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Costoboci

(120 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κοστοβῶκοι; Kostobôkoi, Paus. 10,34,5; Κοστουβῶκοι; Kostoubôkoi, Cass. Dio 71,12,1; Costoboci, SHA Aur. 22,1; Costobocae, Amm. Marc. 22,8,42; Castaboci/ Castabocae, ILS 1327). A people of Dacian (Thracian?) origin that lived on the eastern margin of the Carpathians. In AD 170, the C. took part in the Marcomanni Wars against Rome. A raid took them through Dacia (cf. CIL III 14214 = ILS 8501) into Greece where they were defeated in  Phocis (Paus. 10,34,5; cf. ILS 1327). The Asdingi inflicted a crushing defeat on them in 171/2 (Cass. Dio 71,12,1). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bib…

Discoduratera

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Δισκοδουρατέραι; Diskodouratérai). A considerable emporium between the modern villages of Gostilitsa and Slaveikovo on the left bank of the Yantra (ancient Iatrus), 12 km west of Drianovo, 32 km south-west of Nicopolis ad Istrum, founded by Augusta Traiana probably during the reign of Marcus Aurelius. Enjoyed considerable prosperity under the Severan emperors, when it was fortified; under Aurelian incorporated into the territory of Nicopolis ad Istrum. Numerous inscriptions ([1. 21ff.], IGBulg II, 137-145) and important ruins. Burian, Jan (Prague) Biblio…

Carpi

(130 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Κάρποι; Kárpoi). Important Dacian tribe; its original settlement area was located between Olbia and the mouth of the Danube. In the 3rd cent. AD, the C. settled in the lower Danube region. From then on, they were frequently in bloody disputes with Rome, initially in Dacia, later also in Moesia and Thrace; these opened the way into the Roman empire for other tribes, especially the Goths. From the time of the emperor Aurelian, the Romans settled individual groups of the C. in Roman …

Carsium

(100 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort on the embankment road of the Danube, built under Trajan, modern Hîrşova/Constanţa in Romania (Tab. Peut. 7,3 Carsio; It. Ant. 224; Not. Dign. or. 39,22 Carso; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,2 Carsion; Ptol. 3,10,5 Κάρσους; Procop. Aed. 4,11,20 Καρσώ). Road junction, ford across the Danube. Destroyed by the Huns, rebuilt, into the 6th cent. garrison for military units, amongst them the legio I Italica, ala II Hispanorum et Aravacorum, milites Scythici. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography R. Vulpe, Histoire ancienne de la Do…

Transmarisca

(157 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (Τρασμαρίσκα/ Trasmaríska). Roman fort in Moesia Inferior (Moesi with map) on the right bank of the lower Danube (Ister [2]; Ptol. 3,10,11: Τρομαρίσκα/ Tromaríska; Procop. Aed. 4,7,7; Geogr. Rav. 4,7,1: Stamarisca) between Sexaginta Prista (modern Ruse) and Durostorum, modern Tutrakan (county of Silistra, Bulgaria). T. gained significance from the 2nd cent. AD onwards, when the Cohors I Thracum was temporarily stationed in the fort. At the end of the 3rd cent. increased defence measures were taken on the lower Danube (Limes V), the fo…

Gorsium

(176 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: (It. Ant. 264,4; 265,1; CIL III 3342f.; 3346; 11345). Roman camp and civil settlement in Pannonia inferior, modern Tác/Fejér (near Székesfehérvár/Hungary). Originally, G. was the centre of the Celtic Aravisci; during the Roman period, it was the intersection of the roads Sopianae─Aquincum and Sopianae─Brigetio. Rich archaeological finds attest to the importance of G. (remnants of buildings, burial ground). In the 1st cent. AD the camp which harboured the ala I Scubulorum was installed. The garrison was discharged…

Siculus Flaccus

(77 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Along with Frontinus and Hyginus, most significant of the Roman surveyors. He probably lived under Trajan and Hadrian in the 2nd cent. AD and in his work De condicionibus agrorum ('On the legal status of landholdings') described the forms of Roman land ownership and the working methods of gromatici ( groma ); what survives of it [1] relates to Italy. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography 1 C. Thulin (ed.), Corpus agrimensorum Romanorum, vol. 1.1, 1913, 98-130.

