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Messana, Messene

(2,692 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] Town in northeastern Sicily This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Μεσσάνα/ Messána, Ionian Μεσσήνη/ Messḗnē, Lat. Messana). Town in northeastern Sicily, modern Messina. The original name Zancle (Ζάγκλη/ Zánklē = Siculan: ‘sickle’) is derived from the topographically suggestive shape of the natural harbour (Thuc. 6,4,5). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Foundation The site was settled at an early time because of its o…

Beroea

(1,229 words)

Author(s): Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
(Βέροια; Béroia). [German version] [1] In Macedonia This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture In Macedonia. Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] A. Hellenistic and Roman periods City in Macedonian  Bottice, east of the Bermium; now Verria. First mentioned in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 1,61,4), B. had its development, like many Macedonian cities, principally in the Hellenistic period; the Antigonids seem to have particularly favoured…

Euboea

(1,553 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
(Εὔβοια; Eúboia). [1] Greek island [German version] I. Location The largest Greek island other than Crete extends parallel to the eastern coast of central Greece (Locris, Boeotia and Attica). E. is about 160 km long, about 5.5 to 50 km wide and has an area of 3,580 km2. It is separated by a strait from the mainland which narrows at its centre to a 40-m wide channel, the  Euripus [1]. Since the 5th cent. BC several bridges linked E. at this point to the mainland. Because of its steep cliffs the east coast is almost inaccessible with Cyme a…

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Mesambria/Mesembria

(837 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] City on the west coast of the Black Sea This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Apollo | Moesi, Moesia (Μεσ(σ)αμβρία, Μεσ(σ)ημβρία/ Me(s)sambría, Me(s)sembría). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) [German version] I. Location A city on the west coast of the Black Sea ( Pontos Euxeinos), situated at the northern entrance to the bay of Burgas, on a small rocky peninsula, 850 m long and 300 m wide, now known as Nesebâr (in modern Bulgaria). It is connected with …

Naupactus

(1,246 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War (Ναύπακτος/ Naúpaktos, Latin Naupactus). [German version] I. Location Coastal town in West Locris (Locrians [1]), about 9 km from the strait of Rhion and Antirrhion, protected by a promontory of the Rhigani mountains (cf. Scyl. 35; Str. 9,4,7; 10,2,3; Plin. HN 4,6; Ptol. 3,14). The plains to the east and west of N. were very fertile but exhausted by olive and grain cultivation. The chṓra of Naupactus ( Naupaktía) included most of the coastal plain (Pol. 5,103,4) and ascended …

Amphissa

(444 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (Ἄμφισσα; Ámphissa). Largest town of western  Locris (Paus. 10,38,4; Str. 9,3,4. 4,7 f.; from the Middle Ages called Salona, nowadays once again A.), located in the north of the fertile plain of  Crisa (Str. loc. cit.) c. 15 km north-west of  Delphi, where the road from western Locris joined that from Doris and Delphi. Both the desire of this wealthy agrarian town to expand into the Crisaean plain, and its key strategic position in central Greece are possible reasons for it…

Argos

(1,811 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Writing | Theatre | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Apollo | Macedonia, Macedones | Macedonia, Macedones | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Natural catastrophes | Oracles | Peloponnesian War | Athletes | Delian League | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Ἄργος; Árgos). I. Mythical characters [German version] [I 1] Son of Zeus and Niobe The son of Zeus and Niobe, brother of Pelasgus (Acusilaus FGrH 2 F 25), husband of Evadne, father of Epidaurus i.a. (Hes. fr. 247), or Pei…

Corinthus/Corinth

(2,211 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | Coloniae | Doric Migration | Dark Ages | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Commerce | Achaeans, Achaea | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Natural catastrophes | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κόρινθος; Kórinthos, Corinthus, the modern Corinth). [German version] I. Position The city lies on the second and third terraces above the coastal plain (40-95 m above sea level), c. 2 km from the coast; its original location was presumably on a delta originating from the time c. …

Stephanus

(2,678 words)

Author(s): Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Et al.
(Στέφανος; Stéphanos). [German version] [1] Athenian politician, 4th cent. BC Athenian, son of Antidorides from the deme Eroiadai (Syll.3 205 = IG II/III2 213 = Tod 168: request to renew friendship and alliance with Mytilene in the spring of 346 BC), as prosecutor and politician aligned with Callistratus [2]. The allegation by Apollodorus [1] that S. had attempted to pass off the children of (his children by?) his common-law spouse, Neaera [6], a former hetaera from Corinth, as his own children from a legitimate marr…

Antigonea

(401 words)

Author(s): Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀντιγόνεια; Antigóneia). [German version] [1] City in Syria This item can be found on the following maps: Diadochi and Epigoni In Syria (Str. 16,750; Diod. Sic. 20,47) at the Orontes. Founded by Antigonus in the year 307 BC. Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] City on the west coast of the Chalcidice On the west coast of the Chalcidice (at Hagios Pavlos?), probably founded by Antigonus [2] as a counterpoise to Cassandria (Potidaea). In a historical context only mentioned about 200 BC in a Delphic list of theorodokoi [1. 18, col. III, 76] and mentioned in the thir…

