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Xenoi

(675 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(ξένοι/ xénoi). 'Alien', i.e. free-born person not belonging to the Greek citizenship structure, who voluntarily stayed in a place and enjoyed certain rights there. Non-free aliens (slaves, prisoners of war) were not members of the group of xenoi, which was primarily defined in terms of rights. [German version] I. Classical Greece The term xenoi generally describes large groups of free-born people, staying permanently or temporarily in a particular community, without being citizens of it (Thuc. 2,31,1; 2,36,4; 6,30,2; Aristot. Pol. 1300b 31 f.), often used in contrast to ἀστοί/ ast…

Klerouchoi

(1,718 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι; klēroûchoi, proprietors of a klêros , of a ‘land allotment’). I. Athens [German version] A. 5th cent. BC Apart from its metaphorical meaning in Sophocles (Soph. Aj. 508: ‘having a certain fate’) first mentioned in literature by Herodotus (5,77,2) as a designation of 400 Athenians, who received fields in Chalcis [1] after the Athenian victory over the Chalcidians in 506/505 BC. The number is probably exaggerated, and cannot be corrected from Aelianus (Var. 6,1), who reports that 2,000 Athenians were settled on lands of the Chalcidian hippobótai . These kleroûchoi had to re…

Harmachis

(225 words)

Author(s): Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Egyptian Ḥrw-m-ḫ.t, ‘Horus in the horizon’). [German version] [1] Name of the great Sphinx Name under which the great  Sphinx of  Gizeh was venerated as the embodiment of the sun god since the beginning of the New Kingdom ( c. 1500 BC). Many votive steles document the popularity of the cult amongst private people as well as kings. Seidlmayer, Stephan Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography J. Assmann, s.v. H., LÄ2, 992-996. [German version] [2] Priest of Ptah of Memphis, about 200 BC Son of Anemhor, father of Nesysti III; high priest of Ptah of Memphis ( c. 260 ─ after 194-193 BC); sometimes i…

Eirene

(570 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Εἰρήνη; Eirḗnē). The word is perhaps pre-Greek [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Personification and deification of peace Personification and deification of peace (Orph. H. 15,11). E. is one of the  Horae, daughter of Zeus and Themis, sister of Dike and Eunomia (Hes. Theog. 901-902; Pind. Ol. 13,6-8). She is often mentioned in Greek literature as a central figure for the prospering of the political community. Thus, E.'s gifts are praised, for instance, in Bacchyl. fr. 4,61 Snell-Maehler and in Euripides (Bacch. 419-420; TGF 453) while usually being connected, as ‘a giver of wealth’, to ploút…

Leontiscus

(136 words)

Author(s): Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λεοντίσκος; Leontískos). [German version] [1] Olympic winner from Messana of Messana (Sicily). Two times Olympic winner in wrestling (456, 452 BC) [1]. He won his fights (in a similar manner to the pancratiast Sostratus) by breaking fingers (Paus. 6,4,3). His victor's statue in Olympia is by Pythagoras of Rhegium [2]. Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) Bibliography 1 L. Moretti, Olympionikai, 1957, no. 271, 285 2 H.-V. Herrmann, Die Siegerstatuen von Olympia, in: Nikephoros 1, 1988, 154, no. 40. [German version] [2] Son of Ptolemy I, late 4th cent. BC Son of Ptolemy I and Thais, brother …

Antigone

(839 words)

Author(s): Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἀντιγόνη; Antigónē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Thessalian  Phere Daughter of Thessalian  Phere and mother of the Argonaut Asterion (Hyg. Fab. 14,1). Harder, Ruth Elisabeth (Zürich) [German version] [2] Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia Daughter of king Eurytion of Phthia, wife of  Peleus, by whom she has a daughter Polydora (Pherec. FGrH 3 F 61a). Peleus accidentally kills Eurytion and therefore flees to Acastus at Iolcus, who exculpates him. Acastus' wife Astydameia tries in vain to win him for herself and then in reve…

Philammon

(224 words)

Author(s): Knorr, Thorsten (Hamburg) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Φιλάμμων; Philámmōn). [German version] [1] Singer and lyrist Mythical singer and lyrist of Delphi, a son of Apollo (Pherecydes of Athens FGrH 3 F 120); his mother is variously given as Philonis (ibid.), Chione [2] (Ov. Met. 11,316f.) and Leuconoe [1] (Hyg. Fab. 161). His sons - for whom there are also other genealogical backgrounds - were Thamyris (Eur. Rhes. 916; 925) and Eumolpus (Theoc. 24,108). At Delphi, P. is said to have introduced choirs of virgins (Pherecydes loc. cit.) and choirs within the t…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Ganymede

