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Caratacus

(96 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Britannic king and military commander, son of  Cunobellinus; between AD 43 and 51, he organized, initially together with his brother Togodumnus, the resistance against the Claudian invasion force. After the occupation of the south-east, C. transferred his operational basis to the  Silures and  Ordovices in Wales. Following his defeat in 51, he fled to  Cartimandua, who handed him over to Rome. In 52, he was part of Claudius' triumphal procession, together with his wife, children and brothers; Claudius later pardoned C. (Tac. Ann. 12,33ff.). Kunst, Christiane (Pot…

Cartimandua

(139 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] British client queen of the  Brigantes, a confederation of tribes in the north of the province. In AD 51, she demonstrated her loyalty to Rome by handing over  Caratacus (Tac. Ann. 12,36; Hist. 3,45). Because of their dependance on a stable northern border, several provincial governors intervened in C.'s favour in internal Brigantian conflicts: in 48 P. Ostorius Scapula (Tac. Ann. 12,32,2), and A. Didius Gallus between 52-57 [1. 48f., 231] (Ann. 12,40) by dispatching auxiliary coh…

Vellocatus

(56 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Briton, a shield-bearer ( armigerus) of Venutius (Tac. Hist. 3,45); married in 69 AD to the queen Cartimandua of the Brigantes, who for a short time shared power with him in order to gain support. Cartimandua Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography W. S. Hanson, G. Webster, The Brigantes. From Clientage to Conquest, in: Britannia 17, 1986, 73-89.

Prasutagus

(158 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] British client king of the Iceni; husband of Boudicca (from before AD 45). May have been one of the eleven kings subjugated by Claudius [III 1] in AD 43 (CIL VI 920 = ILS 216); it is likelier, however, that his loyalty to Rome led to his being installed as (sole?) client king during the revolt of the Iceni in AD 48 (Tac. Ann. 12,31) in place of the king SAEMV attested on coins [1. 433]. P.' attempt to secure the kingdom after his death (AD 59) by pronouncing the Emperor Nero his heir alongside his own daughters failed (Tac. Ann. 14.31). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 R. …

Cogidubnus, Cogidumnus

(77 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Britannic client king (CIL VII 11: rex magnus Britanniae [1]) in Sussex (originally possibly king of the  Atrebates), who had authority over several civitates up to the Flavian period (Tac. Agr. 14,1) and presumably was among the 11 kings subjugated by Claudius (CIL VI 31537d). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J. E. Bogaers, King C. in Chichester, in: Britannia 10, 1979, 243-254. A. A. Barrett, The Career of Tib. Claudius C., in: Britannia 10, 1979, 227-242.

Imperium

(4,514 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) [German version] A. Antiquity (CT) Dealing with the concept of imperium in terms of its reception began in the Roman Republic [22; 37]. To its original meaning (authority of Roman magistrates) was added first of all the element of dominion ( imperium populi Romani: Cic. Rep. 3,24), which soon acquired a Roman notion of world domination ( imperium sine fine: Verg. Aen. 1,279ff; 6,851 ff.). In the Principate the range of meaning extended to area of domination. From roughly the middle of the 1st cent., the expression imperium Romanum (initially Sall. Catil. 10…

Sacrum Imperium

(2,738 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) [German version] A. Imperial Designation (CT) The imperial designation Sacrum Imperium (S.I.) was first officially used by the Hohenstaufen chancellery of Emperor Frederick I in Italy in March 1157 (MGH legum sectio IV, vol. 1, constitutiones et acta publica imperatorum et regum 1, ed. L. Weiland, Hannover 1893, p. 224, l. 19 = Constitutio Friderici I 161) on the occasion of the call for a campaign against Milan, without displacing the titles imperium or imperium Romanum. The new designation "retained loose but consistent currency in the Hohens…

Venutius

(176 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] British prince, husband of the client queen Cartimandua; he struggled with her for supremacy over the Brigantes. The description in Tac. Ann. 12,40,2-4 suggests that the destabilisation of the kingdom happened as early as the time of A. Didius [II 2] Gallus (AD 52-57), but was brought under control by repeated interventions by Roman troops. No later than AD 69, the situation reversed when the queen officially separated from V. in favour of Vellocatus, probably in a miscalculation …

