; in fragment 4 (Πένταθλος/ Péntathlos, 'Pentathlete') a brothel-keeper sings a song in praise of prostitutes and risk-free love-for-s…

Alcenor

(68 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic writer of comedies, who is known to us only by way of inscription [1] and who, shortly before  Timocles, won a victory at the Lenaea comedy contest with a play that is no longer known to us; he is probably therefore to be assigned to the period after the middle of the 4th cent. BC. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 16.

Aristomenes

(638 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀριστομένης; Aristoménēs). [German version] [1] Messenian hero and freedom fighter (2nd half of 7th cent. BC) Messenian hero and freedom fighter, seen as a descendant of the Aepytids. With the support of Arcadians and Argives, A. was the supposed leader of a Messenian revolt against Sparta which lasted for many years. Paus. 4,14,6-24,3 reports that on his defeat, after initial successes, in the so-called battle of the ‘Great Trench’ because of the treachery of the Arcadian king  Aristocrates [1], A. retreated…

Iolaus

(547 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἰόλαος; Iólaos). [German version] [1] Nephew of Heracles Nephew of  Heracles, son of the latter's half-brother  Iphicles and the (shadowy) Automedusa. He accompanies Heracles on practically all his adventures (mainly as chariot driver), becomes the first Olympic champion (image in Olympia, Paus. 5,17,11), receives  Megara as wife from Heracles and finally kills  Eurystheus in Attica (Paus. 1,44,10, grave), for which he was specially rejuvenated for one day (Eur. Heracl. 843-863, perhaps following Aesch…

Xenophon

(5,032 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Et al.
(Ξενοφῶν; Xenophôn). [German version] [1] Of Athens, strategos, 5th cent. BC Athenian. Initially commander of the cavalry ( hippárchēs; IG I3 511); then participated in the campaign against Samos in 441/40 BC as stratēgós (Androtion FGrH 324 F 38), was also stratēgós the following years and operated as such in Thrace in 430/429. He was treated with hostility due to his unauthorized acceptance of the capitulation of Potidaea (Thuc. 2,70), but remained in office and fell as stratēgós at Spartolus in the summer of 429 during a campaign against the Chalcidians and Bottians (…

Rhinthon

(243 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ῥίνθων/ Rhínthōn). Poet, composer of literary Phlyakes plays (of which he is said to have written 38 [1. test. 2 and 3]), from Syracuse [1. test. 1], active at Tarentum [1. test. 2 and 3] in the reign of Ptolemy I (Ptolemaeus [1]) (322-283 BC, reigned from 305). Of nine surviving titles, eight are identifiable as parodies of tragedies by Euripides [1]: Ἀμφιτρύων/ Amphitryon , Ἡρακλῆς/ Heracles , Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Αὐλίδι/ Iphigeneia at Aulis, Ἰφιγένεια ἁ ἐν Ταύροις/ Iphigeneia among the Taurians, Δοῦλος Μελέαγρος/ Meleager the Slave, Μήδεια/ Medea , Ὀρέστας/ Orestes , Τήλεφο…

Sosigenes

(297 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds)
(Σωσιγένης; Sōsigénēs). [German version] [1] S. of Caunus is attested as oikonómos of Ptolemaeus [1] I in Lycia (SEG 27,929, Limyra) in 288/7 BC. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Comedy writer, 2nd cent. BC Comedy writer, only attested epigraphically as a participant of the Attic Dionysiac agon in 157 BC, where he took sixth place with the play Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed man'). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 603. [German version] [3] Astronomer, computed the Julian calendar for Caesar Astronomer charged by Caesar w…

Procleides

(40 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Προκλείδης; Prokleídēs). Attic comedic poet, victorious at the Dionysia in 332 BC [1. test. 1] and at an agon at the Lenaea [1. test. 2]; otherwise nothing is known. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 582.

Ameinias

(69 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Poet of the Attic New Comedy, who in 311 BC at the comedy agon of the Greater Dionysia gained third place with an Ἀπολείπουσα [1 test. 2] and in 280 BC participated in comedy performances on Delos [1 test. 3]. Also a victory in the comedy competition of the Lenaea is attested for him [1 test. 1]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 196.