(531 words)

Author(s): Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Γανυμήδης; Ganymḗdēs, Etruscan Catmite, Latin apart from G. also Catamitus). [German version] [1] Cupbearer to Zeus In Greek mythology (main source: Hom. Il 20,231-235) the son of the Dardanian king Tros (Iliad parva 29,4 PEG I: son of Laomedon), who as the most beautiful human was abducted to the Olympus to serve Zeus as cupbearer in eternal youth and to delight the gods with his beauty. He is either abducted in a windstorm (H. Hom. 5,202), by  Iris (in art, possibly already in Ibycus PMG Fr. 289), by  Hermes…

Agathoclea

(178 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ἀγαθόκλεια; Agathókleia). [German version] [1] Mistress of Ptolemy II Mistress of Ptolemy II; her historicity is uncertain. PP 6, 14713; [1]. Ameling, Walter (Jena) [German version] [2] Mistress of Ptolemy IV Daughter of Agathocles [5] and  Oenanthe, sister of  Agathocles [6]. Mentioned 215 BC in possession of several Nile boats, 213/12 kanephore. Mistress of Ptolemy IV; in 204 took part in the murder of  Arsinoe [II 4] III, entrusted with her mother with the young Ptolemy V (as nursemaid?). Murdered by a mob in 203 at the deposition of her brother. PP 3/9, 4984; 6, 14714; [2]. Ameling, W…

Arabarches

(420 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
(Ἀραβάρχης; Arabárchēs) [German version] [1] Office in roman Egypt Office in Roman Egypt, attested as from 2nd cent. AD (OGIS 202), but it may have had Ptolemaic models. A college of arabarchai was responsible for levying the import tax in Coptus in the mid 2nd cent. (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). The distribution of tasks is unclear with the παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης ( paralḗmptēs tês Erýthras thalássēs), however, OGIS 202 indicates the offices were operating in parallel. The arabarches was also responsible for collecting the road taxes on the road from Coptus to …

Stolus

(232 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel)
[German version] [1] From Cyrene, c. 100 BC (Στόλος; Stólos). Son of Theon, probably from Cyrene, later honoured with Athenian citizenship; archedéatros in Cyrene in 108 BC, later admiral of Ptolemaeus [15] IX on Cyprus between 107 and 104. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography R. S. Bagnall, S. the Admiral, in: Phoenix 26, 1972, 358-368  H. Hauben, Was S. a Cyrenaean?, in: ZPE 25, 1977, 221-226  J. Pouilloux, Salaminiens de Chypre à Delos, in: BCH Suppl. 1, 1973, 406-411. [German version] [2] City This item can be found on the following maps: Delian League (Στῶλος; Stōlos). Inland cit…

Polemaeus

(352 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος/ Polemaîos). [German version] [1] Macedonian commander, c. 300 BC (also called Ptolemaeus and Polemon in MSS, but correctly P ., IG II2 469 and IK 28,2). Son of one P., Macedonian, nephew of Antigonus [1]. P. was probably already an officer in the Macedonian army under Alexander [4] the Great, possibly sōmatophýlax (Court titles B) of Philippus Arridaeus [4] (Arr. Succ. 1,38). In 319, he went to Eumenes [1] as a hostage of Antigonus (Plut. Eumenes 10); in 314 he was sent as general to Cappadocia and to secure the Hellespont (Diod. Sic.…

Cronius

(349 words)

Author(s): Frede, Michael (Oxford) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Κρόνιος; Krónios). [German version] [1] Platonist Platonist (Syranus, In Aristot. Metaph. 109,11) of the Pythagorizing tendency, mostly called a Pythagorean, (perhaps older) contemporary and friend (Porph. De anthro nympharum 21) of  Numenius, about the mid 2nd cent. AD. As a rule C. is only mentioned with him but frequently before him and generally shares his opinion. C. was read in the school of Plotin (Porph. Vita Pythagorica 14); he composed hypomnemata (ibid., probably no commentaries on whole w…

