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(1,565 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Concept Monasticism is a well-known and distinctively Christian way of life. Its essential form arose in the Early Christian period. The central conceptual term μοναχός/ monachós (Latin monachus, hence ‘monk’) refers to the Christian living the ascetic and solitary life (Eus. Commentarius in Psalmum 68(67),7, PG 23,689; Egyptian papyri from the same time). Independent terminology gradually formed in parallel to the development of the way of life. In this, Athanasius' Vita Antonii [4] with its Latin translations, and the writings of Hieronymus, were…


(682 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Smolak, Kurt (Vienna)
(Εὐγένιος; Eugénios). [German version] [1] Flavius Eugenius Roman usurper, rhetor and emperor, about AD 400 Roman usurper in AD 392-394. He was a Christian, a teacher of grammar and rhetoric in Rome and he became magister scrinii for Valentinian II around 392 (Zos. 4,54,1). On 22 August 392 he was elevated to the position of emperor by Arbogast (Socr. 5,25; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 7,22,4). Constantly controlled by Arbogast, he first sought an agreement with Ambrosius and Theodosius I (Ambr. Epist. 57; Zos. 4,54f.; ILS 790). He was not …


(2,718 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Apostle (Πέτρος/ Pétros, literally 'the rock'). Apostle, leading figure in the group of disciples called by Jesus of Nazareth and in the original Christian community. Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. General comments Sources documenting his life include: (1) the NT writings: the Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, Paul's letters (1 Corinthians, Galatians), the 1st and 2nd letter of P. (biographical analysis needs to take into account the special character of these writings); (2) early Church writi…


(182 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] Bishop of Rome (pope), * 305, † AD 384, son of a priest of the Roman parish; his mother Laurentina was ordained as a widow after the death of her spouse [1. 10], a sister Irene lived as a virgin dedicated to God [1. 11]. Deacon from 355 onwards, he was chosen as bishop of Rome in 366 against stiff opposition (opposing bishop Ursinus). Violent fights arose between the two parties, in the course of which D. managed to assert his position over that of his opponents. During his term in office he single-mindedly advanced the pre-eminent position of the Roman bishop, th…


(4,488 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) [German version] A. Origins (CT) Monasticism, as  one of the designated and recognized Christian ways of life, was a part of the Church in Late Antiquity and was assimilated by the Germanic people into their emerging national Churches with their acceptance of Christianity.   Monasticism was not a uniform entity.  Aside from the constitutive elements -- leading a life characterised by asceticism in imitation of Christ, either in a regulated community (cenobitic life) or as a he…

Regula Magistri

(235 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] ('Rule of the Master'). Latin monastic rule from the early 6th cent. by an unknown author, referred to as 'Master'. It probably originated in Italy, although it is also claimed that the RM comes from southern Gaul; the oldest MS is from Italy (Paris, Latinus 12205, about 600). As the most comprehensive monastic rule, it is a very important source of information on the spirituality and lifestyle of monasticism in late antiquity. In the mid-20th cent. it became a central focus of sc…


(909 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Tours, AD 316/7-397 Bishop of Tours (Caesarodunum (Turonum)), Christian monk and miracle worker ( Miracles; Miracle workers , born in 316/7 in Sabaria/ Pannonia; died on 8 November 397 in Candes/Loire. According to Sulpicius Severus' Vita Martini (composed in 396/7, complemented by 3 letters and 2 (3) dialogues), M. was the son of a Roman tribune and performed his military service under the emperors Constantius [2] II and Iulianus [11] Apostata. During this time he converted to Christianity (‘Sharing of t…

Cassianus, Iohannes

(433 words)

Author(s): Frank, Karl Suso (Freiburg)
[German version] A. Biography Early church writer, born in 360, died in Marseilles in 430/35. His origins remain disputed: Scythia minor (Dobrudja) or, more likely, southern Gaul [1; 2; 3]. In his youth, he entered a monastery in Bethlehem (De inst. 4,31; Conl. 17,5); also a lengthy stay with the Egyptian monks. In the early 5th cent., C. was certainly in Constantinople, where he was consecrated as a deacon by John Chrysostom (De inst. 11,13; De incarnatione 7,31). In 404 he was in Rome, in order to…