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Schola

(1,536 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
derived from the Greek scholḗ (σχολή; scholḗ), earliest documented use in Lucil. 756; in general, it refers to leisure, time spent not working (definition of the term in Fest. 470 L.) and is thus used to describe a) a learned treatise, debate or lecture (e.g. Cic. Tusc. 1,8), b) the place where teachers and pupils meet, i.e. the school (Mart. 1,35,2) and c) the followers of a particular teacher or doctrine (as in Plin. HN 20,85). The aspect of leisure and relaxation is also to some extent retained in its use as a technical term in Roman architecture. [German version] [1] Architectural feature …

Art

(1,936 words)

Author(s): Allen, James (Pittsburgh) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
(τέχνη, téchnē, Lat. ars). [German version] I. Greek No single term available to us today is able to express the concept of art as understood in antiquity; it extended from craft-related activities to the sciences, and included the activities described by us as ‘arts’, but without attaching to them any special significance. Etymologically, téchnē derives from the unattested *τέκτ-σνα ( *tékt-sna), the skill of the τέκτων ( téktōn, ‘carpenter’) [1]. In Homer, the concept of art already refers to the skill of craftsmen in general. The specialist activities relate…

Sanctuaries

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Frateantonio, Christa (Gießen) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] I. General The word 'sanctuary' is derived, like the French sanctuaire, Italian santuario, etc., from the Latin sanctus ('set off'). On the other hand, the German collective term for a wide variety of types of cult places, Heiligtum, traces back to the Germanic adjective * heila-, * heilu- ('whole', 'complete') [1. 78]. In 20th-cent. German-language scholarship of religion, the German term eventually came to be used synonymously with the above-mentioned terms derived from sanctus. This is connected with, among other things, the archaeological and lite…

Ekphrasis

(3,503 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Reitz, Christiane (Rostock) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
(ἔκφρασις; ékphrasis) I. Literature A. Greek [German version] 1. Definition In the rhetorical terminology of the Imperial period, ekphrasis is a description which aims at vividness (ἐνάργεια, enárgeia) (thus in Rhet. Her., Theon, Hermogenes, Aphthonius, etc.), that is, a description which tries to bring its object clearly in front of the readers' eyes: persons, things, situations, cities, seasons, celebrations, etc. (cf. [8; 17]). The object was not specified until Nicolaus Rhetor (5th cent. AD) as ‘primarily statues, visual works (εἰκόνες), and related things’. The ekphrasis

Fuficius

(325 words)

Author(s): Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Q.F. Cornutus Senator, praetorian governor, beginning of his career under Trajan or Hadrian Senator originating from the region of Histonium. His career started under Trajan or Hadrian. After the praetorate iuridicus of Asturia et Callaecia in the north of Spain, legionary legate in Moesia, praetorian governor in Pannonia inferior from at least AD 145 to 147, cos. suff. in 147; consular governor of Moesia inferior between 148 and 155. In Histonium a large monument, possibly a quadriga, was erected in his honour with public funds on the order of the council of decurion…

Gardens

(2,325 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Carroll-Spillecke, Maureen (Cologne) | Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam)
[German version] [1] Horticulture s.  Horticulture Renger, Johannes (Berlin) [2] Gardens [German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the immediate proximity of homes, gardens were important providers of shade for humans and livestock. Pleasure gardens as part of palace grounds enhanced prestige. As part of the temple grounds they symbolized the cosmos. The Garden of Eden is a mythological invention (Gen 2,8; 2,15). Gardens were depicted in reliefs (Assyria) and wall paintings (Egypt). Assyrian kings recorded …

Park

(20,703 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) | Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) | Niedermeier, Michael | Trauzettel, Ludwig | Rößler, Detlef | Et al.
Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] I. Gardens (CT) Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] A. Concept (CT) The distinction between parks and gardens was first discussed in the 18th cent. by William Gilpin [33. 190-204] and Humphry Repton [33. 227-243] in their treatises on garden theory. For the garden, close to the house, they recommended stricter control and the use of architectural and geometric structuring (cf. also Stephen Switzer [33. 154-165]), while for the more distant park…