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Terina

(150 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)

Croton

(490 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Punic Wars (Κρότων, Krótōn, Lat. Croto[n]). …

Thurii

(560 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Θούριοι/ Thoúrioi, Latin Thurii). Greek city on the Ionios Kolpos where Sybaris [4] stood until its destruction in 510 BC, c. 134 km south-west of Tarentum (Taras[2]); today the field of ruins at the Parco di Cavallo, Parco dei Tori and Casa Bianca. After several attempts (thwarted by Croton) by displaced Sybarites to refound their city (Str. 6,1,13), the Athenians decided in 444/3 BC to found a Panhellenic colony of T. (named after a fountain, Thuria) at Sybaris (Diod. Sic. 12,10 f.; Str. 6,1,13). Among those participating in the foundation were the historian Herodotus [1] and the sophist Protagoras [1] who wrote a democratic constitution in the spirit of Charondas (Diod. Sic. 12,11,3). Hippodamus was…

Temesa

(167 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Τεμέση/ Temésē). City in Bruttium (Bruttii), in the Roman period Tempsa (Str. 6,1,5; Plin. HN 3,72); its location is uncertain, but it was somewhere in the valley of the Sabutus (modern Savuto). T. was founded by the Ausones; these were followed by the Aetolians under Thoas [3], then the Bruttii. In 194 BC a Roman colonia (Str. loc.cit.; Liv. 34,45) was established. Followers of Spartacus used T. as a base (Cic. Verr. 2,5,39-41). Near T., there was a heroon to Polites [2] (cf. Paus. 6,6,4-10). Copper mines at T. had already been exhau…

Metapontum

(657 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones (Μεταπόντιον, Metapóntion; Lat. Metapontum). A lower Italian city in Lucania, on the Gulf of Taras/Tarentum, said to have first been founded by the Pylians under Nestor upon their return from Troy (Strab. 6,1,15). The continuity of the Achaean substrate between the Mycenaean period and the great colonisation seems to have continued in the cultic domain (Artemision by the Venella an…

Leucopetra

(88 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Λευκόπετρα; Leukópetra, ‘white rock’). Promontory on …

Regium

(701 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Italy, languages | Colonization | Natural catastrophes | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones | Rome | Rome (Ῥήγιον/ Rhḗgion, Lat. Regium), modern Reggio di Calabria. City on the Bruttian coast of the Fretum Siculum (Straits of Messina). Its strategic position and the lack of agriculturally useful territory committed the city to the lucrative control of the strait. Founded in the 2nd half of the 8th cent. BC shor…

Siris

(256 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)

Scylletium

(161 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] (Σκυλ

Caulonia

(229 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Colonization (Καυλωνία; Kaulōnía, Lat. Caulonia, Caulonea). Achaean colony on the eastern coast of Bruttium, founded by Typhon of Aegium (Paus. 6,3,12) at the end of the 8th cent. BC, near the modern Monasterace Marina [1]…

Laus

(174 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] [1] Colony (Λᾶος; Lâos). The colony, localized on the hill of San Bartolo di Marcellina, along the river Lao in the bay of Scalea, was founded by survivors from Sybaris after the destruction of the city in 510 BC. Nearby was the heroon of Dracon, a companion of Odysseus (Str. 6,1,1). At the end of the 5th cent. BC L. was conquered by the Lucani. Here the bloody battle between the Italiot League and the Lucani took place in 389 BC. A city with remains of buildings and graves surrounded by a wall is from the 4th cent. BC. No traces of the archaic period. Muggia, Anna (Pavia) Bibliography P…

Vibo Valentia

(504 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: …

Rhegion

(655 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: …

Metapontion

(581 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Regio, regiones | Theater (Μεταπόντιον, lat. Metapontum). Unteritalische Stadt in Lucania am Golf von Taras/Tarent, erstmals angeblich von den Pylioi des Nestor bei der Rückkehr aus Troia gegr.…

Kroton

(434 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bundesgenossensystem | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Punische Kriege | Straßen …

Leukopetra

(86 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] (Λευκόπετρα, “weißer Felsen”). Vorgebirge an der Adria-Küste südl. von Rhegion (Strab. 5,1,3; 6,1,7), h. Capo dell'Armi bei Motta S. Giovanni. Zusammen mit anderen “weißen Felsen” (Capo Leucata, Phalaron Akron, Leucopetrai Tarentinorum) kennzeichnet er die Seefahrtsroute von Griechenl…

