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Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Dibio). An important centre where trade routes crossed at the confluence of the Saône and the Ouche, on the boundary between the civitates of the Lingones and the Aedui, now Dijon. The castrum Divionense described by Gregory of Tours in his History of the Franks 3,19 was built in the 3rd cent. near the road from Lyons to the Rhine frontier. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Frézouls, Les villes antiques de la France II, 1, 1988, 179-274 C. Rolley, s.v. D., PE, 278.

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Pitana

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Commerce (Πιτάνα/ Pitána, Πιτάνη/ Pitánē). District of Sparta (Pind. Ol. 6,28; Hdt. 3,55; Paus. 3,16,9; Plut. Mor. 601b) west and southwest of the acropolis, preferred as a residential area: even Menelaus [1] is supposed to have lived there (Eur. Tro. 112ff.; Paus. 3,14,6). The grave monument of the royal family of the Agiads (Paus. 3,14,2ff.) also lay there. With Mesoa, Cynosura, Limnae and Amyclae, P. was one of the five villages to form the foundling polis Sparta. P. formed one of the divisions (ὠβά/ ōbá) of the Spartan cit…

Antipolis

(112 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Colonization | Batavian Revolt (Ἀντίπολις; Antípolis). Harbour town in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Antibes, inhabited from the 10th cent. BC, a colony of  Massalia in the territory of the Deciates, opposite of Nicaea (thus its name: Str. 4,1,5; 9. Plin. HN 3,5,34). In 154 BC, A. was harried by the  Ligures, and called for Rome to help: Pol. 33,7,2. Greek and Latin inscriptions: IG XIV, 2424-30; CIL XII 165-246 [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 A. Chastagnol, Inscr. lat. de Narbonnaise 2, 1992. J. Clergues, A…

Gates

(22 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People in Aquitaine between the Elusates and the Ausci (only in Caes. B Gall. 3,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Ensérune

(132 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Fortified high-altitude settlement ( oppidum?) between Béziers and Narbonne on a hill c. 120 m high, well protected by steep slopes to the north and to the east; it ruled a plain surrounded by ponds and crossed by an important traffic route between the Iberian and Italian peoples. Three settlement phases are documented by ceramic finds (end of 6th cent. BC ─ end of 1st cent. AD). The second phase ( c. 425-220 BC) includes the building of a city wall (4th cent.), and of the necropolis with its numerous Celtic finds; there is evidence of trading relati…

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…

Gallia/Gaul

(1,109 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] A. Land and population in pre-Roman times G. comprises the most western part of the European rump, between the Rhine, the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees and the Atlantic. Five large river-systems supply the land with water: the Garumna (Garonne) in the south-west, the Liger (Loire) in the centre and the west, the Sequana (Seine) in the north, the Mosa (Maas) with a tributary of the Rhine, the Mosella (Mosel), in the north-east, and the most important water vein, the Rhodanus (Rhôn…

Myrsinus

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μύρσινος; Mýrsinos). Town of the Epeii tribe in Elis (Hom. Il. 2,616). According to Str. 8,3,10, Myrtoúntion it was 70 stades to the north of the town of Elis on the coast (cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.). There is a debate surrounding its identification with a fortress on Cape Araxus in the northwest of the Peloponnese [1. 17-19]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. Sergent, Sur les frontières de l'Élide aux hautes époques, in: REA 80, 1978, 16-35.

Santoni

(210 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe in southwestern Gaul (Caes. B Gall. 1,10,1; 11,6; 3,11,5; Mela 3,23; It. Ant. 459,3; Str. 4,2,1; 6,11: Σάντονοι/ Sántonoi; Ptol. 2,7,7: Σάντονες/ Sántones), in the modern Saintonge (Dépt. Charente-Maritime, partially Dépt. Charente [1]). The S. participated in the rebellion of Vercingetorix in 52 BC (Caes. B Gall. 7,75,3). Under Roman rule, they formed a civitas of the province of Aquitania (Plin. HN 4,108: S. liberi) with their capital at Mediolan(i)um [4] Santonum (Gallia, with map). Under Diocletianus, this was added to the provi…

Narbonensis

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The name N. was given in 27 BC to the Roman provincia Transalpina, which was formed from Gaulish areas either side of the Rhodanus (moder Rhone). It had been occupied by the Romans between 125 and 118 BC after a call for help from Massalia in the dispute with the Salluvii tribe. The boundaries of the province were the Mediterranean coast from the Varus (Var) as far as the Pyrenees, the Alps, Lacus Lemanus (Lake Geneva), the upper reaches of the Rhodanus (excluding Lugdunum), the foothills of …