Viminacium

(427 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Legio | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Rome Roman legion camp and civil settlement in Moesia superior (Ptol. 3,9,3: Οὐιμινάκιον/ Ouiminákion; Procop. Aed. 4,5,17; 4,6,1: Βιμινάκιον/ Biminákion; Eutr. 9,20,2; Not. Dign. Or. 41,5;16;31;38; It. Ant. 133,2 f.; 217,5; It. Burd. 564,8: civitas Viminatio; Tab. Peut. 7,2: Viminatio) near modern Kostolac (Serbia). The settlement was located in the area of the Celtic Scordisci on the right shore of the Mlava near the mouth of the …

Siscia

(190 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Rome Roman settlement in Pannonia superior ('Sicce', Geogr. Rav. 4,20; Σεγεστική/ Segestikḗ, Str. 7,5,2) at the confluence of the Colapis (modern  Kulpa) and Savus (modern Sava), modern Sisak in Croatia. The region had already been settled in the pre-Roman period. In 35 BC it came under Roman rule. In the 1st cent. AD the Legio IX Hispania was stationed there until 42/3. Under Vespasian, S. was elevated to a colonia, under Septimius [II 7] Severus designated Colonia Flavia…

Drobeta

(215 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Garrison and civilian settlement on the Danube east of the ‘Iron Gate’ in Dacia inferior or Dacia maluensis, modern Turnu Severin (Oltenia, Romania). Near it was Pontes, where Apollodorus of Damascus erected the famous Danube bridge for Trajan. In the 2nd Dacian War D. was used as a military base by the Romans. In Trajan's time the cohors Cretum sagittariorum built a large garrison here, in which various auxiliary troops were later stationed ( cohors III campestris: CIL III 14216,8,10; co…

Cotini

(114 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Celtic people that settled in the 1st cent. AD with other small tribes to the north of the  Marcomanni and  Quadi. Renowned as miners, they apparently owed the Quadi tribute. Apart from mining iron ore, it may be assumed that they manufactured weapons. Their location is disputed but it was probably in central Slovakia near the Slovakian Ore Mountains. In the Marcomanni Wars the C. sided with the Romans (Cass. Dio 72,12) and were later settled between the Danube and the Drava (Tac. Germ. 43,1; Ptol. 2,11,11). Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography J. Dobiáš, The History of Cz…

Montana

(92 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Camp and civilian settlement in Moesia inferior, later Dacia ripensis (ILS 9275), formerly Mihajlovgrad, now M. (NW Bulgaria). An important military base from the 1st/2nd cents. AD, raised to a municipium around AD 161-163. Fortifications were built in the 3rd cent. against Gothic assaults. Evidence of continuity of settlement even into late antiquity. Inscriptions, coin finds. Burian, Jan (Prague) Bibliography TIR K 34 Sofia, 1976, 88  V. Velkov, G. Alexandrov, Epigraphische Denkmäler aus M. (Monta…

Napoca

(369 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | | Coloniae | Daci, Dacia Municipium and colony in Dacia Porolissensis (Νάπουκα/ Nápouka: Ptol. 3.8.4; cf. Napu[ce]nses CIL III 7996; N. in Lat. sources), the modern Cluj (Klausenburg/Kolozsvár, Romania), on the site of a prehistoric (Dacian) settlement (the place-name is evidently of Daco-Getic origin). The sources do not supply us with any information about the history of N. prior to Trajan's conquest of Dacia (AD 101/2 and 105/6). N.'s significanc…

