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al-Nāṭiḳ bi’l-Ḥaḳḳ

(262 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the honorific given by the ʿAbbāsid caliph al-Amīn [ q.v.] to his son Mūsā in 194/809, when he designated him as heir presumptive in place of al-Maʾmūn [ q.v.], whereas their father Hārūn al-Ras̲h̲īd had specified that the inheritance of the caliphate should pass to al-Maʾmūn and had taken the precaution of sending a circular letter on this subject to all the provinces and of attaching to the kisāʾ of the Kaʿba a copy of this, for the tearing-down of which al-Faḍl b. al-Rabīʾ [ q.v.] sent a ḥād̲j̲ib . It was in effect this vizier of al-Amīn’s who led the calip…

Ḥanẓala b. Ṣafwān

(390 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the people of the Interval ( fatra [ q.v.]), regarded as a prophet sent to the Aṣḥāb al-Rass [ q.v.], who maltreated and killed him before being destroyed themselves. The formation of the legend apparently began in the 3rd/9th century (cf. al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Tarbīʿ , ed. Pellat, index) but Ibn Ḳutayba does not mention Ḥanẓala among the prophets of the fatra, and al-Maṣʿūdī, in the Murūd̲j̲ (i, 125, iii, 105), devotes only a few lines to him. Later on, the necessity felt by the exegetists to explain the Ḳurʾānic expression Aṣḥāb al-Rass …

Ibn Muḳbil

(995 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Kaʿb (Abu ’l-Ḥurra in Ibn Durayd’s Is̲h̲tiḳāḳ , 12) Tamīm b. Ubayy b. Muḳbil b. al-ʿAd̲j̲lān al-ʿĀmirī (i.e. the ʿĀmir b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa; see Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, Tab. 101), Bedouin poet of the muk̲h̲aḍram , who is said, like many other people of his age, to have lived 120 years (although al-Sid̲j̲istānī does not cite him in his K. al-Muʿammarīn ). He died after the battle of Ṣiffīn (37/657), to which he alludes in one of his poems ( Dīwān , 345), probably in Muʿāwiya’s reign and in any case, at a time when al-Ak̲h̲ṭal [ q.v.] had already made himself known to him. Ibn Muḳbil …

ʿĀʾis̲h̲a Bint Ṭalḥa

(287 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, one of the most famous of Arab women. Daughter of a Companion of the Prophet, Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbayd Allāh al-Taymī [ q.v.], who had already won great renown, grand-daughter of Abū Bakr through her mother Umm Kult̲h̲ūm, and niece of ʿĀʾis̲h̲a, the Prophet’s favourite wife, she combined nobility of birth with an imperious spirit and a rare beauty, which she was anxious should not go unnoticed. By nature a coquette, she courted the praises of the g̲h̲azal poets (ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa, i, 80; Kut̲h̲ayyir ʿAzza, Ibn Kutayba, S̲h̲iʿr , 322; ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr, Ag̲h̲ānī , x, 60), …

al-Rād̲h̲āniyya

(5,016 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a name by which is known a group of Jewish merchants whose origin, identity and activities have been the subject of an endless series of questions, opinions, commentaries and contradictory judgments, none of which have proved finally convincing. These speculations have been inspired by a passage of the Kitāb al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik of Ibn K̲h̲urradād̲h̲bih [ q.v.] composed between 232 and 272/846-85. This text , which has been copied and summarised, but never genuinely corroborated by contemporary or later authors, Muslim or non-Musli…

Abū S̲h̲urāʿa

(468 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, aḥmad b. muḥammad b. s̲h̲urāʿa al-ḳaysī al-bakrī , minor poet of Baṣra who, during the course of the 3rd/9th century, took part in the social and intellectual life of his native town, and hardly left it, it seems, except to make the Pilgrimage or to visit places very close at hand. For the rest, his life is poorly documented. It seems unlikely that he was able, as Ibn al-Muʿtazz asserts ( Ṭabaḳāt , 177-8), to praise al-Mahdī (158-69/775-85) during the latter’s lifetime, to have reached an advanced age in al-Maʾmūn’s time and to die in the cali…

Mayyāra

(559 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Maḥammad b. Aḥmad , Moroccan scholar and teacher, born 15 Ramaḍān 999/7 July 1591 at Fās, where he studied and taught law and ḥadīt̲h̲ until his death in the same town on 3 Ḏj̲umādā II 1071/24 January 1662. He was the author of several commentaries, ¶ notably on the Tuḥfa of Ibn ʿĀṣim [ q.v.], of which a manuscript exists in the Bibl. Générale, Rabat (D 873), and on the theological poem called al-Murs̲h̲id al-muʿīn of his master Ibn ʿĀs̲h̲ir (d. 1040/1631) completed in 1044/1634-5 and called al-Durr al-t̲h̲amīn wa ’l-mawrid al-maʿīn fī s̲h̲arḥ al-Murs̲h̲id al-muʿīn ʿa…

al-Barḳī

(1,275 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nisba of a S̲h̲īʿī family of which one member, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar aḥmad b. muḥammad b. Ḵh̲ālid b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, enjoys a considerable renown in Imāmī circles. When the ancestor of the family, Muḥammad b. ʿAlī, was imprisoned and put to death by Yūsuf b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī (governor of ʿIrāḳ from 120/738 to 126/744 [ q.v.]) following the suppression of the revolt of Zayd b. ʿAlī (122/740 [ q.v.]), his son ʿAbd al-Raḥmān escaped and established himself at Barḳa, in the region of Ḳumm, whence the ethnic name al-Barḳī, to which there is sometimes adde…

Naṣr b. Nuṣayr

(294 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥulwānī , Abu ’l-Muḳātil, a blind S̲h̲īʿi poet of the 3rd/9th century who owes the fact of his not having fallen into total obscurity to a maḳṣūra [ q.v.] (of which there are two verses given in al-Masʿūdī, Murūd̲j̲ , § 3462) and a nūniyya , both composed in praise of the dāʿī Muḥammad b. Zayd (d. 287/900 [ q.v.]). Thirty-six verses of this last ḳaṣīda (metre ramal , rhyme -ānī ) have been preserved, solely by al-Masʿūdī, it appears ( Murūd̲j̲, § 3518), whilst the maṭlaʿ ( lā taḳul bus̲h̲rā ... al-mihrad̲j̲ānī ): Do not say “One piece of good news”, but “two pieces of good news”: the face of someone …

(al-)Mund̲h̲ir b. Saʿīd

(1,155 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳurṭubī , Abu ’l-Ḥakam, Andalusian theologian and jurist, born in 273/886 into a family of Berber origin settled in the region of Cordova, at Faḥṣ al-Ballūṭ [ q.v., Los Pedroches], whence his nisba of al-Ballūṭī . He studied in the capital of al-Andalus and set out ¶ to broaden his knowledge in the East on the occasion of a pilgrimage which he made in 308/921. He stayed in various cities, studied under several teachers and achieved renown in Egypt when he publicly corrected the reading of a verse of Mad̲j̲nūn Laylā [ q.v.] by Abū D̲j̲aʿfar al-Naḥḥās, who su…

al-K̲h̲ālidiyyāni

(378 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
the name generally given to two poets of Sayf al-Dawla’s [ q.v.] entourage, the two inseparable brothers abū ʿut̲h̲mān saʿd / saʿīd (d. 350/961) and abū bakr muḥammad (d. 380/990), sons of Hās̲h̲im b. Saʿīd b. Waʿla. They came originally from a village of the region of al-Mawṣil called al-K̲h̲ālidivva (Yāḳūt, ii, 390), and possibly lived for some time in Baṣra (Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xi, 208 affirms this and attributes to Abū ʿUt̲h̲mān the ethnic designation of al-Baṣrī), but became celebrated above all as the librarians of Sayf al-Dawla, to …

