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Pictones

(275 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Πίκτονες; Píktones). Tribe in Gallia Celtica, afterwards Aquitania, to the south of the lower Liger (Caes. B Gall. 3,11,5; 7,4,6; 75,3; 8,26,1; Plin. HN 4,108; 17,47; Str. 4,2,1; Ptol. 2,7,6), in the modern départements Vendée [1], Deux-Sèvres [2] and Vienne [3]. The P., known from the 2nd cent. AD as Pictavi (CIL XIII 7297; Notitia Galliarum 13,6; Amm. Marc. 15,11,13), were neighboured by the Namnetes on the north-west, the Bituriges Cubi on the east, the Lemovices on the south east and the Santones on the south west. In 56 BC,…

Lycaea

(145 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Λύκαια; Lýkaia). Name of two towns in northwestern Arcadia, both also attested in the form of the name Λυκόα/ Lykóa, belonging to Megale Polis. [German version] [1] L. in the region of the Maenalii L. in the region of the Maenalii in the upper reaches of the Helisson (Paus. 8,3,4; 27,3; 30,1; 36,7), possibly identifiable with Palaiokastro between Arachova and Karteroli in the southeast of the plain of Davia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] L. in the region of the Parrhasii L. in the region of the Parrhasii on the northern slope of the Lycaeum west of the confluenc…

Rhodanus

(260 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ῥοδανός/ Rhodanós). The biggest and, at 812 km, the second longest river in Gaul (Gallia), modern Rhône, with an extremely fertile drainage basin of 99,000 km2, navigable up to and above Lugdunum (for an unsuccessful attempt to connect the R. and the Rhenus/Rhine by means of a canal, cf. Tac. Ann. 13,53), an important axis of commerce with trade centres at Massalia (Marseilles), Arelate (Arles) and Lugdunum (Lyon) between the Mediterranean (Mare Nostrum) and the interior of Gaul. It rises near the spr…

Canathus

(51 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κάναθος; Kánathos). The spring in which, according to Argive legend, Hera bathed once a year to restore her virginity (Paus. 2,38,2); probably the large spring in the monastery of Hagia Moni, 2 km east of Nauplia. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. G. Frazer, Pausanias's Description of Greece 3, 21913, 304f.

Lexovii

(77 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Tribe on the western bank of the lower Sequana in the Gallia Celtica, later in the Gallia Lugdunensis. In Caesar's time they were part of the civitates Aremoricae. Main settlement: Noviomagus, modern Lisieux. Attestation: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,75; Str. 4,1,14; 3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,2; 5. Inscr.: CIL III 3177-3182. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Lemaitre, Noviomagus Lexoviorum, in: R. Bedon (ed.), Les villes de la Gaule lyonnaise (Caesarodunum 30), 1996, 133-166.

Macareae

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μακαρέαι; Makaréai). Town west of Megale Polis, belonging to its region, in the plain to the left of the Alpheius, in ruins at the time of Pausanias (8,3,3; 27,4; 36,9); remains not known. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Neris

(35 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νηρίς/ Nērís). Settlement in the territory of Cynuria [1] in the eastern Peloponnese, possibly at modern Kato Doliana [1. 122-124; 2. 75-79] (Paus. 2,38,6; Stat. Theb. 4,46). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Pritchett 3 2 Pritchett 4.

Halieis

(109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἁλιεῖς, Ἁλιαί; Halieîs, Haliaí). Harbour town on the Bay of Porto Cheli in the Argolis, founded by exiles from  Tiryns, instigated by Hermione, shortly after 479 BC (Hdt. 7,137). The remains of the ancient city, partially sunken into the sea, were found opposite the modern town on a small cape dominating the harbour entrance. H. was probably destroyed at the end of the 4th cent. BC. References: Scyl. 52; Str. 8,6,11; Paus. 2,36,1 (Ἁλίκη). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography B. Bergquist, Primary or Secondary Temple Function: the Case of H., in: OpAth 18, 1990, 23-37 M. H…

Darioritum

(82 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Principal city of the Veneti in the Gallia Lugdunensis, today known as Vannes, on the Gulf of Morbihan. Documentary evidence: Ptol. 2,8,6; Tab. Peut. ( Dartoritum); Not. Galliarum 3,8 ( civitas Venetum). A prosperous city during the Roman imperial period, D. was protected by a city wall during the troubled times of the 3rd cent., a wall which, as indicated by the remains, only enclosed part of D. Inscription.: CIL 13, 3140f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Pape, La Bretagne romaine, 1995.

