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(179 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] (Sanskrit, from Old Indic swasti, 'well-being'), crux gammata, 'gammadion'. Graphical symbol belonging to the language of ornamentation, occurring in Eurasia, northern Africa and central America. The earliest representations appear in Mesopotamia on pottery of the 4th millennium BC; there is later evidence in the Linear Pottery of the Danube area, in idols from Troy II and from Minoan Crete. In Attic-Geometric ornaments the - clockwise or anti-clockwise - swastika is part of the decorati…


(1,906 words)

Author(s): Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Weiler, Ingomar (Graz) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] A. Myth Nudity and disrobement are hardly ever themes in Greek myth. The most striking portrayal is the undressing of Aphrodite by Anchises in the Homeric hymn to Aphrodite (H. Hom. Aphr. 155-167), even if the nudity of the goddess is not explicitly mentioned (cf. Hom. Od. 8,265-305). More frequent is the accidental observation of a goddess bathing, followed by punishment (transformation, blinding etc). Instances are Erymanthus, Actaeon and Teiresias. The case of Arethusa [7] is dif…


(358 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] [1] Ancient ornament Among ancient ornaments the meander has the longest continuous tradition, spanning from its first appearance in prehistoric cultures to Christian Late Antiquity. In the Neolithic and Bronze Age the meander appears in linear pottery cultures, on the Balkan and in Italy as a running ornament [1] and in Helladic and Mycenaean decorations occasionally as a crenellated meander [3. 24]. There is, however, no continuity to the Proto-Geometric und Geometric Periods where…

Classical Archaeology

(20,015 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Schweizer, Stefan (Kassel RWG) | Schweizer, Beat (Tübingen RWG)
Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) A peculiarity of the discipline is the absence of a generally accepted concept of Classical Archeology (CA), which in a good third of German-speaking universities is simply called Archaeology, either by way of obvious simplification or by way of conscious extension of the subject-matter, thereby sacrificing the aspect and claim of the ‘Classical’. One of its most prominent research bodies, the Deutsches Archäologisches Institut [20; 55; 89], was founded in Rome in 1829 as the Istituto di corrispond…


(580 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg)
(νάρθηξ; nárth ēx). [German version] [1] Yellow-flowering giant fennel (Latin ferula with uncertain etymology). The umbelliferous plant Ferula communis, the yellow-flowering giant fennel, which Theophrastus (H. plant. 6,2,8f., cf. Plin. HN 13,123) describes [1. 61f. and fig. 95-97]. On the coasts of Greece, on the islands and in Lower Italy this plant grows up to 5 m high. The dried stems were used like a cane for punishment, as the ‘sceptre of paedagogues’ ( sceptrum paedagogorum, Mart. 10,62,10 et passim), but also as a cattle goad and the staff of the Bacchants (Thyrs…

Porta Triumphalis

(328 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] Construction in Rome, about which ancient evidence is scanty [1] and whose location and relationship to the city wall have always been disputed. The route of a triumph always passed through this gate (Cic. Pis. 23,55; Ios. BI 7,130 f.), which is to be sought on the sacred border of Rome, the Pomerium, and not primarily in the city wall, even if the two may have coincided in certain phases of the history of the city. The ritual passing to the domi ('at home') region from the militiae ('in the field') one may have had a function of expiation, purification or transitio…


(51 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] (σύμπλεγμα/ sýmplegma, 'entanglement'). Term used in classical archaeology - after Plin. HN 36,4,24 and 36,4,35 - for erotic groups, primarily in sculpture. The term has been falling out of use in recent times. Willers, Dietrich (Berne) Bibliography A. Stähli, Die Verweigerung der Lüste. Erotische Gruppen in der antiken Plastik, 1999.


(2,206 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Haas, Max (Basle)
[German version] I. Architecture 'Proportion' is a modern technical term in the archaeological research of monuments. In the description of a structure, a proportion represents the ratio of two lines or the ratio of the sides of a rectangular area, in the mathematical sense of a division (x:y). The proportions of a building are determined based on its detailed measurement. Increasingly precise and generally binding procedures for obtaining and evaluating the relevant data have been developed by W. Dörpfeld; K. Koldewey; O. Puchstein i.a. since the late 19th century. The extent to wh…


(240 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] (Latin 'spring'), a personification of one of the seasons (II B). V. never had her own cult or myth. In literature and visual representations all the seasons are present, but spring is particularly well developed as a literary motif (Seasons II B 2). In pictorial art the seasons are individually identified by type and/or appropriate attributes, but appear only in a cycle - as women figures (Horai), as cupids, or as youths ( genii). Here V. is identified with seasonal attributes (blooms, individually, as a field of flowers, in garlands etc.), and not…