Dukayn al-Rād̲j̲iz

(256 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of two poets who were confused by Ibn Ḳutayba ( S̲h̲iʿr , S̲h̲ākir ed. 592-95) and the authors who copied or utilized him: Ibn ʿAbd Rabbih, ʿIḳd , 1346/1928 ed., 202-3; Ag̲h̲ānī , viii, 155—Beirut ed., ix, 252-3; C. A. Nallino, Litt ., (with a note of correction by M. Nallino). 1.—Dukayn b. Rad̲j̲āʾ al-Fuḳaymī (d. 105/723-24); a panegyric in rad̲j̲az composed by him on Muṣʿab b. al-Zubayr; and an urd̲j̲ūza upon his horse who won a race organized by al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (see Yāḳūt, xi, 113-17; Ibn ʿAsākir, v, 274-9), have been preserved. 2.—Dukayn b. Saʿīd al-Dārimī (d. 109/72…

al-Mirbad

(1,478 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name of a celebrated public place in al-Baṣra [ q.v.] which, although situated outside the metropolis of southern ʿIrāḳ, played an outstanding role in the economic life of that town as well as in the shaping of the specifically Arabic culture. Etymologically, the term could be a noun of place anomalously formed from the root r-b-d which implies, amongst other things, the meaning of “to halt, make a stop” and could thus designate a spot where nomads encamp, and then, by extension, where camels and sheep are penned up. The various denotations of t…

al-D̲j̲idd wa ’l-Hazl

(1,116 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
“seriousness and joking”, a common combination of antithetical terms which have a certain resonance in Muslim ethics and the Arabic literary genre known as adab . Although only the second of these words occurs in the Ḳurʾān, without implication of any kind, while its antonym d̲j̲idd and its synonym muzāḥ do not appear there at all, and although the Ḳurʾān does not explicitly prescribe either serious behaviour or the avoidance of jocularity, Islam without necessarily inspiring sadness and tears in spite of its pessimistic …

al-K̲h̲us̲h̲anī

(705 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ , Mālikī faḳīh and biographer, originally from K̲h̲us̲h̲an near Ḳayrawān. After studying fiḳh at the latter place and at Tunis, he left his homeland ca. 311/923, passing through Ceuta, where he was held back some time by teaching (he is said also to have corrected the orientation of the mosque there), and travelling to Spain. He resided in the Marches, and completed his legal training, especially from Ḳāsim b. Aṣbag̲h̲ [ q.v.], and ended up by enjoying the favour of the heir to the throne, prince ¶ al-Ḥakam, who procured for him the job of ḳāḍī

Nādira

(2,249 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.) pl. nawādir , literally “rare thing, rarity”, denotes a pleasing anecdote containing wit, humour, jocularity and lively repartee, ( nukta , pl. nukat ; mulḥa , pl. mulaḥ ; fukāha , etc.) of the type which has never ceased to be an integral feature of all social gatherings, whether intimate or official. A taste for this variety of entertainment seems to have developed in the lst/7th century in the Holy Cities of Islam, especially at Medina, where instruction in the art of composing and delivering anecdotes [see al-d̲j̲idd wa ’l-hazl ] began at a very early st…

al-Ag̲h̲lab al-ʿId̲j̲lī

(183 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( al-ag̲h̲lab b. ʿamr b. ʿubayda b. ḥārit̲h̲a b. dulaf b. ḏj̲us̲h̲am ), Arab poet, born in the pre-Islamic era and converted to Islam, who later settled at al-Kūfa, and was killed at the battle of Nihāwand (21/642) at the reputed age of 90. He is not regarded as one of the Companions of the Prophet. Al-Ag̲h̲lab is considered to be the first to have employed the rad̲j̲az metre in lengthy poems constructed on the pattern of the ḳaṣīda , but very few traces of his works remain. Critics praise particularly a poem on the prophetess Sad̲j̲āḥ [ q.v.], and quote an anecdote which suggests that Islam…

Ibn Munād̲h̲ir

(337 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Muḥammad , satirical poet, a native of ʿAdan, who went to Baṣra for his education, settled there and posed as a mawlā of the Banū Ṣubayr b. Yarbūʿ (Tamīm). He spent a devout and studious youth, following the courses of the best teachers of Baṣra, from whom he learnt grammar, Ḳurʾānic “readings”, lexicography, ḥadīt̲h̲ , etc., but on the death of his friend ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb al-T̲h̲aḳafī (for whom he wrote a much-admired funeral oration), his attitude changed completely; applying their point of doctrine concerning the tag̲h̲yīr al-munkar , the Muʿtazilīs ¶ were obliged t…

Mawlāy Maḥammad al-S̲h̲ayk̲h̲

(2,436 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, name of three Moroccan sultans belonging to the dynasty of the Saʿdids [ q.v.]. I. The first, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, who also bore the title of al-Mahdī and is sometimes known as al-Imām, is generally counted second or third in the list of members of the dynasty, but he may to a certain extent be considered its true founder, since it was he who put an end to that of the Marīnids [ q.v.]. Born probably at Tagmaddart (a district of the Darʿa) in 896/1490-1, he was the younger son of Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Ḳāʾim bi-amr Allāh, who was proclaimed sultan in 916/1510 and d…

al-Munakkab

(649 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the Arabic name of the small port on the Mediterranean coast of al-Andalus, Almunecar, which made its entry into the history of Islam on 1 Rabīʿ I 138/14 August 755, when the Umayyad prince ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ q.v.] b. Muʿāwiya al-Dāk̲h̲il trod there “for the first time the soil of his future kingdom” (Lévi-Provençal, Hist. Esp. Mus. , i, 101) before setting out to defeat the governor Yūsuf b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Fihrī. As it still is today, Almuñecar was part of the province of which the regional capital was Granada [see g̲h̲arnāṭa ], 40 miles away; the fate of the t…

Ibn al-Ḳirriyya

(258 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Sulaymān Ayyūb b. Zayd , of the Zayd Manāt (al-Ḳirriyya was probably the name of his mother or of one of his grandmothers), is presented as an illiterate Bedouin whose eloquence, however, became proverbial to the extent of eclipsing the fame of Saḥbān Wāʾil [ q.v.]. Tradition relates that he lived in the entourage of al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ [ q.v.], and adab books contain discourses, generally rhymed, which he is said to have given on various occasions or in reply to questions from his master. He is reported however to have joined the party of Ibn al-As̲h̲ʿat̲h̲ [ q.v.], drawing up his lett…

ʿAmr b. ʿAdī

(342 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. naṣr b. rabīʿa , first Lak̲h̲mid King of al-Ḥīra. His father ʿAdī employed a ruse (which frequently appears in Arab legend, cf. the story of ʿAbbāsa bint al-Mahdī) to win the hand of Raḳās̲h̲, sister of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma al-Abras̲h̲ [ q.v.], whose favourite he was; ʿAmr, the offspring of this union, succeeded in winning the favour of Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. but was then carried off by the d̲j̲inn , was considered lost, and was finally restored to his uncle. After al-Zabbāʾ (identified with Zenobia, queen of Palmyra) had seduced and killed Ḏj̲ad̲h̲īma. …

Ibn Dirham

(1,825 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, seldom-used patronym of an eminent family of Mālikī jurists and ḳāḍī s, originally of Baṣra, who bear the ethnic name al-Azdī in some sources; but since the members of this family are most often cited under their personal name or simply by their kunya , and since the line of parentage which connects them is consequently ¶ difficult to determine, it has been judged expedient to assemble them here under this somewhat artificial appellation, following the example of F. al-Bustānī who, in the Dāʾirat al-maʿārif (iii, 61), adopted it for one of them, the tenth of those listed below. These ḳāḍīs, w…

al-Ḥakam b. Muḥammad b. Ḳanbar

(316 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Māzinī , a minor poet of Baṣra, of whose work there remain only some lines of g̲h̲azal [ q.v.] that are entirely proper and for the most part set to music, and also a small number of invectives against Muslim b. al-Walīd [ q.v.]. The date of his birth, which must have taken place in about 110/728-9, is not precisely known, and the only indications concerning him that we possess are two anecdotes: the first tells of the female slaves of Sulaymān b. ʿAlī (d. 142/759 [ q.v.]) maltreating Ibn Ḳanbar, even stripping him in the street, because they were astonished to find so ugly a m…

al-Masḥ ʿAlā ’l-K̲h̲uffayn

(1,057 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), literally: “act of passing the hand over the boots”, designates the right whereby Sunnī Muslims may, in certain circumstances, pass the hand over their shoes instead of washing their feet as a means of preparing themselves for the saying of the ritual prayer. Al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲ānī ( Taʿrīfāt , ed. Tunis 1971, 112) proposes a definition of the masḥ : “passing the moistened hand without making (water) flow” ( imrār al-yad al-mubtalla bi-lā tasyīl ), which justifies the translation by “wetting of the shoes” which is adopted by L. Bercher and G. H.…

