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Kotyrta

(53 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Sparta (Κοτύρτα). Spartan. Perioikenstadt ( períoikoi ) an der Westküste der Parnonhalbinsel (Parnon), vielleicht beim h. Daimonía, wo schon myk. Funde reichlich bezeugt sind. Belegstellen: Thuk. 4,56,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Κ. Inschr.: IG V 1,961-967; 1013; SEG 2,173-175; 11,899. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lexovii

(71 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Volksstamm am Westufer der unteren Sequana in der Gallia Celtica, nachmals in der Gallia Lugdunensis. Zur Zeit Caesars gehörten sie zu den civitates Aremoricae. Hauptort: Noviomagus, h. Lisieux. Belege: Caes. Gall. 3,9; 7,75; Strab. 4,1,14; 3,5; Plin. nat. 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,2; 5. Inschr.: CIL III 3177-3182. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography C. Lemaitre, Noviomagus Lexoviorum, in: R. Bedon (Hrsg.), Les villes de la Gaule lyonnaise (Caesarodunum 30), 1996, 133-166.

Cabillo(n)num

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Straßen Stadt am Arar in der Gallia Lugdunensis, h. Chalon-sur-Saône. Als Flußhafen der Haedui war C. von wirtschaftlicher Bed. bis zur Eroberung durch die Römer. Lit. Quellen: Caes. Gall. 7,42; 7,90; Strab. 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,8,12. In späterer Zeit Station der classis Ararica. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography L. Bonnamour, s.v. C., PE, 179f.  Grenier 2, 1934, 562-564.

Aphrodisia

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Gortys

(203 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Helike

(148 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Melpeia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Μέλπεια). Ort im Nomia-Gebirge mit einem Heiligtum des Pan Nomios, südl. von Lykosura (Arkadia). Genaue Lage unbekannt. (Paus. 8,38,11). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 178f.  K. Kuruniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Νομίου Πανός, in: Praktika 1902, 1903, 72-75.

Chrysorrhoas

(36 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Χρυσορ…

Parisii

(149 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Volksstamm der Gallia Celtica, später Lugdunensis, am mittleren Sequana (h. Seine), Hauptort Lutecia Parisiorum (h. Paris). Mitte des 3. Jh.v.Chr. lebten P. in Britannia. Am Sequana waren die P. den Senones benachbart. Um die Wende des 2./1. Jh. v.Chr. waren sie mit diesen verbündet, dann von diesen abhängig; sie prägten Gold-Mz. [1]. 53 v.Chr. verlegte Caesar das

Kromnos

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Κρῶμνος, Κρῶμνα, Κρῶμναι, Κρῶμοι). Ortschaft in der arkad. Landschaft Kromnitis an der Straße von Megalopolis nach Messene, 11 km südl. von Megalopolis, evtl. auf einem Hügel ca. 2 km nordöstl. vom h. Paradisia (Παραδείσια). Bei der Gründung von Megalopolis eingemeindet. Belege: Paus. 8,3,4; 27,4; 34,5f.; Xen. hell. 7,4,20-28; Kallisthenes, FGrH 124 F 13; Steph. Byz., s.v. Κρῶμνα.…

Pitana

(117 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Lasion

(52 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Λασιών). Stadt am Rand der Pholoë-Hochfläche im elischen Bergland, im oberen Tal des Ladon [3], Reste beim h. Kumani. L. war zw. Elis und Arkadia umstritten. Belege: Xen. hell. 3,2,30; 4,2,16; 7,4,12f.; Diod. 14,17,8; 15,77,1-4; Strab. 8,3,5; 7,5. Inschr.: SEG 11, 1172f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 6, 1989.