Lyrceia, Lyrceum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυρκεία, Λύρκειον; Lyrkeía, Lýrkeion). Settlement c. 12 km north-west of Argos in the Inachus valley (Paus. 2,25,4f.; Str. 6,2,4), located either on the site of the ruins of Skala, or on the site of the modern Lyrkeia (formerly Kato Belesi), or east of the modern Sterna on the left bank of the Inachus. The pre-Homeric city was probably sited near Melissi (Mycenaean necropolis). Following Argos' rise, L. remained a politically dependent kṓmē . According to Str. 8,6,7 [1. 70], the river Inachus [2] rose from the mountain range also n…

Helice

(165 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἑλίκη; Helíkē). [German version] [1] City in Achaea This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Natural catastrophes City on the plain of Aegium in Achaea between the mouths of the Selinus and the Cerynitis (modern Buphusia) with the famous sanctuary of Poseidon Helikonios. H. took part in the Ionian and wider Greek colonization (founding of Sybaris, Str. 6,1,13-15) and in the classical period was the main headquarters of the Achaean League with the league sanctuary of Homarion. In 373 BC H. was…

Alba

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Main city of the  Helvii in  Gallia Narbonensis, called Aps in the Middle Ages, since 1903 once again carrying the ancient name that is mentioned only in texts from the 1st cent. AD on (Plin. HN 3,36; 14,43). A. was built in the course of the first two cents. AD, but the settlement of the area is documented since prehistory. Secured knowledge about the history of A. does not exist. The city's wealth was based on viticulture, crafts and commerce (four   collegia ). Destruction of A. by barbarians in the 3rd cent. AD is no longer accepted today.…

Parisii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A tribe of Gallia Celtica, later Lugdunensis, on the middle Sequana (the modern Seine); their main town was Lutecia Parisiorum (the modern Paris). P. lived in Britannia in the mid-3rd cent. BC. On the Sequana, the P. were neighbours of the Senones, to whom they were first allied around the turn of the 2nd/1st cents. BC, then tributary. They minted gold coins [1]. In 53 BC Caesar moved the concilium Galliae to Lutecia (Caes. B Gall. 6,3,4). In 52, the P. sided with Vercingetorix (Caes. B Gall. 7,4,6; 34,2; 57,1; 75,3). A collegium of the nautae Parisiaci is attested from the …

Phere

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηρή/ Phērḗ, Φηραί/ Phēraí). Town in West Arcadia on the river Alpheus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.; Hom. Od. 3,488ff.; 15,186ff.). Home of Orsilochus [1], the son of the river god Alpheus [2], and his descendants. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88.

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Gergovia

(170 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Celts | Oppidum City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later in Aquitania, west of the Elaver, 6 km south of  Augustonemetum on a high plateau that is hard to reach, today Gergovie. Besieged unsuccessfully by Caesar in 52 BC (Vercingetorix: Caes. B Gall. 7,34; Liv. Per. 107; Str. 4,2,3; Suet. Iul. 25; Polyaenus 8,23,9; Cass. Dio 40,35; Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,152). Excavations of the large and the small camp and the connec…

Lugdunensis

(223 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Roman province, result of the partitioning of Gallia Comata into three provinces ( Tres Galliae: Belgica, L., Aquitania) by Augustus between 27 and 13 BC. Gallia L. comprised the tribes of Armorica, the Veliocasses and the Caletes. Several Celtic tribes of the southern Loire region belonged to Aquitania. Through the incorporation of the Lingones, Sequani, Raurici and Helvetii in the province of Belgica (in 10 or 8 BC), the L. no longer had access to the Rhine (Str. 4,3,1; Plin. HN 4,106). Gallia…

Abia

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ἀβία; Abía). Coastal town in eastern  Messenia (Plin. HN 4,22; Ptol. 3,14,31), the modern Palaiochora, 6 km south of Kalamata. Its equation with Ἱρή (Hire), one of the seven towns mentioned in Hom. Il. 9,150, is questionable.  Perioikoi-polis of Sparta, from 338 BC controlled by  Messene, with the exception of 183-146 BC, when A. was an independent member of the  Achaean Confederacy (Pol. 23,17); sanctuaries of  Heracles and  Asc…

Mandubii

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gaulish people who are only mentioned in Caes. B Gall. 7,68,1 and Str. 4,2,3. Capital Alesia ( oppidum Mandubiorum). Their territory is probably identical to the modern region of Auxois ( pagus Alisiensis in the Middle Ages). In Roman times the M. appear to have merged with the Haedui people. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P.-M. Duval, Chronique gallo-romaine, in: REA 61, 1959, 368-370.

Arelate

(390 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage Town in Gallia Narbonensis, the modern Arles. Originally called Theline by the Greeks (Avien. 689ff. – Phocian foundation?), the town had a Celto-Ligurian name (It. Ant. 299,4; Plin. HN 3,36). Settled from the 6th cent. BC; A’s shipping trade was severely hampered by the silting-up of the Rhône delta, but enjoyed a marked resurgence thanks to the canals built by→ Marius …
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