Arabarches

(372 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale)
[English version] [1] Amt im röm. Ägypten Amt im röm. Ägypten, zuerst 2 n. Chr. belegt (OGIS 202), aber vielleicht mit ptolemäischen Vorbildern. Ein Kollegium von A. war Mitte des 2. Jh. für die Erhebung der Einfuhrsteuer in Koptos zuständig (SB 18,13167, vers. 2,11 ff.). Unklar ist die Aufgabenteilung mit dem παραλήμπτης τῆς Ἐρύθρας θαλάσσης, doch zeigt OGIS 202 das Nebeneinander der Ämter. Der A. war auch für den Einzug der Straßengebühren auf der Straße von Koptos zum Roten Meer zuständig (OGIS 674 …

Hippalos

(259 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Brodersen, Kai (Mannheim)
(Ἵππαλος). [English version] [1] Sohn des Sosos, Priester eines Königskultes, Offizier Sohn des Sosos (?); Vater des Gaustrategen Theomnestos (PP 1/8, 260; 3/9, 5147) und der Athlophore Batra (PP 3/9, 5051). 185-169 v.Chr. Priester des Königskultes in Ptolemais Hermu; 182 und 173 als eponymer Offizier belegt; vor Nov. 176 (seit 185?) ἀρχισωματοφύλαξ ( archisōmatophýlax, “Erzleibwächter”) und erster stratēgós der Thebais (der Hoftitel ist abhängig von der Lesung in PLond VII 2188, 214); von Nov. 176 bis wenigstens Mai 172 τῶν πρώτων φίλων ( tōn prṓtōn phílōn) und epistratēgós der g…

Kleruchoi

(1,484 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(κληροῦχοι, Inhaber eines klḗros , “Landloses”). I. Athen [English version] A. 5. Jahrhundert v.Chr. Abgesehen von der metaphor. Bedeutung bei Sophokles (Soph. Ai. 508: “Schicksalslos habend”) lit. zuerst belegt bei Herodot (5,77,2) zur Bezeichnung von 400 Athenern, die nach dem athen. Sieg über die Chalkidier 506/5 v.Chr. Äcker in Chalkis [1] erhielten. Die Zahl ist wohl übertrieben, läßt sich aber nicht aus Ailianos (var. 6,1) korrigieren, wonach 2000 Athener auf Ländereien der chalkid. hippobótai angesiedelt wurden. Diese k. mußten sich 490 vor den Persern nach Orop…

Polemaios

(326 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg)
(Πολεμαῖος). [English version] [1] Makedonischer Heerführer um 300 v. Chr. (in den Hss. auch Ptolemaios und Polemon; richtig aber P., IG II2 469 und IK 28,2). Sohn eines P., Makedone, Neffe des Antigonos [1]. P. war verm. bereits unter Alexandros [4] d.Gr. Offizier im maked. Heer, evtl. sōmatophýlax (Hoftitel B.) des Philippos Arridaios [4] (Arr. succ. 1,38). Er ging 319 v. Chr. als Geisel des Antigonos [1] zu Eumenes [1] (Plut. Eumenes 10), wurde 314 als General nach Kappadokia und zur Sicherung des Hellespontos ausgeschickt (Diod. 19,57,4;…

Patroklos

(905 words)

Author(s): Stenger, Jan (Kiel) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Πάτροκλος, auch Πατροκλῆς; lat. Patroclus). [English version] [1] Gefährte des Achilleus Sohn des Menoitios [1] aus Opus (Hom. Il. 11,814; der Name der Mutter bei Homer nicht genannt, Varianten bei Apollod. 3,176), bester Freund des Achilleus [1]. In seiner Kindheit tötet P. aus Zorn beim Würfeln einen Spielkameraden, worauf er nach Phthia zu Peleus flieht, der ihn dem Achilleus zum Gefährten gibt (Hom. Il. 23,85-90; Hellanikos FGrH 4 F 145; Apollod. 3,176). Nach Pind. O. 9,70-79 kämpft P. schon vor dem e…

Hegelochos

(223 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Ἡγέλοχος). [English version] [1] Flottenoffizier unter Alexandros d.Gr., 4. Jh. v.Chr. Sohn des Hippostratos, Offizier unter Alexandros [4]. Anfangs Kommandeur der Vorhutkavallerie, wurde er im Sommer 333 v.Chr. beauftragt, aus von griech. Städten gesammelten Schiffen eine maked. Flotte zu bilden (Arr. an. 2,2,3; ungenau Curt. 3,1,19f.; Amphoteros war ihm unter- und nicht beigeordnet). Nach dem Tod von Memnon beherrschte seine Flotte den Hellespont, wo er u.a. eine athenische Getreideflotte aufhielt (Ps.-…
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