Lykone

(37 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Λυκώνη). Bergzug östl. von Argos mit Heiligtum der…

Krokeai

(127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: …

Lykaia

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Λύκαια). Name zweier Orte in NW-Arkadia, beide auch in der Namensform Λυκόα/ Lykóa bezeugt, zu Megale polis gehörig. [English version] [1] L. im Gebiet der Mainalioi L. im Gebiet der Mainalioi am Oberlauf des Helisson (Paus. 8,3,4; 27,3; 30,1; 36,7), evtl. mit Palaiokastro zw. Arachova und Karteroli im SO der Ebene von Davia gleichzusetzen. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [English version] [2] L. im Gebiet der Parrhasioi L. im Gebiet der Parrhasioi am Nordhang des Lykaion, westl. der Einmündung des Lusios (Pol. 16,17,7; Paus. 8,27,4), wohl das h. “Kastro der Hl. Helen…

Kaphyai

(178 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Arkades, Arkadia (Καφυαί). Stadt in NO-Arkadia im Norden der nördl. Ebene von Orchomenos, 1 km südöstl. vom h. Chotusa, mit geringen ant. Resten. Weihung aus der Kriegsbeute in Delphoi aus dem 5. Jh.v.Chr. (Syll.3 48). K. kämpfte im Chremonideïschen Krieg (267-261 v.Chr.) gegen Antigonos [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25), gehörte anschließend zum Achaiischen Bund mit der kurzen…

Glanum

(333 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Gallia/Gaul Town in Gallia Narbonensis (modern Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) in the region of the  Salluvii. Located on the great trade route running east-west that connected Italy with Spain (later the via Domitia), G.'s importance was also due to its location at the end of the north-south road which provided G. control over the direct access to the Crau plain. A Celtic-Ligurian sanctuary that was dedicated to the god Glan and the   Matres [1] was located in the vicinity of a mineral spring. The res…

Coccygium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κοκκύγιον ὄρος; Kokkýgion ŕos). ‘Cuckoo mountain’, another name for the mountain Thornax, west of  Hermion(e) on the Argolid headland, with sanctuaries of Zeus and Apollo; today's Hagios Elias. References: Paus. 2,36,1f.; schol. Theoc. 15,64. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography A. Foley, The Argolid 800-600 B.C., 1988, 184.

Divio

(84 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Decetia

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] City of the Haedui (Caes. B Gall. 7,33) in Gallia Lugdunensis, road junction (It. Ant. 367: Decetia; 460:

Autessiodurum

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Cyphanta

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κύφαντα or Κύφας; Kýphanta or Kýphas). Spartan perioikic polis (  períoikoi ) on the east coast of the  Parnon peninsula with an Asclepius sanctuary, already in ruins at the time of Pausanias, located in the bay with the mod. name of Kyparissi. Documentary evidence: Pol. 4,36,5; Paus. 3,24,2; Ptol. 3,16,10; 22; Plin. HN 4,17. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Pritchett 7, 1991, 146-149 A. J. B. Wace, F. W. Hasluck, East-Central Laconia, in: ABSA 15, 1908/9, 173.

Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Cleitor

(246 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Κλείτωρ, Arcad. Κλήτωρ). North Arcadian town in a small plain surrounded by mountains near modern Carnesi with a river of the same name, c. 3 km west of Kato-Klitoria, 11 km from the sources of the Ladon ( Ladon [2]), with few remains (IG V 2, 367). An important transit area between the eastern plateau and the western mountain regions. C. had no acropolis, the settlement was located in a flat area with only two slightly higher areas. It was, nevertheless, one of the most important towns in Arcadia, in the history of which C. repeatedly played an important role. In the 3rd cent. AD C. still minted coins. The Korias…

Allobroges

(303 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The territory of the A. (‘foreigners’: Schol. Juv. 8,234), in  Gallia Narbonensis, extended in the north up to the Cavares and the  Vocontii, between  Isara,  Rhodanus, lacus Lemannus and  Alpes. The A. are Celts who came late to Gaul; their first appearance is wi…