Ḥamza b. Ḥabīb

(350 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUmāra b. Ismāʿīl , Abū ʿUmāra al-Taymī al-Kūfī al-Zayyāt , one of the “Seven Readers” of the Ḳurʾān. A mawlā of the family of ʿIkrima b. Ribʿī al-Taymī, he was born in Ḥulwān in 80/699 and became a merchant; his surname al-Zayyāt arises from the fact that he transported oil from Kūfa to Ḥulwān, whence he brought cheese and nuts. Having settled at Kūfa, he became interested in ḥadīt̲h̲ and the farāʾīḍ , on which he left a Kitāb al-Farāʾīḍ which was probably collected by his pupils ( Fihrist , 44). His fame, however, rests particularly upon his “reading”. A pupil, in this field, of al-Aʿmas̲h̲ [ q.v…

Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan b. Dīnār

(400 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’lʿAbbās, better known as Ibn Dinar al-Aḥwal, rāwī of Bag̲h̲dād who lived in the 3rd/9th century and who died after 250/864. He followed the profession of bookseller ( warrāḳ ) and above all that of copyist ( nāsik̲h̲ ). Earning 20 dirhams per 100 leaves, he copied the translations and personal compositions of Ḥunayn b. Isḥāḳ [ q.v.] as well as the writings of al-Yazīdī [ q.v.], whose courses he had more or less followed, as those also of Nifṭawayh [ q.v.], since he had an interest in philology. He himself wrote in turn a series of works of which a list has been preserved by the biographers: K. al…

Ibn Lad̲j̲aʾ

(191 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿUmar b. Lad̲j̲aʾ b. Ḥudayr al-Taymī , of the Taym b. ʿAbd Manāt, an Arab poet of the 1st/7th century. Al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ emphasizes his skill in composing poems in rad̲j̲az and ḳaṣīdas , and Ibn Sallām places him in the fourth “class” of Islamic poets, but he has escaped oblivion chiefly owing to the invectives that he exchanged with Ḏj̲arīr [ q.v.]; these fragments of hid̲j̲āʾ are in part preserved in the Naḳāʾiḍ and in various anthologies, which for the most part ignore his other compositions; his rivalry with Ḏj̲arīr appears basically to have be…

al-Baʿīt̲h̲

(207 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nickname of a satirical poet of Baṣra named Ḵh̲idās̲h̲ b. Bis̲h̲r al-Mud̲j̲ās̲h̲iʿī. Though held to be the greatest orator of the Tamīm, Ibn Sallām places him in the second class of the great Islamic poets. The critics, however, consider that his relative obscurity was only due to the renown of Ḏj̲arīr; al-Baʿīt̲h̲’s activity is in fact associated with that of the two rivals Ḏj̲arīr and al-Farazdaḳ: for many years he exchanged invectives with the former, but was obliged to call the latter to h…

al-Ḥuḍayn

(290 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(not al-Ḥuṣayn) b. al-Mund̲h̲ir b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Waʿla al-Raḳās̲h̲ī al-Bakrī , Abū sāsān , a notable and poet of Baṣra ranking among the leading Tābiʿūn (d. ca. 100/718-9). His family was well-known even before Islam; some at least of its members had a reputation for avarice, which al-Ḥuḍayn seems to have justified, if we may judge by the words attributed to him by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, which leave no doubt as to his love of riches. While still quite young, he took part in the battle of Ṣiffīn [ q.v.] and fought bravely; he carried the standard of the Rabīʿa in the army of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭāl…

His̲h̲ām b. ʿAmr al-Fuwaṭī

(494 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(or al-Fawṭī ), a Muʿtazilī of Baṣra, where he was the pupil of Abu ’l-Hud̲h̲ayl [ q.v.]. After having probably been a wandering propagator of Iʿtizāl (Ibn al-Nadīm, Fihrist , ed. Fück, in Prof. Muḥ. S̲h̲afīʿ presentation volume, Lahore 1955, 68-9), he went to Bag̲h̲dād during the caliphate of al-Maʾmūn and died there at a date not known exactly, but probably before 218/833. His personal doctrine, which had a certain influence on al-As̲h̲ʿarī [ q.v.], differs appreciably, accoiding to Ibn al-Nadīm ( op. cit.), from the teachings of the other Muʿtazila, but the data given by th…

Abu ’l-Dunyā

(322 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-Hasan ʿAli b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲aṭṭāb (or ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḵh̲.), one of those to whom preternatural longevity has been ascribed ( muʿammarun , q.v.); he is also called al-Muʿammar al-Mag̲h̲ribī or al-As̲h̲ad̲j̲d̲j̲ al-Muʿammar. He is said to have been born about 600 A.D. and to have died in 316/928, 327/938-9 or even 476/1083-4. Of the tribe of Hamdān, he drank in his youth from the source of life in the presence of al-Ḵh̲aḍir [ q.v.], then joined ʿAli b. Abī Ṭālib, with whom he fought at Ṣiffīn and from whom he received the name of Abu ’l-Dunyā, after his hors…

Ibn S̲h̲uhayd

(1,998 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿĀmir Aḥmad b. Abī Marwān ʿAbd al-Malik b. Abī ʿUmar Aḥmad b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd al-As̲h̲d̲j̲aʿī , Andalusian poet, man of letters and vizier, born at Cordova, in 382/992, of an Arab family whose ancestor S̲h̲uhayd had settled in Spain before 162/778 and whose members included important officials in the Umayyad government. ʿĪsā b. S̲h̲uhayd had been a minister during the reign of Muḥammad I (238-73/852-86); Abū ʿĀmir’s great-grandfather had been appointed …

Ibn al-Zubayr

(399 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū D̲j̲aʿfar Aḥmad b. Ibrāhīm b. al-Zubayr b. Muḥammad al-T̲h̲aḳafī al-ʿĀṣimī , Andalusian traditionist, reader of the Ḳurʾān, man of letters and historian, born at Jaén (Ḏj̲ayyān) in Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 627/September-October 1230, d. Granada on 8 Rabīʿ I 708/26 August 1308. He seems to have been particularly interested in Ḳurʾānic ‘readings’, but his biographers speak very highly of his knowledge of the Arabic language and describe him as “the muḥaddit̲h̲ of al-Andalus and of the Mag̲h̲rib”. His propensity for redressing wrongs got him into tro…

al-Marwazī

(317 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Ṭālib ʿAzīz al-Dīn Ismāʿīl b. al-Ḥusayn b. Muḥammad ... b. ʿAlī b. al-Ḥusayn b. ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib, a Ḥusaynī who seems to have devoted himself to the study of genealogies, although he is also credited with knowledge of astronomy and, like so many others, he was a composer of verse. His ancestors had left Medina and settled first in Bag̲h̲dād, then in Ḳum(m) and finally in Marw, where he was born on 22 D̲j̲umādā 572/26 December 1176. He embarked on traditional studies in his nat…

Ḏj̲ins

(2,754 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
is the Arabic word in use at the present time to denote “sex”, the adjective d̲j̲insī corresponding to “sexual” and the abstract d̲j̲insiyya to “sexuality” as well as “nationality”. The juridical aspect of sexual relations has already been examined in the article bāh , and is to be the subject of further articles, nikāḥ and zinā ; the present review will be limited to general considerations on the sexual life of the Muslims and the place that it occupies in literature. Pre-Islamic poetry, in so far as it is authentic, indicates that a certain laxity of behaviour was prevalen…

al-Mand̲j̲ūr

(441 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. ʿAlī al-Miknāsī al-Fāsī , a learned Moroccan scholar and teacher, from a family originally from Meknès, born in Fās 926/1520 and died there 16 D̲h̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda/18 October 1587. Endowed with vast learning and a great power of verbal expressiveness, he spent his life teaching, with the methods in use at the time, various Islamic topics, in particular, theology and law, and was considered one of the greatest masters of his age at the Karawiyyīn [ q.v.]. Between 987 and 993/1579-85, he stayed frequently for periods in Marrakesh, where his most eminent disc…

al-Buḥturī

(1,676 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, abū ʿubāda al-walīd b. ʿubayd ( allāh ), Arab poet and anthologist of 3rd/9th century (206-284/821-897), born at Manbid̲j̲ (some state his birthplace to be the neighbouring village of Ḥurdufna), into a family belonging to the Buḥtur, a branch of the Ṭayyiʾ; not only did he never completely sever connexions with his native town, where the fortune amassed during his long career as court poet allowed him to acquire property, but he took advantage of his tribal origin to make useful connexions for himself. After having dedicated his first poetic efforts (223-6/837-40) to the prais…

