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Garumna

(92 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Garunna, Γαρούνας / Garoúnas). One of the main rivers of Gaul (Tib. 1,7,11), the modern Garonne and Gironde, the boundary between the Gauls and the Aquitanians (Caes. Gall. 1,1,1; 5; 7; Str. 4,1,1; 2,1f.; 3,3; 5,2; Mela 3,20f.; Plin. HN 4,105; Amm. Marc. 15,11,2). According to Str. 4,2,1 navigable over more than 370 km. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Boudet (ed.), Les Celtes, la Garonne et les Pays aquitains, 1992 Y. Roman, Les Celtes, les sources antiques et la Garonne, in: Aquitania 12, 1994, 213-219 H. Sion, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 33/1 (Gi…

Macistum, -us

(267 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάκιστον, -ος; Mákiston, - os). Settlement in Triphylia (western Peloponnese) on the southern foot of Mount Kaiapha, on whose territory was the sanctuary of ‘Samian’ Poseidon [1. 37-42] on the western tip of the mountain range as well as other sanctuaries along the Minthe range (modern Alvena) and in the coastal plain south of Mount Kaiapha. In around 400 BC, Xenophon still refers to M. as an existing city (Xen. An. 7,4,16; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30); later, all knowledge of it is lost, …

Crommyon

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κρομμυών or Κρεμμυών). Fortified port in the East of Corinthian territory on the Saronian Gulf south of the  Gerania mountains, 120 stadia ( c. 21 km) from  Corinth (Thuc. 4,45,1), probably near modern Hagios Theodori. According to legend Theseus killed the Crommyonian sow there. In the Classical period Crommyon was fortified. Evidence: Scyl. 55; Str. 8,6,22; Paus. 2,1,3; Xen. Hell. 4,4,13; 5,19; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrommyon; Hierocles, Synekdemos 645,14. Epigraphy: IG IV 195f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Meclodunum

(76 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Town of the Senones on an island in the Sequana river (Seine). Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,2; 6; 60,1; 61,5) uses two forms: Meclodunum (‘fortress of Metlos’) and Metlosedum (‘residence of Metlos’ = ‘reaper’); modern Melun. Metlosedum is probably the Celtic form and Meclodunum the Latin form. At M. a bridge crossed the Sequana (Caes. B Gall. 7,58,5). Sources: It. Ant. 383; Tab. Peut. 2,4. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3010. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cenabum

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Capital of the  Carnutes on the Loire, more likely Orléans than Gien (Caes. B Gall. 7; 8), derived from Genabum/C.; Celtic root gen, ‘mouth’, ‘river mouth’. C. was the starting point of the uprising of 52 BC under the command of  Vercingetorix; subsequently, Caesar ordered C. to be laid waste. Having suffered badly in the crises of the 3rd cent. AD, C. lost its name. From then on, it became capital of the civitas Aurelianorum. In AD 451, it was besieged by Attila. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Debal, Les Gaulois en…

Herculis portus

(121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Ports of this name existed 1. on the Ligurian coast (in Ptol. 3,1,2 different from Monaco, maybe the bay of Villafranca east of Nice), 2. at Monte Argentario west of  Cosa (Str. 5,2,8; Rut. Namat. 1,293; Tab. Peut. 4,4; modern Port'Ercole), 3. on the west Bruttian coast near Cape Vaticano (Str. 6,1,5; Plin. HN 3,73), and 4. on the south coast of Sardinia (Ptol. 3,3,3). The best-known is 5. Herculis Monoeci portus, already mentioned in Hecat. FGrH 1 F 57 (Str. 4,5,6; Plin. HN 3,47;…

Letrini

(97 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λετρῖνοι; Letrînoi). Village on the road from Elis to Olympia with a sanctuary of Artemis Alpheiaia, to the north of Alpheius [1], localized near modern Pirgos or further west, near the village of Agios Ioannis. In Pausanias' time it only consisted of few remaining houses. References: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lycophr. Alexandra 54. The local form of the name is found on inscriptions and in Xen. Hell. 4,2,16 in MSS Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f. E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Augustodunum

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce Augustan foundation at the junction of the basins of the Loire, the Saône and the Rhône, modern Autun. Built as a replacement for  Bibracte as the capital of the Haedui, A. became a lively centre of Romanization. Marked by insurgencies in the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Ann. 3,43), A. was distinguished by its great prosperity up to the end of the 3rd cent (cf. archaeological finds). Despite its decline after the capitulation…

Lechaeum

(172 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Λέχαιον; Léchaion). Harbour of Corinth [1] on the Corinthian Gulf, 3 km north of the city, connected with it by a double wall in the classical period ( c. 450 BC) [1]. The inner harbour basin, which is silted up today to a large extent, is still recognizable, also an outer harbour, few other remains, e.g. a large early Christian basilica [2]. Xen. Hell. 4,4,12 mentions ship sheds, and sanctuaries of Poseidon (Paus. 2,2,3; Callim. H. 4,271) and of Aphro…

