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Stoicism

(2,473 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] I. History Stoicism was an intellectual movement rooted in an Athenian school of philosophy founded by Zeno [2] of Citium in the late 4th cent. BC; it took its name from the place where Zeno's lessons were held, the Stoá Poikílē ('painted collonade', Stoa [1]),…

Chrysippus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the

Dardanus

(1,277 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Harrauer, Christine (Vienna) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δάρδανος; Dárdanos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus Son of Zeus, who of all his mortal sons loved this one the most (Hom. Il. 20,215; 304), and either a mortal mother or the Atlantid Electra/Elektryone (Hes. fr. 177/80 MW; Hellanic. FGrH 4 F 23). Eponymous hero of the  Dardani, who lived on Mt Ida, and in Homer are linked with the Trojans and frequently synonymous with them. D. is the progenitor of the Trojan ruling dynasty. Possibly mentioned in the Ilioupersis, he originates from Arcadia, where he …

Cleanthes

(515 words)

Author(s): Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Κλεάνθης; Kleánthēs). [German version] [1] Painter from Corinth One of the earliest painters from Corinth, mentioned in Plin. HN 35,15f.; his name stands for the origin of the genera ( prima pictura). C. was considered the inventor of line art, creatin…

Ethics

(1,482 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] A. Background In antiquity ethics was the concern to establish what disposition of character is best for mankind. That consideration began with the Homeric ideal of ‘being a speaker of words and a doer of deeds’ (Hom. Il. 9,443). Critical thought about character made progress in the 5th cent. BC, often embedded deeply in a political context. The earliest research on man's character concentrated most of all on his role as a citizen. Democritus' work ‘On rest’ seems by contrast to have focussed on the private and personal aspect. Inwood, Brad (Toronto) [German version] B. The Socratic beginnings The real tradition of ethical thought in antiquity began with  Socrates: he abandoned natural philosophy and…

Diogenes

(4,653 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Διογένης; Diogénēs). Known personalities: the Cynic D. [14] of Sinope, the philosophical historian D. [17] Laertius. I. Politically active personalities [German version] [1] Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC Athenian (?) [1. 341,1], Macedonian troop commander in Attica since 233 BC, who is supposed to have demanded Corinth from the Achaeans (Plut. Arat. 34,1-4) [2. 168,63] at the rumour of the death of  Aratus [2]; after the death of  Demetrius [3] II in 229, he facilitated the liberation of Athens from Maced…

Panaetius

(1,380 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Παναίτιος; Panaítios). [German version] [1] Sicilian tyrant, about 700 BC P. of Leontini, established the first known tyrannis in Sicily around 700 BC. P. overthrew the ruling oligarchy, probably by inciting the people (Aristot. pol. 5,10,1310b 29; 5,12,1316a 37; Polyaen. 5,47).…

Stratocles

(397 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Στρατοκλῆς/ Stratoklês). [German version] [1] Of Athens, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Charidemus of the Oion deme, relative and part heir of the wealthy Hagnias. After S.' death ( c. 360 BC), there was a legal dispute between his brother Theopompus and the guardian of his son for half of the Hagnias legacy (Isaeus 11).…

Sphaerus

(104 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Σφαῖρος/ Sphaîros) of Borysthenes. Stoic philosopher of the third cent. BC, student of Zeno [2] of Citium and later of Cleanthes. He was active at the court of Ptolemy II in Alexandria (Diog. Laert. 7,185). Anecdotes (Diog. Laert. 7,177, Athenaeus 354e) reveal his interest in epistemology; he distinguished cataleptic and plausible ( eúlogon) presentations. Plutarch (Cleomenes 2, 11) portrays him as a teacher of Cleomenes [6] and an adviser on the revived Spartan agōgḗ . Diogenes Laertius lists nearly 30 book titles (on physics, ethics, politics, epistemology and dialectic), letters and dialogues (cf. Diog. Laert. 7,177-178).…

Dionysius

(11,175 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Et al.
(Διονύσιος; Dionýsios). Famous personalities: D. [1], the tyrant of Syracuse; the historian D. [18] of Halicarnassus. Dionysios (month),  Months, names of the. The chronicle of Ps.-D. by Tell Maḥre see D. [23]. I. Politically active personalities …

