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Germani, Germania

(3,987 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) | Spickermann, Wolfgang (Bochum) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
G. is a collective noun attested in various regions of Europe and West Asia and was disseminated, at least in part, by the migrations of splinter groups. Linguistically, Germanic belongs to the Indo-European language family ( Germanic languages); the term ‘Germanic’ was attributed from outside. Countering popular, Romantically influenced ideas that assumed a parallelism of language and material culture, as well as a lasting ethnic constancy, and countering an inherently racist concept of the uni…

Salmona

(26 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Left tributary of the Moselle (Auson. Mos. 366), present-day Salm. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. B. Keune, s. v. S., RE 1 A, 1986.

Saltus Teutoburgiensis

(401 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The only reference to the ‘Teutoburg Forest’ in ancient sources is Tac. Ann. 1,60,3, mentioning it as the scene of Varus' battle in AD 9 (P. Quinctilius [II 7]; Arminius). On his foray into Germania east of the Rhine in AD 15, Germanicus [2] entered the region between Amisia and Lupia, “... haud procul Teutoburgiensi saltu, in quo reliquiae Vari legionumque insepultae dicebantur” (“not far from the forest of Teutoburg, in which the remains of Varus and the legions were said to lie unburied”). The battle site was then reconnoitred and the fallen buried. In the absence of c…

Colonia Ulpia Traiana

(399 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae Roman colony on the left side of the Lower Rhine, modern Xanten, on a low terrace between two Rhine branches in an area only suited to a limited extent for cultivation. While early signs of settlement from the 4th or 3rd cents. BC indicate no continuity with the Roman period, a favoured central location of the  Cugerni already arose there at the turn of the millennium because of the proximity of the legion camp of  Vetera. According to Tac. Hist. 4,22,1, the settlement was set up in the 60s of the 1st cent. AD ‘in the style of a   mu…

Nava

(222 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A left hand tributary of the Rhine. It flows into the Rhine near Bingium (Auson. Mos. 1: ‘the rushing N.’), present-day Nahe. In early Roman times the Celtic Treveri tribe lived in the area of the N., where there is evidence of some oppida. Under Augustus the Germanic Vangiones were settled along the middle and lower N. The area was then added to the upper Germanic army district. The region by the upper reaches of the N. was part of Belgica. In the middle of the 5th cent. AD the Franci settled mainly in the lower valley of…

Mattiaci

(416 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A tribe that settled in Wetterau and Taunus during the Imperial period. The Celtic name is associated with Mattium, the main city of the Chatti (cf. Ptol. 2,11,14: Ματτικόν; Mattikón). It is debated whether the M. were a sub-tribe of the Germanic Chatti which had already separated from them during the Augustan period, and settled in the above-mentioned area with Roman permission (for earlier research, cf. [1; 2. 52-57; 3]), or whether the M. are those mentioned as having defected because of the destruction of…

Laur(i)um

(131 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Station in the territory of the Batavi (Tab. Peut. 2,3) on one of two roads between Ulpia Noviomagus and Lugdunum Batavorum (modern Katwijk), modern Woerden. Roman finds from about 50 to the 3rd cent. AD, a fort only from the Flavian period onwards (AD 69-96). Initially garrison of the cohors XV voluntariorum, after the middle of the 2nd cent. AD of the cohors III Breucorum. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography H. Schönberger, Die röm. Truppenlager der frühen und mittleren Kaiserzeit zw. Nordsee und Inn, in: BRGK 66, 1985, 439 B 6 J. K. Haalebos, Ausgrabungen in Woer…

Rigodulum

(115 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Batavian Revolt Town located on the right shore of the Mosella, present-day Riol; its name is Celtic. In AD 70, during the Batavian Revolt, it was the location of the battle between the entrenched Treveri under Iulius [II 43] Civilis and the Romans who had been brought there from Mogontiacum (Mainz) by Petilius [II 1] Cerialis. During this battle, the most prominent of the Belgae were taken prisoner by the Romans (cf. Tac. Hist. 4,71,4 f.). Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography J. Keune, s. v. R., RE 1 A, 803 f.  H. Heubner, P. Co…

Tabernae

(247 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Township in the territory of the Nemetes Township in the territory of the Nemetes on the Roman road on the west bank of the Rhenus [2] (It. Ant. 355; Amm. 16,2,12; Not. Dign. Occ. 41,16; Tab. Peut. 3,3), modern Rheinzabern. There is evidence  of brickworks of the legions of upper Germania from about AD 45 until c. AD 80; a fort, however, is not certain. After the withdrawal of the military brickworks, everyday and fine ceramics were made there for civilian needs. In about the middle of the 2nd cent. AD, a factory was developed for t…

Sura

(441 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Kessler, Karlheinz (Emskirchen) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('calf bone'), recorded for L. Cornelius [I 56] Lentulus S. etc. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 269  Kajanto, Cognomina, 63; 226. [German version] [2] Aemilius S. Author of a work of history In a gloss on Vell. Pat. 1,6,6, an excerpt from a work by a certain Aemilius S. with the title De annis populi Romani is cited as a supplement to Velleius' presentation of the genealogical derivation of the Macedonian royal house. The excerpt contains an account of the successive five empires…