Cassivellaunus

(90 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Britannic king north of the Thames. In 54 BC commander in chief of the Britannic troops against Caesar upon whom C's guerilla tactics inflicted heavy losses. After the fall of the  Trinovantes and four other tribes, Caesar succeeded in advancing to C.'s oppidum. With the mediation of the Atrebate  Commius a peace treaty was signed that placed the Trinovantes under the protection of Rome and agreed upon the giving of hostages and a tribute ( vectigal) (Caes. B Gall. 5,11,8; 18,1ff.; Cic. Att. 4,18,5). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)

Bericus

(91 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] The Briton whose appeal for help gave Emperor Claudius the pretext for invading the island in AD 43 (Cass. Dio 60,19,1). B. might be identical with Verica, who appears on his coins (south of the Thames in the region of the  Atrebates; Calleva/Silchester is the place of minting) as rex and son of  Commius. By virtue of their place of discovery and their motifs (i.a., a vine leaf) Verica is represented as having had a Rome-friendly, anti-Catuvellauni policy.  Cunobellinus;  Catuvellauni Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 27-47.

Calgacus

(59 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] One of the Caledonian leaders ( dux) in the battle at mons Graupius (possibly north of Aberdeen) in the late summer of AD 84, which gained Agricola the triumphalia ornamenta (Tac. Agr. 29ff.), but did not lead to a permanent annexation of Caledonia. Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography W. S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North, 1987.

Adminius

(36 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Briton; prince's son. Banned by his father  Cunobellinus in AD 39/40, A. fled to Gallia and subordinated himself there to the princeps Caligula (Suet. Calig. 44; Cass. Dio 59,25,1-5a). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)

Arthur

(239 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] (Artus). The question of historical authenticity has been made more difficult due to the creation of the legend that began as early as the 10th cent. ( annales Cambriae). The overlap of the Arthurian tradition with the history of the Anglo-Saxons in Britain makes it probable that Arthur was an army commander who obtained a regional position of power due to his successes against the Saxons at the end of the 5th cent. AD. However, it remains unclear to which region of Britain this protection referred. The mention of A. in the Welsh poem Gododdin (early sections originated ar…

Boudicca

(183 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] British ruler, widow of  Prasutagus, client king of the  Iceni. In AD 60 [1. 56] B. led a bloody revolt (Tac. Ann. 14,31ff.; Agr. 15f.; Cass. Dio Epit. 62,1ff.) against Rome, devastated the Colonia Camulodunum and the cities of Verulamium and Londinium. The legate of the ninth legion, Q.  Petillius Cerialis, suffered a severe defeat. The cause of the revolt was the ill-considered behaviour of the procurator, Decianus Catus, who after Prasutagus' death harshly confiscated the prope…

Tasciovanus

(101 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] King in Britannia. According to coin evidence, between c. 20/15 BC and 5/10 AD his area of influence was in Herfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire, Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Oxfordshire to the east of the Cherwell, Middlesex, northeastern Surrey, and in Essex together with that of Addedomarus. The main site of minting was Verulamium (Saint Albans), only few coins are from Camulodunum. On a number of them the Celtic RIGONUS appears as the equivalent of REX on the coins of the Atrebates [2]. Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography S. S. Frere, Britan…

Allectus

(161 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] IMP(erator) C(aius) Allectus P(ius) F(elix) INV(ictus) AUG(ustus) in Britannia. A.'s early career is unknown. Right hand ( satelles) and accountant ( rationalis summae rei; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,41; Eutr. 9,22,2) of  Carausius. In AD 293 after Carausius' murder immediately after the loss of the fleet support base Gesoriacum/Boulogne, promotion to Augustus (Pan. Lat. 8 [5],12,2). Aurelius Victor's telling (loc. cit.) suggests financial irregularities, which drove A. to usurpation. The transition was relati…

Cunobellinus

(123 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[German version] Briton king ( Britannorum rex, Suet. Calig. 44) between c. AD 10-40/43. Son of  Tasciovanus. The interpretation of his coins reveals that C., starting from Verulamium, succeeded in gaining control over most of south-east Britain and in establishing his rule in Camulodunum in the region of the  Trinovantes (Essex) without provoking Roman intervention. His death may well have changed the situation, as the primary goal of the Claudian invasion (AD 43) was to conquer the kingdom of C. (Cass. D…

Bericus

(72 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britanne, dessen Hilfegesuch Kaiser Claudius 43 n.Chr. den Vorwand zur Invasion der Insel lieferte (Cass. Dio 60,19,1). B. dürfte identisch sein mit Verica, der auf seinen Münzen (südl. Themse im Gebiet der Atrebates; Münzstätte ist Calleva/Silchester) als rex und Sohn des Commius erscheint. Auf Grund ihrer Fundplätze und Motive (u.a. Weinblatt) wird Verica eine romfreundliche anticatuvellaunische Politik unterstellt. Cunobellinus; Catuvellauni Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 27-47.