Crinis

(62 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
[German version] (Κρῖνις). Stoic logician, author of an ‘Art of the Dialectic’ (Διαλεκτικὴ τέχνη; cf. Diog. Laert. 7,62; 68; 71; 76). An allusion in the Epict. Dissertationes 3,2,15 dates his active phase to the period after  Archedemus [2] of Tarsus (late 2nd cent. BC) and his death before the philosophical career of Epictetus (early 2nd cent. AD).…

Epictetus

(1,123 words)

Author(s): Oakley, John H. (Williamsburg, VA) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Ἐπίκτητος; Epíktētos). [German version] [1] Attic red-figured vase painter, c. 520-490 BC Early Attic red-figured vase painter ( c. 520-490 BC); signed many of his vases as painter and collaborated with various potters (early on with Andocides,  Nicosthenes, Pamphaeus and Hischylos, later with Python and Pistoxenus). Possibly a pupil of  Psiax, E. mainly decorated bowls but also several plates, some of which rank with his best works. E. signed one of these plates as painter and potter. Amongst his early works are bilingual eyecups ( Bil…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various adm…

Lucius [I]

(732 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Et al.
(Λούκιος; Loúkios) [German version] [1] L. Kathegetes Author of pharmacological texts, 1st cent. AD Author of pharmacological texts, active in the middle to the end of the 1st cent. AD. Galen (De compositione medicamentum secundum genera 13,295 K.), quoting from Andromachus [5] the Younger, records a remedy against diarrhoea by L. of Tarsus, a city with a long pharmacological tradition (cf. also 13,292 K., where the name of the city is not mentioned). He is almost certainly to be identified with the more famous L. Kathegetes, the teacher of Asclepiades [9] Pharmacion and of Statilius Criton [1]. The quotations in Galen show that Asclepiades, Criton and their contemporaries Archigenes and Andromachus the Younger cited L. for a variety of remedies, including some for earache (12,623 K.), headache (13,648 K.), dysentery (13,295 K.), skin diseases (12,828 K.) and haemorrhage (13,857 K.). L. used a whole range of plant (13,746 K.) and mineral (13,524 K.) ingredients in his remedies. Although his remedies were clearly familiar to the pharmacological writers at the…

Zeno

(6,572 words)

Author(s): Bodnár, István (Budapest) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Ameling | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζήνων/ Zḗnōn.) [German version] [1] Z. of Elea Eleatic philosopher, 5th cent. BC (Son of Teleutagoras). Eleatic philosopher of the 5th cent. BC; a pupil and intimate friend of Parmenides w…

Musonius

(364 words)

Author(s): Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald)
[German version] [1] C. M. Rufus Stoic philosopher, c. AD 30-100 Stoic philosopher, who influenced Epictetus [2]. Born into the equestrian class in Etruria before AD 30. He taught in Greek. Exiled by Nero for his links to Stoic senators, he was recalled after Nero's death, but exiled and recalled again under the Flavians. By his death (c. AD 100), he had become a symbol of the philosophical life. He wrote nothing, but accounts of his lectures were published after his death, probably by Lucius [2]; Twenty-one extracts of these are preserved by Stobaeus and one on papyrus.…

Blossius

(172 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
Italian-Oscan gentilicium (Schulze 423 ThIL 2,2054f.). Cicero mentions a respected B. family from Campania (Leg. agr. 2,93), whose members in Capua are known to have been opponents of Rome in 216 and 210 BC (Liv. 23,7,8f.;27,3,4f.). [German version] [1] Latin poet and advocate, 5th cent. AD see Dracontius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] of Cumae Politician and philosopher, died 128 BC An Italian political figure (born 128 BC), whom Plutarch described as a philosopher because the Stoic Antipater [10] of Tarsus was his friend and while in …

Mnesarchus

(336 words)

Author(s): Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto)
(Μνήσαρχος; Mnḗsarchos). [German version] [1] Father of Pythagoras Father of Pythagoras (6th and early 5th cents. BC), whose historicity seems certain (cf. Heracl. fr. 17 Marcovich and Hdt. 4,95,1), even if the tradition is contradictory and sometimes legendary. M. is sometimes describ…
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