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Baliaricus

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Siegerbeiname des Q. Caecilius Metellus ( cos. 123 v.Chr.), den er nach seinem Triumph 121 über die Baliaren annahm (InscrIt 13,1,83). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Luscinus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Röm. Cognomen (“einäugig”, Plin. nat. 11,150), in republikan. Zeit in der Familie der Fabricii (Fabricius [I 3 und 4]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Cursor

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen (“Läufer, Kurier”) in der gens Papiria. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 361.

Cossus

(56 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Cognomen, vielleicht etr. Herkunft und wohl zunächst Praenomen (Schulze, 158, 519; Kajanto, Cognomina 178); Beiname eines der ältesten Zweige der Cornelii (Cornelius [I 20-22]). Die Deutung als Spitzname “Holzwurm” ist unsicher [1]; in der frühen Kaiserzeit auch wieder als Praenomen bei einigen Cornelii Lentuli (Cornelius [II 26-27]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Walde/Hofmann 1,281

Crus

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[English version] Spitzname (“Unterschenkel”) nach der Besonderheit der Beine; Cognomen in der Familie der Cornelii (Cornelius [I 50]) Lentuli. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography A. Hug, s.v. Spitznamen, RE 3A, 1828  Kajanto, Cognomina 225.

Regillus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (diminutive of rex, 'king'); in the Republican era, a byname of the family of the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 35-36]); in the Imperial era, also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Degrassi, FCIR, 265 2 Kajanto, Cognomina, 316.

Ancharia

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Wife of C. Octavius, of the father of  Augustus, mother of the elder  Octavia (Suet. Aug. 4,1; Plut. Ant. 31,2). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Messalinus

(41 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Originally, a cognomen in the family of the Valerii ( Valerius), from them it passed over to the family of the Aurelii (Aurelius [II 13]); epithet of C. Prastina Pacatus M. ( cos. AD 147). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Naso

(53 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Widespread Roman cognomen (‘large-nosed’), which does not, however, occur in distinguished families of the Republican period; the family of some of its bearers cannot be determined. The most prominent figure to bear the name was the poet P. Ovidius Naso. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 237 2 Walde/Hofmann 2, 146.

Denter

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen (cf. Dentatus) of the Caecilii [I 25] and M.  Livius D. (cos. 302 BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina 224.

Vitulus

(17 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('young bull') with Mamilius [6-7]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 329.

Laevinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen for the Valerii in the Republican era, no longer attested in the Imperial period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 243.

Scipionic inscriptions

(379 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Term referring to the nine extant sarcophagus inscriptions of the so-called 'Tomb of the Scipios', the burial place of the Cornelii Scipiones from c. the mid 3rd cent. to the end of the 2nd cent. BC (CIL I2 6-16, ILLRP 309-317). The earliest texts are the eulogies for L. Cornelius [I 76] Scipio Barbatus ( cos. 298) and his son L. Cornelius [I 65] Scipio ( cos. 259), each consisting of a painted name followed by a chiseled poem in saturnian metre (most scholars date the eulogy to the father later than the one to the son; for a contemporaneous creation [7]). Other than…

Capitolinus

(64 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, probably originally an indication of the bearer's or his family's place of residence. For the early Republican Age, it is transmitted for the families of the Maelii, Quinctii, and Tarpei, and prominent with the Manlii; in the Imperial Age, it was widespread. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography ThlL, Onom. 166f. Kajanto, Cognomina, 183 H. Gundel, s.v. Quinctii Capitolini, RE 24, 1010.

Get(h)a

(49 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the Getan’), in the Republican period of C. Licinius G. ( cos. in 116 BC) and C. Hosidius G., in the Imperial period ─ in the form Geta ─ also among the Hosidii and Septimii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 253 Kajanto, Cognomina 204.

Scaurus

(29 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen ('with prominent ankles'), in the Republican period in the Aemilii (Aemilius [I 37-38]) and Aurelii (Aurelius [17-18]) families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 242.

Libo

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, in the Republican period in the families of the Iulii, Livii, Poetelii and Scribonii, in the Imperial period in the Anni, Flavii, Livii, Scribonii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Imperios(s)us

(30 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, designating excessive personal harshness, in the Republican period in the Manlii family ( Manlius) in the 4th cent. BC. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 266.

Abbius

(92 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Oppianicus, Statius. Roman knight from Larinum. He tried to have his stepson A.  Cluentius Habitus poisoned and was therefore accused by him of murder in 74 BC, convicted, and died in exile in 72.  Cicero defended Cluentius against the counterclaim of the stepmother in 66 that Cluentius had tried to poison A. and accused the latter of the murder of other family members, falsification of the will, bribing of judges, and other crimes (Cic. Clu. passim). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography C.J. Classen, Recht, Rhet., Politik, 1985, 15-119 Nicolet 2, 755-756.