Alcimenes

(280 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Ἀλκιμένης, Alkiménēs). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: brother of Bellerophontes Brother of Bellerophontes, also Peiren or Deliades, was killed by his brother, providing the reason for the flight to Argus (Apollod. 2,30; Tzetz. Lycophr. 17). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Figure of Greek myth: son of Jason and Medea Son of Jason and Medea, brother of Teisander, both of whom were killed in Corinth by Medea; only Thettalus, A.'s twin brother, escaped. Both of these are buried in the Temenus of Hera and were venerated as heroes (Diod. Sic. 4,54,1; 4,55,1 f.). Gra…

Alexis

(451 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἄλεξις; Álexis). Writer of Attic comedies from Thurii in Lower Italy, who is said to have been the uncle and teacher of  Menander [1. test. 1.2]. A victory in the comedy contest at the great Dionysia of 347 BC is the earliest concrete evidence of A.'s career [1. test. 6], although there are references to his conducting performances even earlier: on the inscription listing the winners of the Lenaea he appears only four places after  Antiphanes [1. test. 8]; fr. 19 has the bad writer…

Anaxilas

(206 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ἀναξίλας; Anaxílas) Attic writer of comedies, who can be dated only on the basis of a few pieces of circumstantial evidence in his fragments to approximately the middle of the 4th cent. BC and thereafter [2. 199 f.]. 22 titles of plays (of which about a quarter relate to mythical themes) and also 30 verse fragments are preserved of A.'s works, including one in dactylo-epitrites (fr. 12), one in glyconic (fr. 13) and one in anapestic ‘dimeters’. In at least three works, there are derisive thrusts against Plato (frs. 5, 14, 26), in the Euandria, A. makes fun of Demosthene…

Eupolis

(972 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Εὔπολις; Eúpolis). Apart from Aristophanes and Cratinus, the most important writer of Attic Old Comedy, son of Sosipolis. [German version] A. Life E. is said to have already begun his performances at the age of 17 [1. test. 1]; varying times for his debut are stated: in 429 [1. test. 2a], 427 [1. test. 6a], 426 [1. test. 6b] or between 427 and 424 BC [1. test. 7. 8]. The epigraphical lists of the winners at the Dionysia and the Lenaea show that he began his performances about the same time as  Aristophanes (or short…

Poseidippus

(953 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Ποσείδιππος/ Poseídippos). [German version] [1] Comic poet from Cassandrea, c. 290 BC Comic poet from the Macedonian city of Cassandrea [1. test. 1, 2], said to have begun performing plays in the third year after the death of Menander [4] (291/0 BC) [1. test. 1], four-time victor at the Dionysia [1. test. 7] and honoured with statues [1. test. 10. 11]. His Ἀποκλειομένη ( Apokleioménē, 'The Woman Shut Up [or Shut Out]') was revived several times in the 2nd cent. BC [1. test. 8, 9]. Of the 'up to 30' plays [1. test. 1] by P., 18 titles survive; along with th…

Phormis

(107 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Φόρμις/ Phórmis) or Phormus (Φόρμος/ Phórmos in Ath. 14,652a; Them. Or. 27 p. 337b; Suda ε 2766, φ 609 = [1. test. 1]). P. was a Syracusan, and like his contemporary Epicharmus, a poet of comic dramas, allegedly also tutor to the sons of the tyrant Gelon [1. test. 1]. This, however, may rest upon a confusion with a military commander of the same name (Paus. 5,27,1 and 7). Aristotle declares P. and Epicharmus inventors of the coherent comic plot [1. test. 2]. The seven plays ascribed to him (no fragments survive) seem to have dealt with mostly mythical subjects. Nesselrath, Hein…

Evages

(47 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐάγης; Euágēs). Comic poet, life dates unknown, from the island of Hydrea (near Troezen). It is supposed that E. started out as an uneducated shepherd, but then turned into a comic poet of good repute [1. test.]. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 183.