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Liger

(151 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in Gaul, modern Loire; rises on the Cebenna mons . Strabo (4,1,1; 14; 4,2,1-3; 3,4; 4,3; 5,2) erroneously assumes its course as parallel to that of the Garumna, Ptolemy (2,2) describes it more correctly. Authors of antiquity assert that the river is open to shipping for about 2,000 stadia (about 370 km, more today) and that it served as a trade route between Britannia, Massilia and Italy. Further sources: Caes. B Gall. 3,9; 7,5; 55; 59; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,1; 6; 11f; 14; Cass. Dio 39,40; 44,42 (Λίγρος; Lígros); Auson. Mos. 461. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Ca…

Gortys

(239 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Γόρτυς; Górtys). Settlement in Arcadia near the modern Atsicholo between Dimitsana and Karytaina, where the valley widens on the right bank of the Gortynius, a tributary of the  Alpheius [1]. G. comprised a fortified acropolis which controlled the northern access to the plain of Megalopolis, and north-east of the acropolis a terrace towering over the gorge of the Gortynius. According to Paus. 8,27,4, it was one of a number of settlements whose inhabitants came from  Cynuria. G. became part of the territory of Megalopolis, but retained its status as a kómē [1]. In the …

Lasion

(61 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λασιών; Lasiṓn). City at the edge of the Pholoe tableland in the Elian mountainous country, in the upper valley of the Ladon [3], remains near modern Kumani. L. was disputed between Elis and Arcadia. Evidence: Xen. Hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. Sic. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Str. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inscription: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Ratomagus

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce Capital of the Veliocasses, present-day Rouen, linked by the Sequana (Seine) and Autura (Eure) to the Liger (Loire) and inner Gaul (Gallia/Gaul), an important harbour for exports to Britannia in the 2nd cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 15,11,12; It. Ant. 382,3; 384,1; Ptol. 2,8,8: Ῥατόμαγος; Tab. Peut. 2,2 f.; CIL XIII 3475: Ratumagus vicus; Notitia Galliarum 2,2: civitas Rotomagensium; Not. Dign. Occ. 37,10; 37,21: Rotomagus). Originally, the Veliocasses fell within the area of Gallia Belgica (Caes. B Gall. 2…

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Croceae

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Marble (Κροκέαι). Place in South Laconia (modern Κροκεές, Krokeés), famous because of the green porphyry ( lapis Lacedaemonius) quarried about 3 km to the south-east and highly prized in the Roman Imperial period. Attestation: Paus. 3,21,4; Str. 8,5,7; Plin. HN. 36,55; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κrokea. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 203-207 M. and R. Higgins, A Geological Companion to Greece and the Aegean, 1996, 54f. C. Le Roy, Lakonika, in: BCH 85, 1961, 206-215 G. A. Pik…

Nantuatae

(139 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A Celtic people northeast of the Allobroges in the valley of the upper Rhodanus (Rhône) from the Lacus Lemanus (Lake of Geneva) to the Rhone glacier, where the Veragri, the Seduni and the Uberi were also settled. Together with these at the beginning of Roman rule they formed a confederation as part of the province of  Alpes Graiae et Poeninae ( quattuor civitates Poeninae: CIL XII 147). Their capital was Tarnaiae (modern Massongex). They gave their name to the modern town of Nantua ( D épartement of Ain). Further sources: Caes. BG 3,1,6; 4,10,3; Str. 4,6,6: Ναντουᾶται/ Nantou…

Lerna

(271 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Λέρνη; Lérnē, modern Myli). Settlement 40 stadia ( c. 7 km) south of Argus with a sacred grove, bordered by the rivers Pontinos in the north and Amymone in the south, with about a dozen rich springs, which are personified in the legend of the Lernaean Hydra [1]. The lake to the west of the Argive Plain (the ‘Halcyonian Pool’, which was considered to be bottomless and the entrance to Underworld) has existed since the Neolithic; …

Gorgobina

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Modern La Guerche/Nièvre). City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later of Aquitania, east of Elaver, south of Aquae Bormonis. The  Boii settled in G. in 58 BC, after the defeat of the Helvetii in the battle against Caesar. G. became Boiorum oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 7,9,6). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography H. Bigeard, A. Bouthier, Carte archéologique de la Gaule 58 (Nièvre), 1996.

Massalia

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars (Μασσαλία/ Massalía, Latin Massilia), modern Marseilles. [German version] A. Founding Around 600 BC the Phocaeans founded M. ( Colonization IV.), attracted by the potential resulting from the proximity of the Rhône and the rocky bay of Lacydon for the establishment and securing of a harbour (founding legends in Aristot. fr. 549 Rose = Ath. 13,576a; Iust. 43,3,4-13). M.'s early top…
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