Sinope

(550 words)

Author(s): Marek, Christian (Zürich) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Caesar | Christianity | Xenophon | | Coloniae | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Patricius | Education / Culture (Σινώπη/ Sinṓpē). [German version] I. Location, Early History City on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) with an excellent harbour, present-day Sinop, founded in the 7th cent. BC on the eastern edge of the cape that reaches far into the sea (the northernmost cape of Anatoli…

Argolid

(641 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Argives; Ἀργολίς, Ἀργεῖοι; Argolís, Argeîoi). By modern common practice collective name for the north-eastern region of the  Peloponnese, consisting of the Argive plains and its fringes and the mountainous Argolic Acte. In ancient times, too, the term A. was used in the modern sense, parallel with the more common form of the ethnic Ἀργεῖα ( Argeîa), which was mostly exclusively restricted to the territory of  Argos (Plut. Ages. 31). In its landscape and climate, the entire region is part of the arid zone of eastern Greece (πολυδίψιον Ἄργος: Hom. Il…

Xystus

(510 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] [1] (presumed) bishop of Rome 117-125 (Ξύστος/ Xýstos). In sixth place (as successor to an Alexander) in his list of sources of the Apostolic tradition ( traditio apostolica) in Rome, Iren. Adversus haereses 3,3 mentions a X., who may therefore have been considered the most important member of the Christian community in Rome in the first half of the 2nd cent. This list was later understood as a list of bishops and X. was placed as Sixtus I with a period in office from 117 to 125. Petrus [1] D Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) Bibliography E. Caspar, Geschichte des Papsttums,…

Collectiones canonum

(213 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] Collections of council decisions, later also papal letters of disciplinary content establishing normative standards (overview: [1]), which were quoted in lawsuits, councils and internal Church conflicts [3]. From the 4th cent. onwards, collectiones canonum [ c.c.] were created in various places, including a collectio of Greek council texts in Antioch, which in partially divergent translation exerted a decisive influence on the West [2]. Of the numerous Latin collectiones canonum of the 5th and 6th cents. from Africa, Gallia, Spain and Italy, the c…

Apollonia

(1,493 words)

Author(s): Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Manganaro, Giacomo (Sant' Agata li Battiata) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Et al.
(Ἀπολλωνία; Apollōnía). [German version] [1] City in southern  Illyricum This item can be found on the following maps: | Colonization | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Delian League City in southern  Illyricum, in antiquity on the north bank of the Aous, c. 6 km from the sea, near modern Pojani (Albania). Founded by Corinthians at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC, with the participation of Corcyra (mythical oikist Gylax). Hdt. 9,93-95, Paus. 5,22,3 f. and inscriptions attest to the wealth of A. during the 5th cent. BC; …

Lebadea

(917 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεβάδεια, Λεπάδεια; Lebádeia, Lepádeia). Boeotian city on the south-west end of a bay in a plain which spreads out towards the north-east to the western shore of the former Lake Copais and which encroaches on the northern side of the Helicon [1]. L. lay immediately at the exit of a narrow rock canyon from which the river Hercyna emerges, which is fed by additional rich springs, some of them warm, nea…

Nicomedia

(1,111 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Hellenistic states | Asia Minor | Limes | Natural catastrophes | Pergamum | Pompeius | Patricius | Rome | Rome (Νικομήδεια/ Nikomḗdeia, Latin Nicomedia). [German version] I. From the foundation to the death of Nicomedes IV Town at the northeast end of the gulf of Astacus or N., modern İzmit or Kocaeli. Founded and named by Nicomedes [2] I in 264/3 BC as the capital of the Bithynian kingdom (Memnon FGrH 434 F 12; Arr. FGr…

Hippolytus

(1,509 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἱππόλυτος; Hippólytos). [German version] [1] Son of Theseus and an Amazon Son of  Theseus and an Amazon ( Antiope [2] or  Hippolyte). His mythical-literary image was shaped essentially through the H. dramas by Sophocles ( Phaedra, lost) and esp. by Euripides, the lost earlier H. Kalyptómenos (‘The Veiled H.’) and the extant H. Stephanēphóros (‘The Garlanded H.’). The point of departure for both authors is his stepmother  Phaedra's love for H., which he rejects, whereupon Phaedra accuses him of sexually pursuing her. The enraged Theseus curses H.…

Hormisdas

(847 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Modern Persian Hormizd, Arab. Hurmuz; Sassanids). [German version] [1] H. I. Son of Sapor I, Persian governor in Armenia, approx. AD 250 Lat. Odomastes (HA Tyr. Trig. 2,2). Son of  Sapor I, on whose order he invaded Armenia. He was in office there from c. AD 252 as Persian governor with the title of Great King and succeeded his father after his death (autumn 272) to the throne of Persia for c. one year. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] H. II. Nephew of H. [1], king of Persia AD 302-309 Nephew of [1], king of Persia AD 302-309 (Agathias 4,25,1). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …
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