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Amyclae

(415 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart)
(Ἀμύκλαι; Amýklai). [German version] [1] Pre-Greek settlement This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Pre-Greek settlement on and at the foot of the hills bearing the chapel of Agia Kyriaki, inhabited from the early Helladic to the imperial Roman period (Paus. 3,18,6-19,6; IG V 1, 515), c. 5 km south of  Sparta near the modern Tsausi. In historical times, it was a ὠβή ( ōbḗ) of Sparta with its own ephors and other officials (cf. Syll.3 932). The region seems to have reached its peak in the 7th/6th cent. BC. From the late Mycenaean period, it housed a sa…

Parthenium

(65 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Παρθένιον/ Parthénion). The lowest part of the Argive-Arcadian border range (elevation up to 1215 m at Hagios Elias) with important roads connecting the Argolid and Arcadia (Arcadians), at elevations from 753 to 900 m, still called Partheni today. Sources: Hdt. 6,105,1ff. [1. 472f.]; Paus. 8,6,4; 54,6f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 Jost. Pritchett 3, 1980, 81-95; 4, 1982, 80-87; 6, 1989, 107-111  Müller, 820.

Narbo

(635 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | Wine | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Pilgrimage | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome City in Gallia Narbonensis on the right bank of the lower Atax in the territory of the Volcae Arecomici (Strab. 4,1,12), modern Narbonne. In the pre-Roman period there was a settlement here on the mythical road of Heracles from Spain to the Rhône. From the 6th cent. BC, 4 km from N., there was an oppidum on the Montlaurès Hill, which was known by the name of Naro (Avien. 587; [1]). The lagoon between…

Tegea

(1,042 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Τεγέα/ Tegéa). [1] Town in the eastern Arcadian plateau [German version] I. Location Important town in the south of the eastern Arcadian plateau (Arcadians, Arcadia, with map; Str. 8,8,2; Paus. 8,44,1-53,11; Ptol. 3,16,19; Plin. HN. 4,20.; [1]), whose vast area lay between the present-day villages of Hagios Sostis, Episkopi and Alea. The rich, fertile, loamy …

Insubres

(216 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Radke, Gerhard (Berlin)
[German version] Powerful Celtic people (Pol. 2,17,4; Str. 5,1,6; according to Liv. 5,34,9 the district of the Haedui), of a simple lifestyle (Pol. loc. cit.), in Upper Italy to the east of the Salassi (Ptol. 3,1,34) and Libici (Ptol. 3,1,36) and west of the  Cenomanni [3] (Ptol. 3,1,33; Pol. 2,17,4; Str. 5,1,9) and the river Clusius (Κλούσιος, Pol. 2,32,4) with their main settlement at Mediolan(i)um (Liv. 5,34,9; Plin. HN 3,124; Str. 5,1,6). Other towns of the Insubres (Ptol. 3,1,33): Comum, Tici…

Corinthus/Corinth

(2,211 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Coloniae | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κόρινθος; Kórinthos, Corinthus, the modern Corinth). [German version] I. Position The city lies on the second and third terraces above the coastal plain (40-95 m above sea level), c. 2 km from the coast; its original location was presumably on a delta originating from the time c. …

Petrocorii

(218 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πετροκόριοι; Petrokórioi). Tribe of Gallia Celtica (later Aquitania), on both banks of the Duranus (Dordogne) in what is now the Périgord (Str. 4,2,2 mentions the Petrokórioi among the 14 tribes of Aquitania between Garumna and Liger; Ptol. 2,7,9: Πετροκόριοι καὶ πόλις Οὐέσσουνα/ Petrokórioi kaì pólis Ouéssouna). Their neighbours to the north west were the Santoni, to the west the Bituriges Vivisci, to the south the Nitiobriges, to the south east the Cadurci and to the north east the Lemovices (Plin. HN 4,109; Not. Galliaru…

Pellene

(428 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πελλήνη/ Pellḗnē, Πελλάνα/ Pellána, ethnic name Πελληνεύς/ Pellēneús, Πελλανεύς/ Pellaneús). Town in the easternmost part of Achaea (Achaeans, with map), to the west of Sicyon (Paus. 7,26,12-27,12). From the Mycenaean Period (place name pre-Greek., Hom. Il. 2,574) onwards and into the 7th/6th cents. BC, P. was possibly located on the site of the kṓmē of the same name mentioned in Str. 8,7,5 . The town found itself in lengthy quarrels with Sicyon (POxy. 11,1365; 1…