Gnipho

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (from Greek Γνίφων; Gníphōn, ‘miser’), epithet of Mark Antony [I 12] G., the teacher of Caesar and Cicero. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Lars

(87 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Latin form of the common Etruscan praenomen lar and its variants (references: [4. 205-208]; the Latin form Lar is only uncertainly documented, Liber de praenominibus 4; [2]). Known bearers: L. Porsenna, king of Clusium 508 BC; L. Herminius Coritinesanus (?), cos. 448 BC, and L. Tolumnius, king of Veii (2nd half 5th cent. BC). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 H. Rix, Das etr. Cognomen, 1963, 273, 348 2 O. Salomies, Die röm. Vornamen, 1986, 31f. 3 Schulze, 84 4 Thesaurus linguae Etruscae 1, 1978.

Tubertus

(18 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (connected with tuber, 'swelling'), Postumius [I 17]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 246.

Torquatus

(33 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (decorated with a Torque (I.)), prominent in the Manlii family (cf. Manlius [I 12; 14-21]). Legend on its origin in Liv. 7,10,11. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 346.

Gratidia

(61 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Sister of M. Gratidius [2] The sister of M. Gratidius [2], married to M. Tullius Cicero, the grandfather of the orator (Cic. Leg. 3,36). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] True name of the in Horace repeatedly named sorceress Canidia The true name of the sorceress  Canidia, who is repeatedly named in Horace. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Tertullus

(22 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Common Roman cognomen, derivative (diminutive) of Tertius . Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR, 270  Kajanto, Cognomina, 128; 292.

Sertorius, Q.

(533 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] B. 123 BC at Nursia (Samnium), of an equestrian family. He gained military experience in 105/4 under Q. Servilius [I 12] Caepio and C. Marius [I 1] in the wars against the Cimbri and Teutoni, and in 98-93 under T. Didius [I 4] in Spain, where he particularly distinguished himself and acquired intimate knowledge of the country. In 91, S. was quaestor in Gallia Cisalpina, after which he fought in the Social War [3]. In 89 or 88, his candidature for the people's tribunate was thwarte…

Lepidus

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen, recorded in the Republican period for the Aemilii [I 7-17; II 7-9] and other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FC, 256.

Gallonius

(97 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Family name, also Galonius, Calonius (Schulze 171); bearers of this name are attested several times but are of little historical significance. [German version] [1] G., C. City leader of Gades 49 BC Roman eques, was sent by L. Domitius [I 8] Ahenobarbus to Gades to administer an inheritance in 49 BC, became city leader in the Civil War there, but withdrew in favour of Caesar (Caes. B Civ. 2,18,2; 20,2f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] G., P. Gourmet by Lucilius 1238 M. Made proverbial by Lucilius (1238 M.) as a gourmet and glutton. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Patulcius

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Uncommon Roman family name. Its best-known representative, Q.P., and L. Cornificius brought a successful action against T. Annius [I 14] Milo in 52 BC for 'use of force' ( de vi) (Ascon. 54 C.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulze, 142.

Calvus

(25 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’) of the Caecilii Metelli, Cornelii Scipiones, Licinii et al. (ThlL, Onom. 111f.). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 235.

Turbo

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Top See Top Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Roman cognomen Roman cognomen ('whirlwind'), perhaps originally a one-off description, recorded only in the Imperial period: Marcius [II 14]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 339  Degrassi, FCIR, 271.

Aurelia

(115 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Wife of C. Iulius Caesar and mother of the dictator Caesar Probably the daughter of C.  Aurelius [I 5] Cotta and the sister of L. Aurelius Cotta (Münzer, 327), wife of C.  Iulius Caesar and mother of the dictator Caesar. She discovered P. Clodius at the  Bona Dea festival at the end of 62 BC in Caesar's house (Plut. Caes. 10.2; Suet. Iul. 74,2, among others). Died before September 54. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] A. Orestilla Second wife of Catilina Widow, then lover and since the middle of the 60s BC the second wife, of Catilina (Sall.…

Agrius

(68 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] C., Roman knight (1st cent. BC) A., C., Roman knight, friend of Varro, introduced in the first book of Rust. probably because of his evocative name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Publeianus, L., Roman knight (1st cent. BC) A. Publeianus, L., Roman knight, witness in the trial of Flaccus (Cic. Flac. 31), probably negotiator in Asia. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Nicolet 2, 768-769.

Mamercinus

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the Republican period in the families of the Aemilii ( Aemilius [I 18-26]) and Pinarii. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 176.

Malleolus

(38 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] [1] see Arrow see Arrow Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Roman cognomen Cognomen (from malleus, hammer) in the family of the Publicii in the Republican period. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 342.

Asellio

(20 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Nickname (‘the donkey drover’) in the family of the Sempronians. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 323.