Moge(n)tiana

(163 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Roman settlement in Pannonia superior on the Savaria-Aquincum road, to the north of the southwestern part of Lake Pelso ( Mogetiana: Itin. Anton. 233; Mogentinais: ibid. 263); probably modern Tüskevár (in the Veszprém-Devecser district of Hungary). From M. there was a branch road to Limusa and Sopianae. The Roman settlement grew up on the site of a Celtic one, but the indigenous element continued to play a role in the Roman period. Under Hadrian, M. became a municipium. There are records of a decurio, IIII viri and a flamen (CIL III 151881), a scriba (CIL III 4137 = 109…

Periplous

(737 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] (περίπλους, 'circumnavigation', plural περίπλοι/ períploi), Greek description of a sea voyage and coast. In addition to explicit logbooks, many periploi were written as handbooks: these were limited to purely nautical issues, and recorded such features as harbour sites and points of anchorage, distances covered, climatic factors, and local peculiarities. The development of periplous-style literature reflects the significance of ancient voyages of discovery. Such voyages could be of political, economical, and military use, and were …

Osi

(132 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] Illyrian (?) tribe (Tac. Germ. 28,3; 43,1; Osones: Itin. Anton. 263,7), related to the Aravisci, living to the east of the Marcomanni but west of the Hercynia Silva. The O. were tributary to the Sarmates or the Quadi. They originally lived northeast of the bend in the Danube near Vác, not far from the river Ipel' in central Slovakia. In 10/9 BC, they became part of the Roman sphere of influence (ILS 8965). Probably before the end of the Marcomanni War in 180 AD they migrated to Pannonia, in the area between Savaria and Aquincum (Itin. Anton. 263,7). From this period a praepos( itus…

Troesmis

(255 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia (Τροσμής/ Trosmḗs). Roman legionary camp and civilian city (Ov. Pont. 4,9,79; Tab. Peut. 8,3; Not. Dign. Or. 39,23; 39,31; Geogr. Rav. 4,5,19;  Procop. Aed. 4,11) in Moesia Inferior (Scythia Minor; Moesi), modern Igliţa (in the municipality of Turcoaia in the Romanian county of Tulcea). The Getae were the original settlers; the Romans advanced into the region in 29/27 BC and fortified their position c. AD 15. Before AD 112 the legio V Macedonica was deployed by Oescus [2] to take over military protecti…

Neviodunum

(173 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia Small Roman town in Pannonia Superior (Νοοϊόδουνον/ Nooïódounon, Ptol. 2,14,4; Itin. Anton. 259; ILS 4189: Neviod(unensium servus), also CIL III 3919; 46,16), modern Drnovo in Slovenia (district of Brez̆ice), originally a Celtic settlement in the neighbourhood of the Latobici. In the Roman period N. gained significance as a node on the road from Emona to Siscia. A branch leading northwest connected N. with Celeia. Near N. there was a crossing over the Sava. In the Flavian period N. became a municipiu…

Poetovio

(591 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Legio | Moesi, Moesia | Pannonia | Pilgrimage Roman settlement in Pannonia superior, from the time of Diocletianus in Noricum Mediterraneum, modern Ptuj in Slovenia. The obviously Illyrian place name is documented in various alternative forms (CIL V 4371; VI 2552; 32561: Petovio; CIL XVI 155: Petabio; CIL VI 2579; 32515: Petavio; CIL XI 1016: Poetavio; Amm. Marc. 14,11,19: Potabio; Codex Theod. 12,1,78: Patavio; Ptol. 2,14,4; Zos. 2,46: Ποτόβιον/ Potóbion; Priscus fr. 8: Παταβίων/ Patabíōn). The…

Nauportus

(269 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague)
[German version] [1] Vicus in Pannonia Superior Vicus in Pannonia Superior (Tab. Peut. 5,1; Ναύπορτος/ Naúportos, Str. 4,6,10), modern Vrhnika (Ljubljana district, Slovenia). The Roman vicus was established at the site of a Celtic settlement (Str. 7,5,2). Because of its location on the eponymous river and the Aquileia - Emona road, the settlement quickly prospered (Tac. Ann. 1,20,1: municipii instar, ‘ as a municipium’). The area between N. and Emona was very important to commercial traffic from northern Italy to the middle Danube, where beyond Carnuntum …
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