Argolid

(641 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Argives; Ἀργολίς, Ἀργεῖοι; Argolís, Argeîoi). By modern common practice collective name for the north-eastern region of the  Peloponnese, consisting of the Argive plains and its fringes and the mountainous Argolic Acte. In ancient times, too, the term A. was used in the modern sense, parallel with the more common form of the ethnic Ἀργεῖα ( Argeîa), which was mostly exclusively restricted to the territory of  Argos (Plut. Ages. 31). In its landscape and climate, the entire region is part of the arid zone of eastern Greece (πολυδίψιον Ἄργος: Hom. Il…

Lugdunum, Lugudunum

(1,020 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Leglay, Marcel (Lyon)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Limes | Punic Wars | Rome | Rome | Batavian Revolt (modern Lyons). [German version] A. Name Oldest, purely Celtic form on a silver coin from 42 BC. Lugudunon, Latin Lugudunum; Ptol. 2,8,17: Λούγδουνον/ Loúgdounon. Cass. Dio 46,50,5 mentions Λουγούδουνον/ Lougoúdounon as the oldest form and Λούγδουνον as the usual form in his time. The meaning of the first part of the word is controversial [1. 30, 38]: from Lug, the name of a Celtic deity or from λοῦγος/ loûgos, according to Clei…

Patrae

(956 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Coloniae | Dark Ages | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Pilgrimage (Πάτραι/ Pátrai, ethnicon usually Πατρεύς/ Patreús, Latin Patrae, ethnicon Patrensis). [German version] I. Topography Town in western Achaea, with an important harbour, still known as P. today (on the name see [1]), created by synoikismós from seven villages (δῆμοι/ dḗmoi) (Str. 8,3,2; [2. 89-95, 120f.; 3; 4]). Unlike the modern town, P. was not on the coastal plain, but on the first, low rise above it…

Reii

(166 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian tribe in Gallia Narbonensis in the area of the modern French department of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence with capital Alebaece (Plin. HN 3,36, cf. Str. 4,6,4: Ἀλβίοικοι/ Albíoikoi; Caes. B Civ. 1,34,4; 56,2; 2,2,6: Albici; modern Riez) [1] at the foot of the hill of Saint-Maxime between Forum Iulii (modern Fréjus) and Aquae [III 5] Sextiae (modern Aix-en-Provence), constituted beginning in Augustus' time as colonia Iulia Augusta Apollinaris Reiorum, with quattuorviri, aediles, flamen Romae et Augusti and pontifex (cf. inscriptions CIL XII 351;…

Cerynea

(430 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Κερύνεια; Kerýneia). [German version] [1] Town in Achaea (Arcadian Καρύνεια; Karýneia). Inland town in Achaea (Peloponnese), not originally listed amongst the 12 cities of the Achaean Confederacy in Hdt. 1,145 and Str. 8,7,4. According to Str. 8,7,5, C.'s location was high up in the mountains between Bura and the sea. For a long time, C. was identified with remains found above the village of Rizomylo and the coastal road near the modern Keryneia. Following on from Wilhelm, Meyer suggested to localize the…

Pharis

(113 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Φᾶρις, Φαραί; Phâris, Pharaí). Town in Laconica (Hom. Il. 2,582; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 117; Str. 8,5,1; the form Φαραί is used in later literature such as Paus. 4,16,8; Hierocles, Synecdemus 647,10; Liv. 35,30,9), c. 10 km south of Sparta, 2 km east of Amyclae [1], probably Vaphio with the well known Mycenaean beehive tomb, abandoned in the time of Pausanias [1. 76f.; 2. 168f.]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 H. Waterhouse, R.Hope Simpson, Prehistoric Laconia I, in: ABSA 55, 1…

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the First Messenian War (Paus. 4,9-13). During the major uprising of the helots in 464 BC, the…

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Mycenae

(810 words)

Author(s): Hiesel, Gerhard (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Linear B | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Persian Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture | Mineral Resources (Μυκῆναι/ M ukênai, Μυκήνη/ Mykḗnē; Lat. Mycena; Mycenae). [German version] I. Mycenaean period Settlement on a steep spur in the northern foothills of the Argolid. The oldest traces of settlement date from the early Bronze Age (2900-2500 BC). M. is the most important centre of Mycenaean culture. Excavations were carried out by H. S…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…
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