Muḥammad b. Abī ʿUyayna

(447 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
( = Abu ’l-Minhāl) ¶ b. al-Muhallab b. Abī Ṣufra , Abū Ḥarb al-Muhallabī, ʿAbbāsid official who was governor of Rayy under the caliphate of al-Manṣūr (136-58/754-75); it is also known that the latter imprisoned him and imposed a fine on him ( Ag̲h̲ānī , ed. Beirut, xx, 23). This obscure individual merits attention only on account of the confusion created in the minds of authors and editors or commentators, on the one hand by the name (or surname, but not kunya ) of Abū ʿUyayna born by two descendants of al-Muhallab [ q.v.], sc. his son, who was the father of this Muḥammad, and his great…

Abu ’l-Ḥasan al-Aḥmar

(375 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the usual name of a philologist of Baṣra called ʿAlī b. al-Ḥasan/al-Mubārak, who was taught by al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], whose eager pupil he was; after his master, he became tutor to the future caliphs al-Amīn and al-Maʾmūn. The biographical sources record that al-Aḥmar was originally a member of al-Ras̲h̲īd’s guard, so that, being very attracted to the study of philology, he was unable to attend al-Kisāʾī’s teaching sessions except when he was not on duty in the palace. When the master came to give lessons to the you…

al-Muhallabī

(387 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥusayn al-Ḥasan b. Ahmad , Arab geographer, about whom it is only known that he died in 380/990 after having dedicated to the Fāṭimid caliph al-ʿAzīz bi’llāh (365-86/975-96) [ q.v.] a work which came within the category of those called al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik [ q.v.] and which actually bore this title but which is generally cited under that of al-ʿAzīzī . Although this work has not yet been rediscovered, it was already possible to get an idea of its contents thanks to several later authors who utilised it and took from it items of information, usu…

Ismāʿīl b. Yasār

(398 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Nisāʾī , Medinan poet, who died at a very advanced age some years before the end of the Umayyad dynasty (132/750). The descendant of an Ād̲h̲arbayd̲j̲ānī prisoner, he was a mawlā of the Taym b. Murra of Ḳurays̲h̲ and it is said that he owed his nisba to the fact that his father prepared meals—or sold carpets—for weddings, but this interpretation should be treated with caution. At Medina, where he lived, he had become a supporter of the Zubayrids, but his friendly relations with ʿUrwa b. al-Zubayr [ q.v.] (in whose company he went to the court of ʿAbd al-Malik b. Marwān after the…

al-Namir (Namr) b. Tawlab al-ʿUklī

(621 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Rabīʿa, a muk̲h̲aḍram [ q.v.] Arabie poet, who probably died before 23/644 at an extremely advanced age (al-Sid̲j̲istānī, Muʿammarīn , 70, makes him live 200 years, and cites six verses in which he speaks of his great age; other authors refer equally to his senility). The generosity of which he seems to have given proof on various occasions makes one think that he was rich and powerful within his tribe, which he represented in heading a delegation to the Prophet at Medina. The oldest sources (Ibn Sallām, Ṭabaḳāt , 137, in the first place) reproduce a lette…

Laḥn al-ʿĀmma

(5,487 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, “errors of language made by the common people”, is an expression which characterises a branch of lexicography designed to correct deviations by reference to the contemporary linguistic norm, as determined by the purists. The treatises which could be classed under this heading, correspond, broadly speaking, to our “do not say... but say...”, the incorrect form generally being introduced by “you say” or “they say = one says” ( taḳūl , yaḳūlūn ) and the correct form by wa ’l-ṣawāb ... “whereas the norm is...”; they are most often intitled Kitāb Laḥn al-ʿāmma or Kitāb mā talḥan/yalḥan fīhi…

Ḥilm

(1,860 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a complex and delicate notion which includes a certain number of qualities of character or moral attitudes, ranging from serene justice and moderation to forbearance and leniency, with self-mastery and dignity of bearing standing between these extremes. The term, which is sometimes linked with ʿilm , more however from stylistic considerations and a taste for paronomasia than from any conceptual association, is basically contrasted with d̲j̲ahl [see d̲j̲āhiliyya ] and safah or safāha ; a derivative from the latter root appears in the expression saffahal-aḥlām

Ibn al-Ad̲j̲dābī

(528 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm b. Ismāʿīl al-Ṭarābulusī , Arab philologist from a family originally stemming from Ad̲j̲dābiya (Libya); he himself lived at Tripoli, where he died at an uncertain date, probably in the first half of the 7th/13th century. Hardly anything further is known about his life, and the biographers limit themselves to emphasising the breadth of his knowledge and his contribution to the technical literature of scholars of his time. They attribute to him some eight works, whose titles show that he was interested in lexicography, metrics, the anwāʾ [ q.v.] and genealogies (he i…

Ḥamza b. Bīḍ

(453 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥanafī al-Kūfī (the spelling Bīḍ is attested by a verse where this name rhymes with tanbīḍ al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, Bayān , ed. Hārūn, iv, 47), is one of those Arab poets, full of wit and verve, ¶ whom the great men of the day did not take seriously but loaded with riches to gain their eulogies and escape their sarcasms, for they were quick to get the laugh on their side and, free of all scruples, did not hesitate to use blackmail. Ḥamza b. Bīḍ, who is treated by his biographers with indulgence and sympathy, is said to have succeeded in extracting from the great men whose company he frequented a million dirhams

Muṣʿab

(722 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Muṣʿab b. T̲h̲ābit b. ʿAbd Allāh b. al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām al-zubayrī , Abū ʿAbd Allāh, genealogist who owes his fame to two works, the Kitāb al-Nasab al-kabīr , considered to be lost, and the Kitāb Nasab Ḳurays̲h̲ , edited by E. Lévi-Provençal, Cairo 1953. This Ḳurays̲h̲ite was born in Medina, probably in 156/773, a descendant of the Companion al-Zubayr b. al-ʿAwwām [ q.v.]. He followed the teaching of various masters, including Mālik b. Anas [ q.v.], before settling at Bag̲h̲dād where he died, at the age of 80, on 2 S̲h̲awwāl 236/8 April 851 (the Fihrist

Ibn Wahbūn

(456 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Muḥammad ʿAbd al-D̲j̲alīl b. Wahbūn , Arab poet of Spain, whose career was passed at the court of the master of Seville, al-Muʿtamid Ibn ʿAbbād [ q.v.]. Born at Murcia, probably about 430-40/1039-49, into a family of humble origin, he went to seek his fortune at Seville, where he was the pupil of the philologist al-Aʿlam al-S̲h̲antamarī [ q.v.] and formed a friendship with the vizier and poet Ibn ʿAmmār [ q.v.] before being admitted to the court, in circumstances which are variously reported. He then became one of the official panegyrists of al-Muʿtamid and mad…

Ḥammād ʿAd̲j̲rad

(1,001 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(in status constructus), Arab satirical poet whose genealogy has not been exactly established; his kunya , Abū ʿUmar, would justify the following: Ḥammād b. ʿUmar b. Yūnus (rather than b. Yaḥyā or Yūnus b. ʿUmar) b. Kulayb al-Kūfī. Born at the latest at the beginning of the 2nd/8th century, this mawlā of a clan of the ʿĀmīr b. Ṣaʿṣaʿa probably owes his by-name ( ʿad̲j̲rad = completely naked) to the saying of a Bedouin. His biographers agree in declaring that he achieved fame only under the ʿAbbāsids, but they do not fail to point out th…

ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ

(167 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Duʾād ʿAdī b. Zayd b. Mālik b. ʿAdī b. al-Riḳāʿ al-ʿĀmilī , Arab poet of Syria, who was, in Damascus, the panegyrist of the Umayyads, especially of al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik (86-96/705-15), in the presence of whom he fought a poetical contest with Ḏj̲arīr; he was also the butt of attacks by al-Rāʿī. ʿAdī was celebrated for the grace of his nasīb (see especially al-Mubarrad, al-Kāmil , 85, concerning Umm al-Ḳāsim) and for the care with which he composed his poems. His poems were known in Spain at an early date ( BAH, ix, 397). He lived at least into the caliphate of Sulaymān b. ʿAbd…