Anthea

(78 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἄνθεια; Ántheia). One of the seven towns, belonging to the kingdom of  Pylos on the Messenian Gulf, which, in Hom. Il. 9,151; 293,  Agamemnon offered to  Achilles. Its identification with  Thuria (Str. 8,4,5; Paus. 4,31,1) is supported by many finds there dating from the Mycenaean age.…

Mesoa

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μεσόα; Mesóa). Ōbá or kṓmē (‘village’) of Sparta [1. 119]; specifically the urban region south west of the theatre (Str. 8,5,3; Paus. 3,16,9; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μεσσόα). The inscription IG V 1, 515 is a forgery [2]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. F. Jones, Public Organization in Ancient Greece, 1987 2 A. J. S. Spawforth, Fourmontiana. IG V 1, 515: Another Forgery ‘from Amyklai’, in: ABSA 71, 1976, 139-145.

Las

(139 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (ἡ Λᾶς; hē Lâs). Spartan town of períoikoi on the west coast of the Laconian Gulf. Remains of the ancient city (ancient and classical acropolis?) near modern Passava, covered by the Hellenistic and Roman towns. The harbour of L. (Thuc. 8,91; Str. 8,5,4) lay c. 3 km away (modern Bay of Vathy). Indefinite Mycenaean remains. Evidence: Hom. Il. 2,585 (Λάας; Láas); Scyl. 46; Paus. 3,21,7; 24,6f.; Str. 8,5,3; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λᾶ/ . Inscriptions: IG V 1,1214-1217. Coins: HN, 436. Lafond, …

Aphrodisia

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἀφροδισία; Aphrodisía). City on the plain between  Cotyrta and  Boiae, south-east of  Laconice (Ἀφροδιτία; Aphroditía in Thuc. 4,56,1; Ἀφροδισιά; Aphrodisiás in Steph. Byz. s. v.; Paus. 3,22,11; 8,12,8), described itself as having been founded by  Aeneas. Site unknown.…

Matisco

(137 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity Town in the Provincia Lugdunensis on the Arar River (Saône) in the territory of the Haedui, 70 km north of Lugudunum, modern Mâcon (Saône-et-Loire). There are Celtic remains in the environs as well, e.g. in Varennes-lès-Mâcon. In 52 BC M. was a staging station (Caes. Gall. 7,90,7; 8,4), in the Roman Imperial period it was the starting-point of the road to Augustodunum. A castrum was built in the 4th century AD. Necropolis. Sources: Itin. Anton. 359; Tab. Peut. 2,5 ( Matiscone); Notitia Galliarum 1,5; Geogr. Rav…

Mases

(110 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μάσης; Másēs). Location and harbour on the southwestern coast of the Argolid peninsula on the eastern shore of the bay of Koilada, north west of the modern village of Kampo, with few ancient remains. Mentioned in Hom. Il. 2,562; in the historical period it was the port of Hermion(e). References: Str. 8,6,17; Paus. 2,35,11; 36,1f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ.; Eust. in Hom. Il. 288,11.…

Chrysorrhoas

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Χρυσορρόας; Chrysorrhóas). River near Troezen that did not dry up even during protracted drought (Paus. 2,31,10). Identical with the modern Gephyraion to the west of the town. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Welter, Troizen und Kalaureia, 1941, 15.

Lycone

(47 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκώνη; Lykṓnē). Mountain range east of Argus with the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (temple 12.30 × 9.80 m) with a marble statue that is said to be by Polyclitus (Paus. 2,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Kophiniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Ἀργολίδι, in: AD 1888, 205.