Pallantium

(168 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Παλλάντειον/ Pallánteion, lit. Παλλάντιον/ Pallántion). City on the western edge of the eastern Arcadian plain, 7 km south of Tripoli, with a few remains on a hill that juts out from the Kravari mountain range (earlier Boreion), today P. again (formerly Berbati). Remains of the acropolis wall and of four temples from the Archaic and Classical periods [1] are preserved. P. was an independent city in the 4th and 2nd cents. BC despite its incorporation in the synoikismós of Megalopol…

Melaeneae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαινεαί/ Melaineaí, Latin Melaenae). Town in western Arcadia, north of the river Alpheius, 40 stadia ( c. 7 km) west of Buphagium, abandoned by Pausanias's time (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,3,3; 26,8), perhaps near modern Kokkora, south of Kakouraeika (Kakouraei). There are some remains of an estate from the Roman period. Evidence: Plin. HN 4,20; Tab. Peut. 7,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μελαιναί. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 74-77 E. Meyer, Peloponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 101-106.

Methydrium

(221 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεθύδριον/ Methýdrion, locally Μετίδριον/ Metídrion). City in northern Arcadia with a small number of ruins near the modern M. (formerly Nemnitsa), south of Vytina (at a height of approximately 1000 m). Originally independent, M. belonged to Orchomenus, probably from 400/368 BC, and to Megale Polis from 369/360 BC (?). Border inscription: [5. 664; 1; 2]. Remains of a circular wall dating from the 4th cent. BC. [3]. M. was several times temporarily independent (Syll.3 490,18ff., c. 234/3 BC; Syll.3 559,61; coins). The place is mentioned in Theoph. FGrH 115 …

Apta Iulia

(96 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity City of the  Vulgientes;   colonia (CIL XII 1005; 1116; 1118; It. Ant. 343,3 cf. 388,4; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 9,9,1); civitas Aptensium (Pol. Silv. 16,3); possessed the   ius Latii (Plin. HN 3,36), situated on the road from  Mediolanum to  Arelate. Today Apt (Vaucluse) on the Coulon, which joins the Durance from the north (near to its confluence with the  Rhodanus). In the 6th cent. AD most of the inhabitants left the city to seek refuge on the nearby heights. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Entremont

(90 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic-Ligurian oppidum, main location of the Salluvii, 3 km north of Aix-en-Provence. In c. 2nd cent. BC two residential estates, the second of which surrounds the first without having destroyed it, proves the development of the town formation, which was stopped by the Romans between 124 and 90 BC. Ancient remains: town wall, roads, sanctuary (heroon?), sculptures, coins from Massalia, numerous crafts products. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Arcelin et al., Voyage en Massalie, 1990, 101-106 F. Benoît, Entremont, capitale celto-ligure des Salyens…

Epidaurus

(910 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Athletes | Education / Culture (Ἐπίδαυρος; Epídauros). [German version] A. Location City in the Argolic Acte on the southern coast of the Saronic Gulf. The city's large territory extended to the Argolic Gulf, with a good land-connection to the Argolic plain. The ancient city was located on a bay with a shallow beach and a small coastal plain, situated on a rocky hill …

Maritima

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( M. Avaticorum, Mela 2,78; oppidum M., Plin. HN 3,34; Μαρίτιμα κολωνία, Ptol. 2,10,5; colonia M., Geogr. Rav. 5,3; 4,28). Capital of the Avatici (Gallia Narbonensis). It was preceded as a settlement by a pre-Roman oppidum, whose name is unknown. It is possible that M. was a colonia founded under Caesar or Augustus. The site is not precisely known: on the Étang de la Valduc or the Étang de Berre near Miramas, or, more probably, near Martigues. Important staging-post on the trade route from Massalia to Arelate via Saint-Blaise and La Crau. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G…

Meldi

(141 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People of Gallia Lugdunensis on the lower Matrona (Strab. 4,3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,11). The capital was Iatinon (Ἰάτινον, Ptol. 2,8,15; = Fixtinnum, Tab. Peut. 2,4), later called civitas Meldorum (Not. Galliarum 4,7) or Meldis (Ven. Fort. 3,27), modern Meaux. In 55/4 BC, Caesar had the M. build him ships for the expedition to Britain (Caes. BG 5,5,2); however, there was possibly another people by this name on the sea coast. Archaeological finds: coins.; water pipe. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3023f.; a thea…
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