Licinus

(136 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Originally a rare praenomen, either of Etruscan origin or derived from the Latin adjective licinus (‘curved backwards’, Serv. Georg. 3,55); hence the gentile name Licinius. Later, it occurs as a cognomen, possibly with the meaning ‘hair combed backwards’ [1. 236; 2. 33], in the Republican period in the families of the Fabii and Porcii, in Imperial times with the Clodii (C. [II 6]), Larcii and Passieni. Also documented as a name for slaves, the most prominent of which is Caesar's freedman (C. Iulius) L., who in…

Buteo

(27 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the goshawk’) amongst the Fabii (ThlL 2,2259). Legend of the adoption of the name in Plin. HN 10,21. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Gegania

(79 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] A Roman lady, who entered into a relationship with an ugly slave by the name of Clesippus and eventually made him her heir (probably in the 2nd half of the 1st cent. BC). After her death he called himself Clesippus Geganius and had built for himself an expensive tomb of which the inscription is still preserved (Plin. HN 34,11f.; ILLRP 696). This widespread story may underlie the character of Trimalchio in  Petronius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bubulcus

(42 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘the oxen driver’) in the family of the Iunii (ThlL 2,2223). The first bearer of this name, according to Plin. HN. 18,10, received it because of his success in working with oxen ( bubus). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Bellinus

(21 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] captured by pirates when he was praetor in 68 BC (?), (Plut. Pomp. 24,9). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Glaucia

(39 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (the identification with the Greek proper name Γλαυκίας ( Glaukías) is disputed, [1]) in the family of the Servilii (known is the praetor in 100 BC C.  Servilius Glaucia). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Schulze 343.

Luscinus

(26 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘one-eyed’, Plin. HN 11,150), in the Republican period in the Fabricii family (Fabricius [I 3 and 4]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Nerius

(99 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Rare Roman proper name (epigraphic evidence for praenomen, family name and epithet). Also the name of a Gaulish-Roman goddess (Néris-Les Bains). [German version] [1] Money Lender Well Versed in Law Money lender well versed in law (Hor. Sat. 2,3,69 with Porphyrio ad loc.; cf. Pers. 2,14). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] N., Cn. (?) Accused P. Sestius of corruption in 56 BC Accused P. Sestius of gaining office by improper means ( ambitus; Cic. Ad Q. Fr. 2,3,5) in 56 BC; not identical with the quaestor urbanus 49 BC (RRC 441). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Schulz…

Glabrio

(37 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman cognomen (‘bald-head’, cf. glaber) in the family of the Acilii ( Acilius [I 10-13]; [II 6-9]), in the Imperial period also in other families. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Degrassi, FCIR 254 Kajanto, Cognomina 236.

Folius

(157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Roman gentile name (older form epigraphically Foslius, InscrIt 13,1,37,  folius [3]), attested in the early Republic solely for the family of the patrician Folii, which died out at the end of the 4th cent. BC; later common proper name of non-senatorial families. [German version] [1] Pontifex maximus, killed by the Celts in 387 BC Pontifex maximus, remained in Rome with other old men when Rome was taken by the Celts in 387 BC and was killed (Liv. 5,41,3). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] F. Flaccinator, M. Consular tribune in 433 BC Consular tribune in 433 BC (Liv. 4,2…

Mancinus

(16 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Cognomen in the family of the Hostilii (Hostilius [7-9]). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)

Poppaedius

(220 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] (also attested epigraphically as Popaedius). Italian family name, possibly of Etruscan origin [2. 367]. It is well-known from Q. P. Silo, leader of the Marsi [1] in the Social War (Social Wars [3])of 90-88 BC and, with C. Papius [I 4] Mutilus, one of the two commanders-in-chief of the secessionists (Diod. Sic. 37,2,6; Str. 5,4,2; Liv. Per. 76 et passim; coins: [3; 4]). As a guest-friend of the people's tribune M. Livius [I 7] Drusus, he regarded the latter's murder as grounds for an uprising of the socii. As commander of the northern army, P. after fruitless nego…

Tertius

(34 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
[German version] Roman praenomen (the numeral often indicating birth-order), common cognomen and Roman slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Kajanto, Cognomina, 74; 292 2 Salomies, 17; 116-118 3 H. Solin, Die stadtrömischen Sklavennamen 1, 1996, 152 f.

Arruns

(129 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum)
Etruscan first name (in inscriptions arnth, arunth, arenth), Lat. Ar(r)uns. Only Romans of Etruscan origin bore this name (abbreviation Ar.). Praenomen in the gens Tarquinia [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Legendary Etruscan Legendary Etruscan in the army of Tarchon who was allied with Aeneas (Verg. Aen. 11,759-867). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Son of Porsenna Son of Porsenna, friendly toward Rome, fell in the battle of Aricia (Plut. Poplicola 18-19; Liv. 2,14,5 among others). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [3] High-ranking Etruscan (Early…
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