Pheneus

(368 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (ὁ/ἡ Φενεός; ho/hē Pheneós, ethnikon Φενεάτης/ Pheneátēs or Φενικός/ Phenikós). City in Azania in northern Arcadia (Str. 8,8,2; 4; Paus. 8,13,6-22,1; Plin. HN. 4,20f.; 31,54; Diod. Sic. 15,49,5) in the north of a karst basin with no overground outlet drained by swallow-holes into the Ladon [1. 94, 99] where a shallow lake only periodically formed but with at times a catastrophically high water level (cf. Theophr. Hist. p…

Phlius

(569 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia (Φλειοῦς/ Phleioûs, more rarely Φλιοῦς/ Phlioûs, ethnicon Φλειάσιος/ Phleiásios or Φλιάσιος/ Phliásios; Lat. Phleius). Town in northeastern Peloponnese, south west of Corinth (Str. 8,6,24; Paus. 2,13,3-8; Plin. HN 4,13; Ptol. 3,16,16). Today it is still called P., lying c. 2 km to the west of present-day Nemea in the foothills of the Tricaranon (present-day Koutsi) which juts out from the northeast into the alluvia…

Glympeis

(64 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Γλυμπεῖς; Glympeîs; by Paus. 3,22,8 Γλυππία; Glyppía). Cynurian settlement on the boundary of the Argolis with Laconia (Pol. 5,20) in the Parnon mountains, the ruins of Palaeochora near modern Hagios Vasilios. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography J. Christien, De Sparte à la côte orientale du Péloponnèse, in: M. Piérart (ed.), Polydipsion Argos, 1992, 157-170.

Aegira

(364 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Oracles (Αἴγειρα; Aígeira). Town in  Achaea, c. 1.3 km from the coast (Pol. 4,57,5) and c. 2.2 km from the port of the same name (Paus. 7,26,1), west of the modern village of Derveni. Protected on three sides by steep hills and on the fourth approachable only via a narrow ridge, A. was easy to defend and, at the same time, controlled the coastal road. The hilltop settlement ( c. 416 m), inhabited since the late Mycenaean period (12th cent. BC), was originally called Hyperesia …

Calamae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλάμαι; Kalámai). Settlement in south-east Messenia (κώμη, Paus. 4,31,3; χωρίον, Pol. 5,92,4 for 217 BC). Small hillock with remains of walls, 1 km south of the modern Jannitsa. C. probably extended to a further hillside nearby, where today a chapel of Hagios Vasilios is found. The modern Kalamata (officially Kalamai) corresponds with the ancient Pharae. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 1369f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 180f.

Agatha

(101 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Colonization | Punic Wars Town in  Gallia Narbonensis, colony of  Massalia, within the territory of the  Volcae Arecomici, modern Agde (Str. 4,1,5 f.; Plin. HN 3,33; Ptol. 2,10,2: Ἀγάθη; Agáthē, ‘good’), located on the edge of the Hérault-delta on a hillside which has been continually inhabited since ancient times. Because of its location, this seaport was an important safeguard of the trade between the Mediterranean countries and Gallia. In the 5th cent. AD bishop's seat. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography…

Nestane

(99 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Νεστάνη/ Nestánē). Fortified village (κώμη/ kṓmē) in the Mantinea region in Arcadia (Theop. FGrH 115 F 175; Ephor. FGrH 70 F 234) on the eastern edge of the plateau on the road to Argos [II 1] by way of the Prinos pass. At the time of Pausanias (8,7,4; 8,1) N. was in ruins; near what is now Nestane (formerly Tsipiana). Remains of the castle wall have been preserved. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography S. and H. Hodkinson, Mantineia and the Mantinike, in: ABSA 76, 1981, 267-269  M. Jost, Villages de l'Arcadie antique, in: Ktema 11, 1986 (1990), 156f.  Jost, 140.

Os(s)ismi(i)

(127 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic tribe (Str. 4,4,1; Plin. HN 4,107; Mela 3,23; Ptol. 2,8,5; Tab. Peut 2,2) in Aremorica (in present-day Brittany; cf. Caes. B Gall. 7,75,4: O. amongst the civitates quae ... Aremoricae appellantur), to the west of the Veneti and Coriosolites, the main town being Vorgium (present-day Carhaix, dépt. Finistère). Subjugated in 58 BC by Caesar's praefectus equitum Licinius [I 16] Crassus (Caes. B. Gall. 2,34,1), they took part in 56 BC in an insurrection of Gallic tribes against Rome (Caes. B. Gall. 3,9,10). After Diocletian's reorgan…