ʿArīb b. Saʿd al-Kātib al-Ḳurṭubī

(396 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, an Andalusian mawlā who held various official posts (he was in particular ʿāmil of the district of Osuna in 331/943), lived in the entourage of al-Muṣḥafī [ q.v.] and Ibn Abī ʿĀmir [see al-manṣūr] and was the secretary of the Umayyad caliph al-Ḥakam II (350-66/961-76); the date of his death is not known, but is put by Pons Boigues at about 370/980. A man of wide learning, ʿArīb distinguished himself as physician and poet, but is primarily known for his work as a historian. He was in fact the author of a résumé of the Annals of al-Ṭabarī, which he continue…

Ahaggar

(755 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a Berber word denoting (a) the members (pl. ihaggarən ) of one of the noble tribes constituting the former group of the Northern Tuaregs [ q.v.], and (b) one of these tribes (Kəl Ahaggar or Ihaggarən), inhabiting a region to which it has given the name of Ahaggar (Hoggar). In its widest sense, the Ahaggar is the group of territories under the dominion of the Kəl Ahaggar. It covers an area of about 200,000 sq. miles between lat. 21°-25° N and long. 3°-6° E. Bounded by mountain massifs (the Ahanəf to the E., the Tassili of the Ajjər to the N.-E., the Immidir to the N., the Adrar of the Ifog̲h̲as [ q.v.] an…

Nābita

(544 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, (a.), a term of Classical Arabic which means in particular “rising generation”, but one which today has acquired the pejorative sense of “bad lot, rogue” which the plural nawābit and the expression nābitat s̲h̲arr previously possessed. These meanings were noted by the mediaeval lexicographers, but one finds in Ibn al-Nadīm a section ( Fihrist , ed. Cairo, 255-7, ed. Tad̲j̲addud, 229-31) devoted to the mutakallimū ’l-mud̲j̲bira [see d̲j̲abriyya ] and to the nābitat al-ḥas̲h̲wiyya , amongst whom the main exponent was allegedly Ibn Kullāb [ q.v. in Suppl.], whilst al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲a…

al-Māzarī

(1,176 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. ʿUmar, jurist of Ifrīḳiya who was surnamed "al-Imām" on account of his learning and his renown. His nisba refers to the Sicilian town of Mazzara ( Māzar in Arabic), the native place of his family, but it is not known whether the latter had emigrated to Ifrīḳiya before his birth, which may be dated at 453/1061 since he died in Rabīʿ I 536/October 1141, at al-Mahdiyya [ q.v.], at the age of 83 lunar years. It was in this last-named town that he settled after completing his traditional studies at Sfax as a pupil of al-Lak̲h̲mī (d. 478/…

Ibn K̲h̲ayr al-Is̲h̲bīlī

(310 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. K̲h̲ayr b. ʿUmar b. K̲h̲alīfa al-Lamtūnī al-Amawī , philologian and traditionist of Seville, where he was born in 502/1108. He became imām of the mosque at Cordova, and died in that city in 575/1179. Ibn K̲h̲ayr, who studied under many teachers in different regions of al-Andalus, owes his fame to the catalogue ( fahrasa [ q.v.]) of the works which he had read and of the teachers who had given him their id̲j̲āza at Seville, Cordova, Almería, Malaga, Granada, etc. This work, called Fahrasat mā rawāhu ʿan s̲h̲uyūk̲h̲i-hi min al-dawāwīn al-muṣannafa fī durūb al-ʿ…

al-Azdī

(332 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ismāʿīl b. isḥāḳ b. ismāʿīl b. ḥammād b. zayd , abū isḥāḳ al-ḳāḍī (199-282/814-95), Mālikī faḳīh , originally from Baṣra, who in 246/860 succeeded Sawwār b. ʿAbd Allāh as ḳāḍī of Bag̲h̲dād East. After having been removed from office in 255-6/869-70, he was restored to office, transferred to Bag̲h̲dād West in 258/871-2 and then given charge of both halves of the city from 262/876 till his death; he was then supreme ḳāḍī without having the official title, although currently described as ḳāḍīl-ḳuḍāt . He was also sent as an envoy to the Ṣaffārid who had i…

Aménokal

(311 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the current spelling of the Berber amənūkal , meaning "any political leader not subordinate to anyone else"; it is applied to foreign rulers, to highranking European leaders, and to the male members of certain noble families; in some regions of the Sahara, the title of amənūkal is given to the chiefs of small tribal groups, but in the Ahaggar [ q.v.], it is only conferred on the overlord of a confederation of noble or subject tribes. The amənūkal must be selected from among the Ihaggarən nobles, and his nomination is submitted for approval to an assembly of the nobles a…

ʿAmr b. Maʿdīkarib

(293 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿabd allāh al-zubaydī , abū thawr , famous Arab warrior and muk̲h̲aḍram poet. Born of a noble Yamanite family, he is depicted as a fighter of uncommon strength who, armed with his legendary sword al-Ṣamṣāma, took part in many battles during the d̲j̲āhiliyya . In 10/631, he went to Medina and was converted to Islam, without, however, making any radical change in his way of life; on the death of the Prophet, he apostatised and took part in the rebellion of al-Aswad al-ʿAnsī [ q.v.]; taken prisoner in the course of the suppression of the ridda by Abū Bakr, he was free…

al-Naḍr b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲

(530 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAlḳama b. Kalada b. ʿAbd Manāf b. ʿAbd al-Dār b. Ḳuṣayy, a rich Kurays̲h̲ite who, in the pre-Islamic period, carried on trade with al-Ḥīra and Persia, from where he is said to have brought back books (?) and to have brought back also one or more singing slave girls ( ḳayna [ q.v.]). He represented ʿAbd al-Dār in the group of the muṭʿimūn , i.e. the Meccans who were charged with supplying food for pilgrims, and he occupied a fairly eminent position in the town. He was a strenuous opponent of the Prophet, scoffing at him and not faili…

Muways b. ʿImrān

(793 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Ḏj̲umayʿ b. Ziyād al-Baṣrī , Abu ʿImrān, eminent mawlā of Baṣrā who lived in the second half of the 2nd/8th century. His name is considerably distorted in the sources and in studies, such that the variants encountered include Mūsā (by confusion with Mūsā b. ʿImrān = Moses), Muʾnis, Mawīs, etc.; furthermore, his name would not feature in history at all were it not that al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ [ q.v.] mentions him quite frequently and that he participated in the movement of politico-religious ideas which developed at Baṣra in the 2nd and 3rd/8th-9th centuries. It is under…

Mask̲h̲

(2,372 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.) “metamorphosis”, that is, according to LA, s.v., “transformation of an exterior form ( ṣūra ) into a more ugly form”; the product of the metamorphosis is itself called mask̲h̲ / misk̲h̲ or masīk̲h̲ / mamsūk̲h̲ . Belief in the fact that, as a result of supernatural intervention—divine punishment in the majority of cases—humans have been transformed into animals, statutes or even into stars was as widespread, before Islam, among the Arabs as among the peoples of Antiquity whose mythologies are known to us. The growth of the conc…

Ḥabāba

(335 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, name of a singing slave-girl ( ḳayna [ q.v.]) of Medina who had learnt music and singing from the great singers of the 1st/7th century: Ibn Surayd̲j̲, Mālik, Ibn Muḥriz, Maʿbad, D̲j̲amīla, ʿAzza [ qq.v.]. Her talent, beauty and charm conquered Yazīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik, who finally became her owner in circumstances which the sources describe very variously, but at a date after his accession (S̲h̲aʿbān 101/February 720); she was originally called al-ʿĀliya and it is he who is said to have given her the name by which she has remained famous. Ḥabāba is often associated with another ḳayna of Medin…

Abū Ḥuzāba

(299 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, al-walīd b. ḥunayfa (b. Nahīk in Ṭabarī, ii, 393) al-tamīmī , a minor poet of the 1st/7th century. He was a Bedouin who settled at Baṣra and was a panegyrist, at the time of Ziyād b. Abīhi (45-53/665-72) or shordy after, of ʿAbd Allāh b. K̲h̲ālid b. Asīd, governor of Fārs. His family urged him strongly to join the circle of Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya, before the latter’s assumption of the caliphate (60/680); he finally decided to try his luck, but was not received by the prince, and he retur…

sayyidī/sīdī Muḥammad IV b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān

(2,050 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, ʿAlawid sovereign who reigned over Morocco 1276-90/1859-73. Born probably around 1230/1815, he was appointed by his father, Mawlāy ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. His̲h̲ām [ q.v.] as viceroy ( k̲h̲alīfa ) in Marrakesh, where he was to continue to reside after his accession to the throne and to leave behind a certain number of buildings (but less than Sīdī Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh [ q.v.]). Memorable among them are the mausoleum erected in the cemetery ( rawḍa ) of Bāb al-Rubb, the conversion of the ʿArṣat al-Maʿās̲h̲ into a military quarter, the renovation of th…

Anwāʾ

(1,228 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), a system of computation among the early Arabs. The singular nawʾ , connected with the root nāʾa “to rise with difficulty, to lean, to support a load with difficulty” (cf. Ḳurʾān, xxviii, 76), denotes the acronychal setting of a star or constellation and heliacal rising of its opposite ( raḳīb ); by extension, it is applied to a period of time and, in the language of the later Middle Ages and the modern era, it has come to mean “cloud, rain, storm, tempest” (see Dozy, Suppl ., s.v.; Beaussier, s.v.; H. Wehr, Arab. Wörterbuch , s.v.), on account of the pluvial ro…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Abī Isḥāḳ

(203 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Ḥaḍramī , grammarian and Ḳurʾān-reader from Baṣra, died in 117/735-6. His "exceptional" ( s̲h̲ād̲h̲d̲h̲a ) reading continued the tradition of Ibn ʿAbbās and, in turn, influenced the readings of ʿĪsā b. ʿUmar al-T̲h̲aḳafī and of Abū ʿAmr b. al-ʿAlāʾ. It seems now established that he was the earliest of the real Arab grammarians (cf. Ibrahim Mustafa, Actes du XXI Congrès des Orient., 278-9). He is said to have extended the use of inductive reasoning ( ḳiyās ) and the detail is handed down that in case of doubt he opted for the accusative ( naṣb ). Nothing else is kn…

D̲j̲āwīd̲h̲ān K̲h̲irad

(918 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(P.) “eternal wisdom”, the title of a kind of Iranian Fürstenspiegel whose earliest known mention, occurs in a work by al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ, now lost, containing the memorable sayings of wise men and poets (see al-Ḵh̲afād̲j̲ī, Ṭirāz , 108), the Istiṭālat al-fahm . Judging by an extract which has been preserved, this author recounts, on the authority of al-Wāḳidī, the conditions in which the Ḏj̲āwīd̲h̲ān k̲h̲irad , the spiritual testament written “just after the Flood” by the mythical king Hūs̲h̲ang [ q.v.] for his sons and successors, was allegedly rediscovered. When al-Maʾmūn was …

ʿAzza Al-Maylāʾ

(182 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, “ʿAzza with the graceful walk”, celebrated singer and lu te player of Medina, mawlāt of the Anṣār, died probably before the end of the 1st/7th century, after a long career. A pupil of Sāʾib Ḵh̲ātir and Nas̲h̲īṭ, singers of Persian origin, then of Rāʾiḳa and D̲j̲amīla [ q.v.], she in her turn numbered among her pupils such famous singers as Ibn Muḥriz and Ibn Surayd̲j̲ [ q.v.], but, unlike D̲j̲amīla. she did not form an actual school. She ¶ differed from the latter, too as regards her practice of giving recitals in aristocratie households, but she also used to receive in …

Mat̲h̲alib

(1,650 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.), pl. of mat̲h̲la/uba , from the root t̲h̲.l.b ., which means “to criticise, to blame, to slander, to point out faults with the intention of being hurtful”. Although it is not a Ḳurʾānic term, it is attested from ancient times and has been used continuously until to-day to mean “faults, vices, defects, disgrace, etc.” (see further, Wehr). In earliest times and in the first centuries of Islam, it had a specialised usage, for it was broadly applied to what were regarded as subjects of shame for the tribes, the ethnic groups or even clans, rather than…

Miskīn al-Dārimī

(972 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the sobriquet and nisba of a poet from Tamīm of ʿIrāḳ, whose real name was Rabīʿa b. ʿĀmir b. Unayf b. S̲h̲urayḥ... b. Dārim (see his genealogy in Ibn al-Kalbī-Caskel, D̲j̲amhara , Tab. 60, and Register, ii, 409) and who lived in the 1st/7th century (Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xi, 132, fixes the date of his death in 89/708). The biographical notices which concern him tell us that he was very dark, handsome, courageous, and eloquent, but they give little information about his family and his offspring (he is said to have had a son called ʿUtba or ʿUḳba but Ibn Ḳutayba, S̲h̲iʿr , Cairo …

Abu ’l-Nad̲j̲m al-Faḍl (al-Mufaḍḍal) b. Ḳudāma al-ʿId̲j̲lī

(319 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Arab poet of the 1st/7-8th century (d. after 105/724). Although he composed several ḳaṣīda s, he owes his celebrity to his verses in rad̲j̲az in which he treats of beduin subjects (descriptions of camels, horses, ounces, etc.), and eulogizes the Umayyads ʿAbd al-Malik, His̲h̲ām, ʿAbd al-Malik b. Bis̲h̲r, and the governor al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲. The critics, who include him among the four best rud̲j̲d̲j̲āz (with his fellow-tribesman al-Ag̲h̲lab and the two Tamīmites of al-Baṣra, al-ʿAd̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ and his son Ruʾba), rank him highest for…

G̲h̲asīl al-Malāʾika

(187 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nickname by which Ḥanẓala b. Abī ʿĀmir (= ʿAbd ʿAmr) b. Ṣayfī al-Awsī, a Companion of the Prophet, is known. Son of a Christian monk counted among the “People of the Interval” [see fatra ], he embraced Islam and took part in the battle of Uḥud; he was about to kill Abū Sufyān [ q.v.], when he was mortally wounded by one of the enemy (some think that he fell at the hand of Abū Sufyān who, by killing a Ḥanẓala, would thus have avenged his own son Ḥanẓala who had fallen at Badr). On hearing of his death, the Prophet exclaimed: “The angels will prepar…

Muḥriz b. K̲h̲alaf

(1,276 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the patron saint of Tunis, today generally called Sidi Maḥrez ; in the classical texts, his name is sometimes followed by the epithet al-ʿĀbid owing to his legendary piety (e.g. in the Madārik of the ḳāḍī ʿIyāḍ: Sayyidī/Sīdī Muḥriz al-ʿĀbid), but his name is more often preceded by the title Muʾaddib. This famous personality actually dispensed, in his dwelling which was not yet the zāwiya of Sīdī Maḥrez, religious instruction of a kind that was followed by children as well as adults, and which gave to his cousin Ibn Abī Zayd al-Ḳayrawānī [ q.v.] the idea of composing a manual sufficient…

Ibn al-Aʿrābī

(628 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Muḥammad b. Ziyād , Abū ʿAbd Allāh , philologian of the school of Kūfa, who is said to have been the son of a slave from Sind who became a mawlā of al-ʿAbbās b. Muḥammad b. ʿAlī al-Hās̲h̲imī. Born at Kūfa in 150/767, he was the pupil principally of al-Kisāʾī [ q.v.], of Abū Muʿāwiya al-Ḍarīr, of al-Ḳāsim b. Maʿn al-Masʿūdī (see Fihrist , Cairo, 103) and of al-Mufaḍḍal al-Ḍabbī [ q.v.], who had married his mother and whose Mufaḍḍaliyyāt he handed on; and he in his turn had many disciples, among them T̲h̲aʿlab [ q.v.], Ibrāhīm al-Ḥarbī and Ibn al-Sikkīt [ q.v.], besides Saʿīd b. Salm b. Ḳutayba, …

Ibn Saʿīd al-Mag̲h̲ribī

(996 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. Mūsā b. Muḥ. b. ʿAbd al-Malik b. Saʿīd , Andalusian poet, anthologist, historian and geographer, born near Granada in 610/1213, in a family which was descended from the Companion of the Prophet ʿAmmār b. Yāsir [ q.v.] and which had long previously emigrated to Spain, where, during the period of the Ṭawāʾif , it had carved out a principality for itself in the Ḳalʿa of the Banū Yaḥṣub (modern name Alcala la Real), but had afterwards been forced to enter the service of the Almohads (for this family, see G. Potiron, Eléments de biographie et de généalogie des Banū Saʿīd , in Arabic…

