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Stentor

(108 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Στέντωρ/ Sténtōr, aptonym: 'roarer' [1]). Greek warrior at Troy, whose powerful voice is equivalent to those of 50 men. In his guise Hera gives the Greeks a dressing-down (Hom. Il. 5,784-792). S. himself does not appear anywhere. This 'lacuna' was increased in…

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost…

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian troop contingent was led by Sarpedon and Glaucus [4] (…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the garment which Deianira, jealous of Iole, had painted with the blood of the centaur Nessus (Hes. Cat. fr. 25,20-25 M-W; Soph. Trach.; Bacchyl. 16; for possible precursors and variants, see [1]). The supposed love charm causes the death of Hercules, who, in his agony, smashes the innocent L. against a rock in the sea (Soph. Trach. 772ff.; Apollod. 2,7,7? corrupt text). Later sources (Ov. Met. 9,2…

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him. Odysseus silences him by attacking him verbally and physically, …

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8). Willi, A…

Iphianassa

(163 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἰφιάνασσα; Iphiánassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea Daughter of  Proetus and  Stheneboea (Hes. fr. 129,16-24 M-W), cursed together with her sisters Lysippe and Iphinoe with madness owing to disrespect to the cult of Dionysus (Hes. fr. 131 M-W) or slander of Hera (Bacchyl. 11,40ff.). Finally, by sacrificing to Artemis Proteus makes her change Hera's mind. According to another version (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 114; Hdt. 9,34), the seer  Melampus heals the daughters after haggling fo…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fair…

Thamyris

(160 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θάμυρις/ Thámyris, also Θαμύρας/ Thamýras). Mythical singer from Thrace (cf. Orpheus), who in human overestimation of himself challenges the Muses to compete with him and, naturally, loses (for the motif, cf. Marsyas [1], Niobe, Capaneus). As a punishment they take his gift of song away (again) and maim him (Hom. Il. 2,594-600, without further specifying this; Hes. Cat. 65 speaks of blinding). The same subject was probably dealt with by Sophocles in his tragedy Thamyris (TrGF 4 F 236-245), in which the poet himself appeared as an actor (Soph. Test. Ha TrGF 4). T. is supposed to have had one dark eye and one light (Schol. b Hom. Il. 2,595); this feature was included in his theatrical mask (Poll. 4,141). …

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name. One is mentioned in Hdt. 1,149; it was one of the eleven Aeolian cities, and, according to [1. 216f.], was not located in the Troad. The other is mentioned in the ‘Iliad’ (Hom. Il. 1,38; 452) and was supposedly located near Chryse and Thebe -- probably north-west of the bay of Adramytteum; an exact localization has not been possible as yet.…

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē

Cebriones

(89 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (῾Ρῆσος/ Rhêsos, Latin Rhesus). King of Thrace, son of Eïoneus (Hom. Il. 10,138) or of the river god Strymon ([Eur.] Rhes. 279). R. and his snow-white horse appear only in the tenth year of the war as an ally of the Trojans and dies on the first night, without having played any part in battle. Caught on his nightly tour of reconnoissance, Dolon has betrayed R. and his men. Diomedes kills the men in their sleep, as R. has foreseen in a nightmare, and Odysseus makes off with the horses…

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1].…

Cedalium

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κηδαλίων, κήδαλον, Kēdalíōn, kḗdalon, which probably describes a tool: ‘poker’?). Comes from the island of Naxos, initiates  Hephaestus into the blacksmith's craft at the request of his mother  Hera (…

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down j…

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοίρανος; Koíranos). [German version] [1] Descendant of Melampus Belongs to the family tree of  Melampus (Hes. Cat. 136,3), but his exact position therein is not certain; father of the seer  Poly(e)idus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 112; Paus. 1,43,5). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Charioteer of Meriones Charioteer for  Meriones; he saves  Idomeneus' [1] life by bringing a chariot to him at exactly the right moment, so that he instead of Idomeneus is hit by  Hector's spear (Hom. Il. 17,611-614). The motif of ‘substitution death’ is typical of Homer's epics [1]. Nünlist, René (Bas…

Polydamas

(428 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
(Πολυδάμας/ Polydámas, in Homer with metrical lengthening Πουλυδάμας/ Poulydámas). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan…
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