Imperium

(3,918 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) RWG
Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) RWG [English version] A. Antike (RWG) Der rezeptive Umgang mit dem Begriff i. begann in der röm. Republik [22; 37]. Zur urspr. Bed. (Amtsgewalt röm. Magistrate) trat zunächst die Komponente Herrschaft ( i. populi Romani: Cic. rep. 3,24), an die sich bald ein röm. Weltherrschaftsgedanke anlagerte ( i. sine fine: Verg. Aen. 1,279ff; 6,851 ff.). Im Prinzipat erweiterte sich das Bedeutungsspektrum um Herrschaftsgebiet. Etwa ab der Mitte des 1. Jh. entsprach die Wendung i. Romanum (zuerst Sall. Catil. 10,1) dem Sinn Röm. Reich (Plin. nat. 6,120; Tac. Germ…

Allectus

(152 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] IMP(erator) C(aius) Allectus P(ius) F(elix) INV(ictus) AUG(ustus) in Britannien. A.' frühe Karriere ist nicht bekannt. Rechte Hand ( satelles) und Rechnungsführer ( rationalis summae rei; Aur. Vict. Caes. 39,41; Eutr. 9,22,2) des Carausius. 293 n. Chr. nach dessen Ermordung, unmittelbar nach Verlust des Flottenstützpunktes Gesoriacum /Boulogne, Erhebung zum Augustus (Paneg. 8 [5],12,2). Aurelius Victors Darstellung (l.c.) legt Unregelmäßigkeiten in der Finanzverwaltung nahe, die A. zur Usurpation triebe…

Arthur

(196 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] (Artus). Die Frage der Historizität ist durch bereits im 10.Jh. einsetzende Legendenbildung ( annales Cambriae) erschwert. Überschneidungen der Arthurtradition mit der Gesch. der Angelsachsen in Britannien machen wahrscheinlich, daß A. ein Heerführer war, der aus Erfolgen gegen die Sachsen am Ende des 5.Jh. n.Chr. eine regionale Machtposition herleitete. Unklar bleibt, auf welchen Bereich Britanniens sich diese Sicherung bezog. A.s Erwähnung in der Walisischen Dichtung Gododdin (in frühen Teilen um 600 entstanden) muß als interpoliert gelten.…

Boudicca

(158 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannische Fürstin, Witwe des Prasutagus, des Klientelkönigs der Iceni. B. führte 60 n.Chr. [1. 56] einen blutigen Aufstand (Tac. ann. 14,31ff.; Agr. 15f.; Cass. Dio epit. 62,1ff.) gegen Rom an, verwüstete die Colonia Camulodunum und die Städte Verulamium und Londinium. Der Legat der IX. Legion, Q. Petillius Cerialis, erlitt eine schwere Niederlage. Auslöser des Aufstandes war das rücksichtslose Verhalten des Prokurators Decianus Catus, der nach Prasutagus' Tod den Besitz, dess…

Cogidubnus, Cogidumnus

(74 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannischer Klientelkönig (CIL VII 11: rex magnus Britanniae [1]) in Sussex (evtl. urspr. über die Atrebates), der bis in flavische Zeit über mehrere civitates gebot (Tac. Agr. 14,1) und vermutlich zu den 11 von Claudius unterworfenen Königen zählte (CIL VI 31537d). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography 1 J.E. Bogaers, King C. in Chichester, in: Britannia 10, 1979, 243-254. A.A. Barrett, The Career of Tib. Claudius C., in: Britannia 10, 1979, 227-242.

