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Aristoteles

(5,596 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης; Aristotélēs). [German version] [1] Athenian oligarch Athenian oligarch who, in 404 BC, was banned from Athens and sent to Sparta by  Lysander (Xen. Hell. 2,2,118). Later, he was one of the 30 Tyrants in Athens (Xen. Hell. 2,3,2;  Triakonta), who sent him to Sparta with the request for a Spartan occupational force (Xen. Hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Rhodian envoy, 166/5 BC Rhodian envoy to Rome who, in 166/5 BC, failed in his request for a renewal of the amicitia by the Senate (Pol. 30,23,2-4) [1. 167,2; 2. 208]. Günther, …

Will

(812 words)

Author(s): Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg)
Gk. βούλησις/ boúlēsis (βουλή/ boulḗ, βούλημα/ boúlēma), γνώμη/ gnṓmē, διάνοια/ diánoia, (ἐ)θέλησις/ ( e)thélēsis, ἐπιθυμία/ epithymía, ὄρεξις/ órexis, ὁρμή/ hormḗ, προαίρεσις/ prohaíresis, etc.; Latin voluntas, arbitrium, etc. [German version] I. Definition and background As is already indicated by the variety of the Greek terms and their secondary meanings, there was no concept of the will in the sense that, since the Middle Ages, has been serving in all European languages to describe an autonomous mental readiness to act (wh…

Fate

(739 words)

Author(s): Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg)
[German version] A. General As can be seen from the multitude of names ─ some of them impersonal ─ for the powers of fate in Homer (  aísa , aísimon,   anánkē ,   moîra (i), móros, mórsimon,   némesis , peproménē), these are not personal deities, but rather explain inescapable events, such as the early death of prominent heroes. Even the gods' ability to assert their authority was limited when faced with this ‘lot’ [1; 2]. Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) [German version] B. Graeco-Roman Philosophical Theories of Fate In early Greek philosophy the question of human destiny is replaced, in…

Pleasure

(1,185 words)

Author(s): Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Brachtendorf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(ἡδονή/ hēdonḗ, Lat. voluptas). [German version] A. Definition and background The Greek idea of pleasure as the aim and defining motive in conducting one's life appears comparatively early in Greek didactic literature, with both positive and negative assessments (e.g. Hes. Op. 287-92; Theognis 983-985; Simonides fr. 71; 79; particularly impressive in Prodicus' parable of the choice of Heracles between the easy path of physical pleasure and the arduous path of virtue, Xen. Mem. 2,21-34). The terminology was initially not clearly defined (alongside hēdonḗ there was also chará, euphr…

Lust

(1,079 words)

Author(s): Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Brachtendorf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(ἡδονή/ hēdonḗ, lat. voluptas). [English version] A. Definition und Hintergrund Die griech. Vorstellung von der L. als Ziel und bestimmendem Motiv der Lebensführung taucht - zunächst ohne terminologische Festlegung (neben hēdonḗ auch chará, euphrosýnē, térpsis, d.h. Freude, Genuß, Vergnügen) und ohne Unterscheidung zw. angenehmen Gefühlen, Empfindungen, Wahrnehmungen oder auch Gedanken - früh in der griech. didaktischen Lit. auf, mit positiver wie auch negativer Bewertung (z.B. Hes. erg. 287-92; Theognis 983-985; Simonides fr. 7…

Aristoteles

(5,233 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (München) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Frede, Dorothea (Hamburg) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Et al.
(Ἀριστοτέλης). [English version] [1] Athenischer Oligarch Athenischer Oligarch, der als athenischer Verbannter 404 v. Chr. von Lysandros nach Sparta gesandt wurde (Xen. hell. 2,2,118). Später gehörte er zu den 30 Tyrannen in Athen (Xen. hell. 2,3,2; Triakonta), von denen er mit der Bitte um eine spartanische Besatzungstruppe nach Sparta geschickt wurde (Xen. hell. 2,3,13). Traill, PAA, 174765. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [English version] [2] Rhodischer Gesandter 166/5 v. Chr. Rhodier, bat 166/5 v. Chr. als Gesandter in Rom vergeblich den Senat um die Erneuerung der amicitia (Pol…