Euphron

(449 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εὔφρων; Eúphrōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Paros, 5th cent. BC Sculptor from Paros who worked in Athens in the middle of the 5th cent. BC. Based on the evidence from extant sculpture pedestals, he created votive reliefs. The bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus is extant. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Jeffery, 363, no. 29 C. Karouzos, En feuilletant les vieilles publications, in: BCH 70, 1946, 263-270 A. E. Raubitschek, Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, 1949, no. 298, 304. [German version] [2] Pro-Spartan Theban, succesful in a democratic coup Afte…

Eubulides

(521 words)

Author(s): Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὐβουλίδης; Euboulídēs). [German version] [1] E. from Miletus Megarian of the 4th cent. BC Member of the  Megarian school. The time when E. lived (mid 4th cent. BC) is determined by his intense attacks against Aristotle, which are repeatedly mentioned in the sources. In part these are personal attacks (Euseb. Praep. evang. 15,2,5), in part criticism of certain logical theorems by Aristotle (Eubulides, SSR vol. 4, p.88). Possibly, Aristotle may in turn have discussed the teachings of E. There is evidence tha…

Demetrius

(7,578 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schütrumpf, Eckart E. (Boulder, CO) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Et al.
(Δημήτριος; Dēmḗtrios). Well-known personalities: the Macedonian King D. [2] Poliorketes; the politician and writer D. [4] of Phalerum; the Jewish-Hellenistic chronographer D. [29]. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Officer under Alexander the Great Officer under Alexander [4], fought at Gaugamela as commander of a troop ( ile) of  Hetairoi and in India he commanded a hipparchy. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve 2, no. 256. [German version] [2] D. Poliorketes Son of  Antigonus [1], born 337/6 BC (Diod. Sic. 19,96,1). In 320 he m…

Thugenides

(63 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Θουγενίδης; Thougenídes). Poet of the Old Comedy (I. C.); it is uncertain whether he was on the list of victors at the Dionysia in fifth place after Cratinus [1. test. *1]. Of his only recorded play, Δικασταί ( Dikastaí, ‘The Judges), two short fragments survive; five other play fragments without titles are also uninformative. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 750-752.

Sannyrion

(126 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Σαννυρίων/ Sannyríōn). Attic comedic poet of the end of the 5th cent. BC, mocked by his competitors for his skinniness [1. test. 3]. The titles of three plays and 13 fragments with a total of eight and a half verses have been handed down: the Γέλως ( Gélōs, 'Laughter') featured a talking god (fr. 1) and mocked the tragedian Meletus [3] (fr. 2) and Aristophanes [3] (fr. 5); in the Δανάη ( Danáē), dated to 407-404 BC, Zeus considers what shape would be best for him to get to his Danae and in the process makes fun of the tragedic actor Hegelochus (fr. 8); the Ἰώ ( Iṓ), also on a mythical…

Antheas

(84 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A bon viveur and poet originally from Lindus in Rhodes, who was the first person to use collated poetic (dithyrambic?) expressions and is said to have written ‘comedies’ as well as many other works; Jacoby (in FGrH 527 F 2) doubts his actual existence. A.'s period cannot be determined more precisely; he is said to have been a ‘relative’ of Cleobulus of Lindus, one of the Seven Sages. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 SH, 1983, no. 46 2 PCG II, 1991, 307.

Augeas

(42 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Attic comic poet documented only through a short article in the Suda [1. test.]; the Suda counts him as belonging to the Middle Comedy and lists three titles of plays. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 17.

Pandaetes

(30 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Πανδαίτης; Pandaítēs). Attic comic writer of the 3rd cent. BC only attested in inscriptions on the Lenaean victors' list. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 100.

Comedy

(5,622 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Lefèvre, Eckhard (Freiburg)
I. Greek [German version] A. Beginnings The most plausible etymology of comedy is ‘komos song’; kṓmoi (processions of groups of people or choruses) are depicted on vases from the early 7th cent. BC onwards; there appear, inter alia, dancers in leotards (partly padded on the waist and buttocks) and animal costumes (cf. the later animal choruses of Attic Old Comedy). Many pictures on vases also show the phallus-processions that according to Aristotle (poet. 4,1449a 10f.) were the origin of comedy. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] B. Early forms outside Athens The …

Timocles

(419 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Τιμοκλῆς/ Timoklês). [German version] [1] Athenian author of comedies, 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC Important Athenian author of comedies in the 2nd half of the 4th cent. BC to whom the Suda [1 test. 1] attributes 20 plays (divided into two authors by the same name who in reality are identical). 28 titles have been transmitted (uncertain: Geōrgós, 'The Farmer') and altogether 42 fragments. Only one win is recorded on the Lenaean list of winners [1 test. 3], two places ahead of Menander [4]. T.' active period lasted from the 340s (allusion to the Halon…