Andematu(n)num

(153 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Batavian Revolt Located on a plateau with steep slopes to all sides, A., the modern Langres (Haute-Marne; traces of neolithic and Bronze Age settlements), was the main town of the  Lingones (Ptol. 2,9,9). Because of this and its location at the junction of the road from the Atlantic to northern Italy with that from the Mediterranean to the  Rhenus, it soon developed into a flourishing town. Harried by the  Alamanni in AD 298, A.- known as   civitas Lingonum in late antiquity -- was destroy…

Heraea

(305 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Arcadians, Arcadia (Ἡραία; Hēraía). Western Arcadian city on the right bank of the central course of the Alpheius, shortly before the mouth of the Ladon, with extensive territory, comprising a number of fortified settlements. H. was of strategic importance because of its location on a major road, linking Elis, Arcadia, and the Argolid. According to Paus. 8,26,1, the city was located on a plateau, rising gently from the banks of the…

Arar

(88 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in  Gallia, earlier called Βρίγουλος ( Brígoulos), later   Sauconna ; the modern Saône (Ps.-Plut. De Fluminibus 6). Rising in the Vosges (according to Str. 4,1,11; 3,2 the Alps; Ptol. 2,10,4 -- confusion with  Isara); navigable from its confluence with the  Dubis, with a remarkably slow current, it formed the border between the  Haedui and the  Sequani (Caes. B Gall. 1,12,1) and joined the  Rhodanus near ad Confluentes, opposite  Lugdunum. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Opelt, A., der Grenzstrom zw. Häduern und Sequanern, in: Gymnasium, 1988, 481-492.

Melangea

(39 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μελαγγεία/ Melangeía). Town in the territory of Mantinea in Arcadia at the exit of the Climax Pass. Drinking water was led from here to Mantinea. To be found at modern Pikerni (Paus. 8,6,4). Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Bibrax

(34 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Oppidum of the Remi, modern Vieux-Laon or Camp de Saint-Thomas (Départment Aisne). Captured by Caesar in 57 BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,6). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography P. Leman, s.v. B., PE, 792.

Melpeia

(44 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μέλπεια; Mélpeia). Settlement in the Nomian mountains with a sanctuary of Pan Nomios, south of Lycosura (Arcadia). The exact location is unknown. (Paus. 8,38,11). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Jost, 178f. K. Kuruniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Νομίου Πανός, in: Praktika 1902, 1903, 72-75.

Cnacion

(40 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κνακιών; Knakiṓn). Mentioned only in the ‘Great Rhetra’ (Plut. Lycurgus 6,4, Pelopidas 17,6;  Sparta). Place name in Sparta, later equated to the river Oenus, today's Kelephina (Plut. loc. cit.; Lycoph. 550); not identifiable. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Asine

(385 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσίνη; Asínē) [German version] [1] Prehistoric settlement in Kastraki This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Important prehistoric settlement from the Early Helladic period, located on the rocky headland of Kastraki c. 8 km south-east of  Nauplia on the bay of Tolon; it was taken to be a town of the Dryopes ( Dryops) (Hdt. 8,73; Paus. 4,8,3; 34,9-12). In around 700 BC, the town was destroyed by  Argos [II 1], but the temple of  Apollo Pythaieus survived. Its inhabitants were resettled in Messenia by …

Baeterrae

(136 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul Oppidum of the  Volcae Arecomici in Gallia Narbonensis, modern Béziers (Hérault), settled at the latest from 750/650 BC. Since Caesar's time, Colonia Urbs Iulia Septimanorum Baeterrae with veterans of the legio VII (Plin. HN 3,36; Mela 2,75; Str. 4,1,6; Ptol. 2,10,6). B. was the centre of an important road network, and controlled a large and prosperous surrounding area, favoured by the nearby ports of Agatha and Narbo. Its destruction in the …
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