Ibn al-Ḳaṭṭāʿ

(324 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
ʿĪsā b. Saʿīd al-Yaḥṣubī , Andalusian vizier of humble extraction but of Arab origin. Although he was the son of a simple schoolmaster, he succeeded in raising himself in the social scale thanks to al-Manṣūr [ q.v.], who gave him important posts and even entrusted to him the command of an army sent to Morocco in 386/997 to bring Zīrī b. ʿAṭiyya (cf. H. R. Idris, Zīrīdes , 81) to reason. Al-Manṣūr’s successor, his son ʿAbd al-Malik al-Muẓaffar [ q.v.], confirmed his appointment as vizier and left the administration of the state to him; he even gave his youngest sister in ma…

Abū K̲h̲irās̲h̲

(157 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Ḵh̲uwaylid b. Murra al-Hud̲h̲alī , muk̲h̲aḍram Arab poet, who was converted to Islam and died under the caliphate of ʿUmar, from the bite of a snake while he was drawing water for Yamanite pilgrims (who were then required by the caliph to pay his diya ). Abu Ḵh̲irās̲h̲ is counted among the pre-Islamic warriors who could run faster then horses, sharing this distinction with his nine brothers Abū Ḏj̲undab, ʿUrwa, al-Abaḥḥ, al-Aswad, Abu ’l-Aswad, ʿAmr, Zuhayr, Ḏj̲annād and Sufyān, who also were poets of rank. (Ch. Pellat) Bibliography The dīwān of Abū Ḵh̲irās̲h̲ was published by J. Hell, Neue …

Muḥammad b. Abī Ḥud̲h̲ayfa

(561 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿUtba b. Rabīʿa b. ʿAbd S̲h̲ams, Abu ’l-Ḳāsim (genealogy in the D̲j̲amhara of Ibn al-Kalbī, Tab. 8), Companion of the Prophet born in Abyssinia, to which his father and his mother (Sahla bint Suhayl b. ʿAmr) had emigrated (Ibn His̲h̲ām, Sīra , ed. Saḳḳā et alii, i, 322, ii, 369). Following the death of his father in 12/633 at the battle of ʿAḳrabāʾ [ q.v.] against Musaylima [ q.v.], the young orphan was brought up by ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, a fact which makes all the more reprehensible the conduct which he was later to engage in. Sent to Egypt, he took part in th…

Imẓad

(521 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(Berber) or amẓad , umẓad according to the dialect, “hair, fur”, denotes a musical instrument in use among the Touareg (Ṭawāriḳ [ q.v.]) and generally compared with a violin. The sounding-box consists of a half-calabash of varying diameter (20 to 50 cm.), over which a goatskin, tanned quickly and stripped of hair, is stretched and fixed with cord or acacia thorns; often decorated with motifs painted in bright colours or with inscriptions in tifinagh [see berbers, vi], the goatskin is pierced with one or two sound-holes (in Ahaggar, tiṭṭ “…

al-G̲h̲āḍirī

(167 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, hero of a series of anecdotes collected, probably in the 3rd/9th century, under the title Kitāb al-G̲h̲āḍirī ( Fihrist , 435). He is said to have been a foundling, who became a humourist of Medina and rival of As̲h̲ʿab [ q.v.]; the name of al-Ḥasan b. Zayd [ q.v.], governor of Medina from 150 to 155/767-72, which appears in one anecdote, would seem to give some grounds for thinking him a historical personality. However, as the Banū G̲h̲āḍira have a reputation as wits, it is possible that the anonymous collection referred to by Ibn al-Nadīm i…

Munṣifa

(757 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Munṣifāt ( As̲h̲ʿār —) (a.), the name given by the mediaeval Arabic critics and anthologists to those poems in which a description of the fights between tribes is accompanied by a recognition, with equity ( inṣāf), of the opponent’s valour and the sufferings endured by the poet’s own side. This term, whose correct reading has not always been immediately recognised by the Arabic scholars who have come across it, appears in particular in the Ṭabaḳāt al-s̲h̲uʿarāʾ of Ibn Sallām (ed. J. Hell, Leiden 1916, 33, 70; ed. M.M. S̲h̲ākir, Cairo n.d., 121, 233), in al-D̲j̲āḥiẓ’s Bayān

G̲h̲ulām Thaʿlab

(566 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, nickname of an Arab philologist named Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wāḥid b. Abī His̲h̲ām (Hās̲h̲im), Abū ʿUmar al-Zāhid al-Muṭarriz ¶ al-Bārūdī. A native of Abīward Ḵh̲urāsān, he was born in 261/875 and died at Bag̲h̲dād on 13 Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳaʿda 345/16 February 957. He owes his nickname to his relations with T̲h̲aʿlab [ q.v.] whose zealous disciple and successor he was; he himself had many pupils, and famous people did not scorn to attend his lectures. He made his living as an embroiderer ( muṭarriz ), but certainly received also subsidies from several patrons, as app…

Abu ’l-ʿArab

(169 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
Muḥammad b. Tamīm b. Tahmām al-Tamīmī , Malikite faḳīh , traditionist, historian and poet from Ḳayrawān. Offspring of a great Arab family (his great-grandfather was governor of Tūnis, seized Ḳayrawān in 183/799 and ended his life in prison in Bag̲h̲dād), Abu’l-ʿArab, born in Ḳayrawān between 250/864 and 260/873, devoted himself to study under various masters, trained, in his turn, several pupils (notably Ibn Abī Zayd al-Ḳayrawānī), took part in the revolt of Abū Yazīd against the Fatimids, was put in prison and died in 333/945. Of the works on fikh , ḥadīt̲h̲ and…

Nuʿaym b. Ḥammād

(403 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-K̲h̲uzāʿī al-Marwazī, Abū ʿAbd Allāh, a traditionist originally from Marw al-Rūd̲h̲ [ q.v.] who lived for a while in Egypt but above all in Bag̲h̲dād where, having been invited to recognise the created nature of the Ḳurʾān in the course of the miḥna [ q.v.], he refused to give his opinion and was thrown into one of the prisons at Sāmarrā; he died there on 13 D̲j̲umādā I 228/18 February 843 (but other dates around this are also given). He received from Sufyān b. Muʿāwiya, ʿAlīb. al-Mubârak and other muḥaddit̲h̲s [see Ḥadīt̲h̲ ] traditions which he in turn transm…

Fahrasa

(695 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, the name given in Muslim Spain to kinds of catalogues in which scholars enumerated, in one form or another, their masters and the subjects or works studied under their direction. The word fahrasa is an Arabicization of the Persian fihrist by means of a double vocalization -a- and the closing of the final tāʾ , a fairly frequent modification. In al-Andalus, it is completely synonymous with barnāmad̲j̲ , which is also Persian, while in the east it corresponds with t̲h̲abat , mas̲h̲īk̲h̲a ( mas̲h̲yak̲h̲a ) or muʿd̲j̲am (this last word is also used in the west)…

Midrār

(4,565 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(Banū) or Midrārids , minor Berber dynasty which was established in Sid̲j̲ilmās(s)a [ q.v.] and which enjoyed relative independence until its final collapse in 366/976-7. The history of this dynasty can be briefly outlined, thanks to al-Bakrī [ q.v.], who lived in the 5th/11th century and thus possessed quite recent information in order to write the chapter that he devotes to it ( Mug̲h̲rib , 148 ff., Fr. tr. 282 ff.), before Ibn ʿId̲h̲ārī (7th-8th/13th-14th century [ q.v.]), Ibn Ḵh̲aldūn (8th/14th century [ q.v.]) and several historians of the Mag̲h̲rib and Mas̲h̲riḳ were abl…

Abū Zayd al-Ḳuras̲h̲ī

(525 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, muḥammad b. abi ’l-k̲h̲aṭṭāb , adīb of the end of the 3rd/9th or of the beginning of the 4th/10th century, and known only as the author of the Ḏj̲amharat ashʿār al-ʿArab (ed. Būlāḳ 1308/1890). No personal details about the author can be derived from this collection, and the only relevant data are two isnād s, one (p. 13) going back to al-Hayt̲h̲am b. ʿAdī (d. ca. 206/821 [ q.v.]) through two intermediaries, and the other (p. 14) going back to Ibn al-Aʿrābī (d. 231/846 [ q.v.]) through one intermediary; these isnāds would thus allow us to date the Ḏj̲amhara approximatel…