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…

Philemon

(1,647 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
(Φιλήμων; Philḗmōn). [German version] [1] Husband of Baukis Husband of Baucis. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Writer of the Attic New Comedy, c. 300 BC Son of Damon of Syracuse [1. test. 1, 11], became (before 307/6 BC; cf. [1. test. 15]) an Athenian citizen [1. test. 2-12. 15]. Important writer of Attic New Comedy with his stage debut several years before Menander [4] (before 328: [1. test. 2]); it is uncertain whether this somewhat earlier chronology or the different nature of his plays led to P. once being call…

Myrtilus

(452 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μυρτίλος; Myrtílos). [German version] [1] Son of Hermes and Phaethusa Son of Hermes and Phaethusa, Clymene, Myrto (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,752) or Theobule (Hyg. Fab. 224,5) or of Zeus and Clymene (schol. Eur. Or. 998); charioteer to Oenomaus [1] (possibly already mentioned in the Alkmaiōnís , cf. fr. 6 PEG I, and depicted as a figure on the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia). Before the chariot race to win the hand of Hippodameia [1] M. removes a lynch pin from  Oenomaus' chariot (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 37; Ps.-Apollod. Epit. 2,4…

Timoxenus

(144 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Τιμόξενος/ Timóxenos). [German version] [1] Strategos of the Achaean League, 3rd cent. BC Achaean, political friend of Aratus [2], several times  stratēgós of the Achaean League (Achaeans): in 225/4 BC and/or 224/3 (Pol. 2,53,2; Plut. Kleomenes 20,8; Plut. Aratos 38,3; cf. [1. 254 f.; 2. 149]), 221/0 (Pol. 4,6,4; Plut. Aratos 47,3) and 216/5 (Pol. 5,106,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) Bibliography 1 F. W. Walbank, A Historical Commentary on Polybius, vol. 1, 1970 2 R. Urban, Wachstum und Krise des Achäischen Bundes von 280 bis 222 v. Chr., 1979. [German version] [2] Athen…

Parabasis

(569 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (παράβασις, parábasis; Lat. parabasis). Characteristic component peculiar to Old Attic comedy, recognizable in the plays of Aristophanes [3] and in fragments of other comedic poets (no certain evidence before Cratinus [4. 24]). The term derives from parabaínein (παραβαίνειν πρὸς τὸ θέατρον, 'stepping towards the audience'), with which Aristophanes's chorus repeatedly begins the parabasis (Aristoph. Ach. 629; Equ. 508; Pax 735): they also divest themselves of parts of their clothing (Ach. 627) or other accessories (Pax 729), while …

Onesicles

(44 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ὀνησικλῆς; Onēsiklês). Author of unknown date, documented only in inscriptions in Cilicia, who was a poet of various genres (epic, New Comedy, iambic poetry) as well as a writer of prose encomia. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 96.

Ophelion

(65 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Ὠφελίων/ Ōphelíōn). Attic comedian from the 4th cent. BC. The titles of four plays have survived (Δευκαλίων/ Deukalíōn; Ἰάλεμος/ Iálemos or ‘Simple Simon; Κάλλαισχρος/ Kállaischros - it is unclear from this name whether the play is about a historical or fictitious person; Κένταυρος/ Kéntauros). There are six fragments extant which are ineffectual except for fragment 3 (parody of Plato). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography PCG VII, 1989, 97-99.

Euthias

(38 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Εὐθίας; Euthías). Attic comic poet, who came second in a contest around the mid 4th cent. BC [1. test.]. Of his plays, neither titles nor fragments are extant. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 540.

Menander

(3,637 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Et al.
(Μένανδρος; Ménandros). [German version] [1] Joint strategos with Nicias, 414 BC The Athenians M. and Euthydemus [1], who were already in Sicily, were chosen as joint strategoi of Nicias towards the end of 414 BC, during the Sicilian Expedition, to support him until the relief expedition of Demosthenes [1] arrived (413) (Thucyd. 7,16,1; Plut. Nicias 20,2); re-elected 413/12 (Plut. Nicias 20,6-8; Thucyd. 7,69,4; Diod. 13, 13,2). Possibly identical with the M. who fought in Abydus in 409 (Xen. Hell. 1,2,16). He was stratēgós with Tydeus (405/4) in the defeat at Aigos potamoi (X…