Caratacus

(80 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannischer König und Heerführer, Sohn des Cunobellinus, organisierte 43-51 n.Chr., anfangs mit seinem Bruder Togodumnus, den Widerstand gegen die claudischen Invasionstruppen. Nach der Besetzung des Südostens verlagerte C. seine Operationsbasis nach Wales zu den Silures und Ordovices. 51 nach einer Niederlage Flucht zu Cartimandua, die ihn an Rom auslieferte. 52 zusammen mit Frau, Kindern und Brüdern Teilnahme am Triumphzug des Claudius, der C. begnadigte (Tac. ann. 12,33ff.). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography G. Webster, Rome against C., 1…

Calgacus

(51 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Einer der caledonischen Anführer ( dux) in der Schlacht am Mons Graupius (evtl. nördl. von Aberdeen) im Spätsommer 84 n.Chr., die Agricola die triumphalia ornamenta einbrachte (Tac. Agr. 29ff.), aber keine dauerhafte Annexion Caledoniens einleitete. Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) Bibliography W.S. Hanson, Agricola and the Conquest of the North, 1987.

Cartimandua

(127 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannische Klientelkönigin der Brigantes, einer Stammeskonföderation im Norden der Provinz. 51 n.Chr. bewies C. Loyalität durch Auslieferung des Caratacus an Rom (Tac. ann. 12,36; hist. 3,45). Angewiesen auf eine stabile Nordgrenze, griffen die Statthalter zu C.s Gunsten in innerbrigantische Konflikte ein: Im J. 48 P. Ostorius Scapula (Tac. ann. 12,32,2), A. Didius Gallus zw. 52-57 [1. 48f., 231] (ann. 12,40) durch Entsendung von Auxiliarkohorten und die IX. Legion unter Caesiu…

Adminius

(34 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannischer Fürstensohn. 39/40 n. Chr. von seinem Vater Cunobellinus verbannt, floh A. nach Gallien und unterwarf sich dort dem princeps Caligula (Suet. Cal. 44; Cass. Dio 59,25,1-5a). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)

Cassivellaunus

(69 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannischer König nördlich der Themse. 54 v.Chr. Oberbefehlshaber der britannischen Truppen gegen Caesar, dem C.' Guerillataktik schwere Verluste zufügte. Nach Abfall der Trinovantes und vier weiterer Stämme gelingt es Caesar, zu C.' oppidum vorzudringen. Unter Vermittlung des Atrebaten Commius kommt ein Friedensvertrag zustande, der die Trinovantes Roms Schutz unterstellt, Geiselstellung und einen Tribut ( vectigal) vereinbart (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; 18,1ff.; Cic. Att. 4,18,5). Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)

Prasutagus

(151 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britischer Klientelkönig der Iceni; Gatte der Boudicca (seit vor 45 n. Chr.). Zählte evl. zu den elf von Claudius [III 1] 43 n. Chr. unterworfenen Königen (CIL VI 920 = ILS 216); wahrscheinlicher ist hingegen, daß er aufgrund seiner Loyalität zu Rom während des Aufstandes der Iceni 48 n. Chr. (Tac. ann. 12,31) anstelle des auf Mz. belegten Königs SAEMV [1. 433] zum (alleinigen?) Klientelkönig eingesetzt wurde. P.' Versuch, das Königtum nach seinem Tod (59 n. Chr.) zu erhalten, in…

Cunobellinus

(112 words)

Author(s): Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam)
[English version] Britannischer König ( Britannorum rex, Suet. Cal. 44) zw. ca. 10-40/43 n.Chr. Sohn des Tasciovanus. Die Interpretation seiner Münzen ergibt, daß es C. gelang, von Verulamium aus, den Südosten Britanniens weitestgehend unter Kontrolle zu bringen und sich in Camulodunum im Gebiet der Trinovantes (Essex) zu etablieren, ohne Roms Eingreifen zu provozieren. Sein Tod mag die Lage verändert haben, da es das Primärziel der claudischen Invasion (43 n.Chr.) war, das Reich des C. zu erobern (Ca…

Park

(20,703 words)

Author(s): Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) | Kunst, Christiane (Potsdam) | Niedermeier, Michael | Trauzettel, Ludwig | Rößler, Detlef | Et al.
Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] I. Gardens (CT) Egelhaaf-Gaiser, Ulrike (Potsdam) [German version] A. Concept (CT) The distinction between parks and gardens was first discussed in the 18th cent. by William Gilpin [33. 190-204] and Humphry Repton [33. 227-243] in their treatises on garden theory. For the garden, close to the house, they recommended stricter control and the use of architectural and geometric structuring (cf. also Stephen Switzer [33. 154-165]), while for the more distant park…
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