Lupia

(340 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] A. Geography and tradition Righthand tributary flowing into the Rhine a little above Vetera (Str. 7,1,3), modern Lippe. For Mela 3,30, Moenus (Main) and L. are the best-known tributaries of the Rhine ( Rhenus), and these names were used for the most important Roman invasion routes into Germania Magna. Mentioned on several occasions in the course of the Roman offensives into the area east of the Rhine from 12 BC to AD 15/6 (Cass. Dio 54,33,1-4; Tac. Ann. 1,60,3; 2,7,1). In AD 70 the c…

Ubii

(479 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe (Caes. B Gall. 4,3,3; Tac. Germ. 28,4; Tac. Hist. 4,28,1; 4,64), settled in Caesar's time on the right bank of the Rhine (Rhenus [2]) between the lower La(u)gona (modern Lahn) and Taunus. Displaced by the Suebi, the U. allied with Caesar in 55 BC (Caes. B Gall. 4,8,3; 16,5-8). Caesar's Rhine crossings in 55 and 53 BC probably took place from the Neuwieder Becken in the territory of the U. The history and chronology of their resettlement on the left bank of the Rhine…

Sugambri

(231 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] People of the Germanic Istaevones (Plin. HN 4,100) on the right bank of the Rhenus [2] opposite the Eburones and between the Ubii and the Bructeri. To the east, they bordered on the Chatti and the Cherusci. In 55 BC they absorbed the the Usipetes and the Tencteri, whom Caesar had defeated, and crossed the river into their territory (Caes. B Gall. 4,16-19; Plut. Caesar 22; Cass. Dio 39,48,3-5). In 53 BC …

Nicer

(181 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Right-hand tributary of the Rhine, modern Neckar, whose course has changed many times, primarily around its mouth. From the La Tène period (La Tène culture) the region was inhabited by Celts. In the early Imperial period the lower courses were settled by Elbe-Germani, who gave their name to the civitas Ulpia Sueborum Nicrensium established around Lopodunum (modern Ladenburg) from the time of Trajan. The region around its headwaters and the area between the Odenwald and the Rhine were secured by fortresses from the time of Vespasian…

Saalburg

(461 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Roman limes fort (Limes [III], with map) north of modern Bad Homburg, on a pass over the Taunus. The small redoubts A and B, generally associated with fortification measures undertaken under the emperor Domitian (AD 81-96) after the war with the Chatti (Chatti), have been hitherto successively regarded as the oldest installations [1; 2; 3; 4]. Redoubt A, with its entrance to the south, may possibly date from the reign of Vespasian (AD 69-79) as a marching or construction camp for sh…

Palas

(93 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Region in which boundary markers separated the territories of the Burgundiones and the Romans, also called Capellatium; hither, Iulianus [11] led a campaign against the Alamanni on the right bank of the Rhine river in AD 359 (Amm. Marc. 18,2,15). P. should probably be localised around Öhringen northeast of Heilbronn. Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück) Bibliography P. Goessler s.v. P., RE 18.2, 2516-2528  W. Dahlheim, Capellatium, in: RGA 4, 1980, 338f.  L. Jacob, I. Ulmann, Kommentar zu Ammianus, in: J. Herrmann (ed.), Griechische und lateinische Quellen zur Früh…

Rhenus

(1,104 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] [1] River in upper-Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna River in Upper Italy, present-day Reno in Emilia-Romagna, right-hand feeding river of the Padus (Po), which rises in the Apennines above Pistoriae (Pistoia) and flows past Marzabotto through the region of Felsina (Bononia [1]). In Etruscan times it flowed into the Padus near Voghiera to the southeast of Ferrara, in Roman times somewhat more to the west. Nowadays it flows via an artificial canal directly into the Adriatic Sea. In…

Tencteri

(191 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] Germanic tribe, driven in 58 BC from their homeland to the east of the Rhine by the Suebi. After three years as nomads, in 55 BC the T. crossed the Rhine (Rhenus [2]), defeated the west-bank Menapii, who had refused to accept them into their territory, and migrated up the Meuse (Mosa [1]) as far as the Eburones and the Condrusi. There, Caesar annihilated them; only some of the cavalry escaped to the Sugambri to the east of the Rhine (Caes. B Gall. 4,1,1-4,18,5). In 17/16 BC they, …

Usipetes

(202 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] (also Usipi). Germanic tribe, presumably originally settled in the valley of the La(u)gona (modern Lahn), which was driven out by the Suebi in 58 BC. After crossing the Rhenus [2] (modern Rhine) they drove out the Menapii in 56/5 BC and subsequently advanced farther south. In 55 BC Caesar annihilated the U. and the Tencteri; previously he had unlawfully captured the leaders of the two tribes, and this led to to severe reactions in Rome (Caes. Gall. 4,1-16; 6,35,5; Plut. Caesar 22,…

Suebi

(624 words)

Author(s): Wiegels, Rainer (Osnabrück)
[German version] The Suebi, an association of Germanic tribes or groups of Germanic peoples, numerous and strong (Str. 4,3,4; 7,1,3), between the Rhenus [2] (Rhine), Istrus [2] (Danube), Albis (Elbe) and as far as the Mare Suebicum (Baltic Sea) area. The nucleus of their territory was Lusatia, later Saxony and Thuringia. Although first recorded in the 1st century BC (Caes. Gall. 1,37,3 f.;  cf. Tac. Germ. 2,2), their name had been coined by the 2nd century BC. The S. included e.g. the Marcomanni, …
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