Myllus

(120 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] Said to be an early Attic writer of comedies (neither names of plays nor fragments have been preserved), considered variously a contemporary of Euetes [2] and Euxenides in the time of Epicharmus [1. test. 1], or of Susarion and Magnes [3] [1. test. 2]; elsewhere an actor M. is mentioned who supposedly used masks dyed with minium [1. test. 5]. Perhaps M. owes his existence only to a verse by Cratinus [1] (fr. 96 K.-A.) that seems to concern a comic figure (comparable to Maison?) wh…

Antiphanes

(765 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντιφάνης; Antiphánēs). [German version] [1] Attic comic poet, 4th cent. BC Attic writer of comedies; concerning his family and lineage the information is quite contradictory [1. test. 1, 2]. His father as well as his son were called Stephanus, (his son as a writer of comedies, staged works of his father [1. test 1]). A. was born in the 93rd Olympiad (between 408 and 404 BC) [1. test. 1] and is said to have already begun his stage activity at 20 years, (‘after the 98th Olympiad’ [1. test. 2]). He is said …

Eudoxus

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Folkerts, Menso (Munich) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Εὔδοξος; Eúdoxos). [German version] [1] of Cnidus Ancient mathematician and astronomer One of the most important ancient mathematicians and astronomers, he was presumably born in 391/390 BC (on the problem of dating see [7. 137-139]). He studied mathematics with  Archytas [1] and medicine with  Philistion. At the age of 23 he went to Athens and it is said that, among other things, he attended lectures there with  Plato. At the expense of his Cnidian friends, presumably in 365/4 [11], E. went with a letter…

Timostratus

(210 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Τιμόστρατος/ Timóstratos). [German version] [1] Tragic poet, 4th cent. BC Greek tragedian, successful at the Lenaea in c. 350 BC (TrGF I 83). Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) [German version] [2] Athenian comedy writer, beginning of the 2nd cent. BC Athenian comedian, who came sixth at the Dionysia in 188 BC with his Λυτρούμενος ( Lytroúmenos, 'The ransomed [prisoner]') [1. test. 1] and fourth in 183 with his Φιλοικεῖος ( Philoikeîos, 'He who loves his relatives') [1. test. 2]; a third place in c. 177 with an Ἀντευεργετῶν ( Anteuergetṓn, 'He who repays good deeds') is uncertain [1…

Magnes

(305 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
(Μάγνης; Mágnēs). [German version] [1] Eponymous ruler of the central Greek territory of Magnesia Eponymous ruler of the central Greek region of Magnesia. His origins are variously described; the oldest reference (Hes. Cat. 7) calls him a son of Zeus and Thyia, daughter of Deucalion and a native of Pieria. Here Macedon, the mythical progenitor of the Macedonians, is referred to as his brother; according to Apollod. 1,16 he has a son named Pierus. These familial relationships indicate acquisition of land by the Magnesians from the north. Visser, Edzard (Basle) [German version] [2] Son o…

Biottus

(80 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A writer of comedies who is known to us only through inscriptions and who once won first prize in the comedy contest at the Athenian Lenaea [1. test. 3] and came third on each occasion in 167 and 154 BC at the great Dionysia [1. test. 1, 2]. From each of those last two contests only the title of B.'s entry is known (‘The ignorant one , ‘The poet). Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG IV, 1983, 36.

Damoxenus

(82 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] (Δαμόξενος; Damóxenos). Attic comedic author of the 3rd cent. BC, known to have been victorious at the Dionysia once [1. Testimonia 2]. There is evidence for two plays. His Σύντροφοι contains the longest speech by a cook preserved in a comedy (fr. 2: 68 verses); the speaker presents himself as a disciple of Democritus and more especially of Epicurus and is scornful of everyone who is not, even the Stoics. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG V, 1986, 1-7.

Agathenor

(50 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen)
[German version] A writer of comedies from Ephesus, who is known only from inscriptions [1] and who at the beginning of the 1st cent. BC was the winner at the Ludi Romani in Magnesia on the Maeander with a Milesia. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG II, 1991, 1.

Crates

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης; Krátēs). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies, 5th cent. BC Athenian, the poet of the Old Comedy who began giving performances c. 450 BC [1. test. 7]. Previously an actor with  Cratinus [1], [1. test. 2 and 3]. Certain sources claim that he wrote seven plays [1. test. 1 and 2], other sources claim eight [1. test. 4]. Altogether nine titles of plays have survived (although the Μέτοικοι ‘The Metoikoi’ and Πεδῆται ‘The Prisoners’ may be wrongly attributed to him). On the list of Dionysian winners, C. is list…
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