Textile art

(799 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] Although TA is one of the oldest human skills, original ancient remains survive only exceptionally from climatically favourable regions (Textiles, production of). Its development must therefore be inferred predominantly from indirect sources, i.e. from unsystematic information in ancient literature and from depictions in painting, mosaics, vase painting and sculpture [1]. The objects of TA are clothing (cf. also barbárōn hyphásmata , toga , trabea [1], tunica ), wall hangings and curtains, floor coverings and rugs, and, finall…

Samia vasa

(60 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] ('Samian vases'). Clay pots known only from Latin literature (Plaut. Bacch. 202; Plaut. Capt. 291; Cic. Rep. 6,2,2; Tib. 2,3,47; Isid. Orig. 20,3,4.6). Their shape is unknown, so they can not be correlated with pots of surviving Roman ceramics. The clay was high-fired and sherds were sharp; SV were used in sacral and profane contexts. Willers, Dietrich (Berne)


(26 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] A sculptor of athlete statues mentioned in Xen. Mem. 3,10,6-8. He is not attested elsewhere and may be fictive. Willers, Dietrich (Berne)


(3,874 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] I. Introduction Lat. ornamentum (= ornament), 'ornament', 'adornment, 'equipment', pl. 'insignia' ( ornamenta ). In the legal sources of the Imperial period ornamentum denotes the superfluous addition, which serves voluptas ('pleasure') but is firmly connected to the building. In addition to paintings, gardens and fountains, ornamenta mainly included loricationes (hypocaust installations) and incrustationes (marble panelling) [36. 275]. This late notion of ornamentum continues to influence the ways in which ornaments are dealt with as a te…


(1,534 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Nimbus vitreus Nimbus vitreus (‘glass clouds’), a pun by Martial (14,112), which has been misunderstood mostly since Friedländer's annotations [1. 322] and into the most recent commentary [2. 174] has been misunderstood and is translated as a ‘glass vessel for sprinkling liquids with numerous openings’. What is meant is the effect of such an instrument when wine is sprayed. Willers, Dietrich (Berne) Bibliography 1 L. Friedländer (ed.), M. Valerii Martialis epigrammaton libri (with explanatory notes), vol. 2, 1886 2 T.J. Leary (ed.), Martial Book XIV. T…

Severe style

(600 words)

Author(s): Menci, Giovanna (Florence) | Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] [1] Writing style Name given by [6. 124] to a group of Greek majuscule book-hands (Majuscule); characteristics are stiff, angular strokes, caused by the ‘severe’ letter forms (with a predominance of straight rather than curved strokes), and the contrast between narrow ( e. g. Ε, Θ, Ο, Σ) and broad letters ( e. g. Α, Δ, Κ, Λ, Μ, Ν, Π, Τ). [5] used the term Bakchylideische Unziale (‘Bacchylidean uncials’), referring to the most famous example, the book roll of Bacchylides' epinicia (PLond. inv. 733 = PLit. Lond. 46). [7. 22], on the other hand, i…

Tazza Farnese

(97 words)

Author(s): Willers, Dietrich (Berne)
[German version] Cameo cup (of agate, c. 200 mm in diameter (Gem cutting III.) in Naples,  MAN. The TF is a major work of ancient gem engraving; because of its outstanding quality, which permits no comparative observations, the interpretation of the content, rich in figures from Egyptian-Ptolemaic iconography, and the dating - suggestions range from the 3rd cent. BC to the 1st - remain controversial. Willers, Dietrich (Berne) Bibliography E. La Rocca, L'età d'oro di Cleopatra. Indagine sulla T. F., 1984  E. Simon, Alexandria, Samarkand, Florenz, Rom. Stationen der T. F., in: H. Alt…


(1,202 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Knell, Heiner (Darmstadt) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne) | Et al.
(Καλλικράτης; Kallikrátēs). [German version] [1] Athenian demagogue and politician Athenian demagogue and politician in the succession of  Cleophon, he abolished the   diobelía with the promise of increasing it by an obolós; later sentenced to death (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 28,3). Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) Bibliography Rhodes, 356-357. [German version] [2] Sculptor in Laconia Sculptor in Laconia. Together with  Myrmecides, C. was considered the legendary, probably archaic creator of microscopic sculptures made of iron, bronze, ivory and marble. An…