Abū Duʾād al-Iyādī

(328 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Ḏj̲uwayra , Ḏj̲uwayriyya or Ḥārit̲h̲a b. al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲ (or again Ḥanẓala b. al-S̲h̲arḳī , which was more probably, however, the name of Abu ’l-Ṭamaḥān al-Ḳayni, see S̲h̲iʿr , 229), pre-Islamic poet of al-Ḥīra, contemporary of al-Mund̲h̲ir b. Māʾ al-Samāʾ (about 506-554 A.D.), who put him in the charge of his horses. The expression d̲j̲ārun ka-d̲j̲ārl Abī Duʾād , which appears in a line of Ḳays b. Zuhayr and has become proverbial, gave rise to several traditions showing Abū Duʾād as the “protégé” of a noble and generous d̲j̲ār, who is either al-Mund̲h̲ir, al-Ḥarit̲h̲ b. Ḥamm…

al-Aswad b. Yaʿfur

(191 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(also called Yuʿfur and Yaʿfir) b. ʿAbd al-Aswad al-Tamīmī, Abu ’l-Ḏj̲arrāḥ, pre-Islamic Arab poet who lived probably at the end of the 6th century A.D. He is said to have travelled about among the tribes, composing eulogies or satires in verse, and was for some time the companion of al-Nuʿmān b. al-Mund̲h̲ir. He is sometimes called al-Aʿs̲h̲ā of the Banū Nahs̲h̲al, because he was night-blind, but he lost his sight at the end of his life, which is thought to have been extremely long. Of the poems which have come down to us, the most celebrated are a ḳaṣīda in dāl dating p…

Ibn Abī ʿAtīḳ

(621 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
is the usual appellative of the great-grandson of the Caliph Abū Bakr, ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad (= Abū ʿAtīk) b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Bakr . All that is known of him is that, after al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn, he married, among others, Umm Isḥāḳ, the daughter of Ṭalḥa b. ʿUbayd Allāh. He led an idle existence in Medina, dividing his time between meetings with poets such as ʿUmar b. Abī Rabīʿa [ q.v.] or Kut̲h̲ayyir ʿAzza [ q.v.] and seeking the company of wits such as As̲h̲ʿab [ q.v.] or musicians and singers like Ibn ʿĀʾis̲h̲a [ q.v.]. Being a member of the Ḳurays̲h̲ī aristocracy, he was able in…

al-Masālik Wa ’l-Mamālik

(1,044 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
(a.) “routes and kingdoms”, name given by R. Blachère ( Extraits des principaux géographes arabes du Moyen Age , Beirut-Algiers 1934, 110-200; 2nd corrected printing by H. Darmaun, Paris 1957) to what he considered as a particular genre of Arabic geographical literature, because several works, which bear the title of Kitāb al-Masālik wa “ l-mamālik , present common characteristics. Nevertheless, not all those which, in his eyes, constitute this genre were given the title which has been retained, and furthermore, the K. al-Masālik wa ’l-mamālik which is per…

Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām

(185 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿAbd al-Malik , Umayyad prince. As the eldest son of His̲h̲ām [ q. v.], caliph from 105 to 125/724-43, he was designated heir presumptive by his father, but died prematurely, at a date variously located between 117 and 119/735-7, at about thirty years of age. Although he did not himself accede to the throne, he was the father of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān [ q.v.], known as al-Dāk̲h̲il. who fled to Spain where he restored the dynasty founded in Damascus by Muʿāwiya b. Abī Sufyān [ q.v.]. Muʿāwiya b. His̲h̲ām, who had thirteen sons, was thus the ancestor of the amīrs and caliphs wh…

ʿAbd Allāh b. Hammām

(246 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
al-Salūlī , Arab poet of the 1st/7th century (he is said to have died after 96/715), who played a political role under the Umayyads. He was attached from 60/680 to Yazīd b. Muʿāwiya, condoled with him upon the death of his father and congratulated him at his accession. He persuaded Yazīd to proclaim his son Muʿāwiya as heir presumptive and later he was the first to greet al-Walīd b. ʿAbd al-Malik with the name of caliph (86/705). During the reign of ʿAbd al-Malik (65-86/685-…

Mihyār

(552 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Marzawayh (Marzōye) al-Daylamī , Abu ’l-Ḥusayn (Ibn K̲h̲allikān) or Abu ’l-Ḥasan (other sources), poet who used the Arabic language, originally a Zoroastrian but becoming a convert to Islam in 394/1004 at the hands of al-S̲h̲arīf al-Raḍī (359-406/970-1016 [ q.v.]), dying in 428/1037. The famous S̲h̲īʿī poet and naḳīb of the descendants of the Prophet took charge of the education of his protégé, into whom he inculcated not only the basic principles of S̲h̲īʿism but also the necessary skills for him to act as a secretar…

G̲h̲aylān b. Muslim

(397 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, Abū Marwān al-Dimas̲h̲ḳī al-Ḳibṭī , is chiefly known as one of the first advocates of free will [see Ḳadariyya ], at the same time as Maʿbad al-Ḏj̲uhanī [ q.v.]. The son of a freed slave of ʿUt̲h̲mān b. ʿAffān, he appears, like Maʿbad, to have been the disciple of a Christian from ʿIrāḳ, but he lived in Damascus where he held the position of secretary in the chancellery. Al-Ḏj̲āḥiẓ ( Bayān , iii, 29) mentions him on the same footing as Ibn al-Muḳaffaʿ, Sahl b. Hārūn and ʿAbd al-Ḥamīd, and even one so strictly orthodox as al-ʿAsḳalānī acknowledged his professional ability ( Lisān al-Mizān

al-Balaṭī, Abu ’l-Fatḥ ʿUt̲h̲mān

(513 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. ʿīsā b. Manṣūr b. Muḥammad , Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn , grammarian, poet and adīb , originally from the town of Balad on the Tigris, which also had the name of Balaṭ (see Yāḳūt, i, 721), whence his nisba of al-Balaṭī, sometimes given in the diminutive form of al-Bulayṭī. Abu ’l-Fatḥ went first of all to teach in Syria, and then, when Saladin assumed power in Egypt (567/1171), he migrated to Cairo where the new sultan allotted to him a fixed stipend and appointed him to teach grammar and the Ḳurʾān in one of the mosque…

G̲h̲urāb

(938 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, (a.) “crow”. In view of the diversity of their meanings the Arabic words formed from the three consonants g̲h̲ , r and b cannot be traced to a single root, and it is probable that in the course of the history of the language there came about a convergence of terms with different origins; thus, g̲h̲urāb is too reminiscent of the Latin corvus for us to consider it a mere coincidence; moreover, early Arab philologists considered g̲h̲urāb to be independent, ¶ since they made to derive from it such words as g̲h̲urba , ig̲h̲tirāb , etc. which imply an idea of estrangemen…

al-K̲h̲irrīt

(616 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
b. Rās̲h̲id al-Nād̲j̲ī , partisan of ʿAlī b. Abī Ṭālib who fought in his ranks at Ṣiffīn [ q.v.], but who rebelled against him when the first results of the arbitration were known after having accepted, it appears, the principle of arbitration. He was chief of the Banū ʿAbd al-Bayt b. al-Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Sama b. Luʾayy (most usually called the B. Nād̲j̲iya, after the name of ʿAbd al-Bayt’s mother), who had only recently been converted to Islam, where they had not kept their original Christianity. He informed ʿAlī of h…

al-Dīkdān

(515 words)

Author(s): Pellat, Ch.
, a fortress situated on that part of the eastern shore of the Persian Gulf called the Sīf ʿUmāra, not far from the island of Ḳays [ q.v.], and famous in the 4th/10th century. It was known under three designations, Ḳalʿat al-Dīkdān, Ḥiṣn Dikbāya and Ḥiṣn Ibn ʿUmāra, as well as the Persian one Diz-i Pisar-i ʿUmāra ( Ḥudūd al-ʿālam , tr. 126). It stood guard over a village of fishermen and a port which could shelter some 20 ships, and according to Ibn Ḥawḳal (tr. Kramers and Wiet, 268-9), following Iṣṭak̲h̲rī (140), no-one could get u…
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