Kaulonia

(194 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Kolonisation (Καυλωνία, lat. Caulonia, Caulonea). Achaiische Kolonie an der Ostküste von Bruttium, von Typhon von Aigion (Paus. 6,3,12) E. 8. Jh.v.Chr. gegr., beim h. Monasterace Marina [1]. K. geriet unter die Herrschaft von Kroton, galt schließlich als krotonische Gründung (Ps.-Skymn. GGM 1, 318f.). Die anfängliche Autonomie bezeugt die im 6. Jh.v.Chr. einsetzenden Mz.-Prägung. Hauptwirtschaftszweig war der Holzhandel (Thuk. 7,25,2). 388 v.…

Poseidonia, Paistos, Paestum

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones (Ποσειδωνία/ Poseidōnía: Aristot. Mir. 839a 30; Παιστός/ Paistós: Str. 5,4,13; Ποσειδωνιάς/ Poseidōniás: Scymn. 248; 'Oscan' Παῖστον/ Paîston: Ptol. 3,1,8; Posidonia: Liv. Per. 14; Plin. HN. 3,71; Latin Paestum: Plin. loc. cit.; Pestum: Tab. Peut. 6,5). [German version] I. History Town in Lucania (Aristot. loc. cit.) on the south coast of the Gulf of Salerno (Str. loc. cit.: Π…

Sybaris

(605 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
(Σύβαρις; Sýbaris). [German version] [1] Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa Monster on the mountain Cirphis near Crisa, also called Lamia (Lamia [1]). In order to keep the area free of S.' regular visitations, a youth called Alcyoneus was to be sacrificed. Out of love for him, however, Eurybatus spontaneously took his place. He managed to overcome S. and throw it from a rock. On the site of its fall the spring S. arises (Antoninus Liberalis 8, according to Nicander). Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) [German version] [2] Name of a youth Name of a youth, possibly a river god, in a picture…

Poseidonia, Paistos, Paestum

(1,009 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Bundesgenossenkriege | Bundesgenossensystem | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italien, Sprachen | Kolonisation | Regio, regiones | Theater | Straßen (Ποσειδωνία: Aristot. mir. 839a 30; Παιστός: Strab. 5,4,13; Ποσειδωνιάς: Skymn. 248; “oskisch” Παῖστον: Ptol. 3,1,8; Posidonia: Liv. per. 14; Plin. nat. 3,71; lat. Paestum: Plin. l.c.; Pestum: Tab. Peut. 6,5). [English version] I. Geschichte Stadt in Lucania (Aristot. l.c.) an der Südküste des Golfo di Salerno (Strab. l.c.: Ποσειδωνιάτης κόλπος, Παιστανὸ…

Laus

(337 words)

Author(s): Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia)
[English version] [1] Insekt Insekt; φθείρ/ phtheír, lat. pediculus, spätlat. auch tinea (Isid. orig. 12, 5,11: vestimentorum vermis). Von den angeblich 53 Arten [1] sind nur drei Parasiten des Menschen von Bed. 1. Die Filz-L., Phirus pubis (L.), (φθείρ ἄγριος/ phtheir ágrios: Aristot. hist. an. 5,31,557a 4-10; vgl. Hdt. 2,37 über die Rasur der Körperhaare bei den ägypt. Priestern), welche für die φθειρίασις βλεφάρων/ phtheiríasis blephárōn (den Läusebefall der Augenlider) verantwortlich sein soll (Cels. 6,6,15). 2. Die gerne auf Schafswolle (Aristot. hist. a…

Magna Graecia

(3,167 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lamboley, Jean-Luc (Grenoble)
(Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς/ Megálē Hellás, ‘Great Greece’). I. Geography and history [German version] A. Definition From a geographical point of view, the concept of Magna Graecia (MG) is superimposed on Italia without being identical with it. In the 5th cent. BC, it referred to the outermost part of Italia, surrounded by the Tyrrhenian and Ionian Seas from Laus [2] to Metapontium. Later MG was used for the whole part of Southern Italy that had been settled by Greeks, from Taras to Cyme [2]. The term Megálē Hellás was already widespread around the middle of the 5th cent. BC. There seem to be…

Taras

(1,524 words)

Author(s): Goldhahn, Tobias | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Toral-Niehoff, Isabel (Freiburg)
(Τάρας/ Táras). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph Son of Poseidon and a South-Italian nymph (Paus. 10,10,8), or son of Heracles [1] (Serv. Aen. 3,551); hero and eponym of the town of Taranto ( cf. T. [2]) and of its river. He is considered to be the founder (Paus. l.c.), or at least the patron (Serv. l.c.) of Taranto. On a coin from Taranto, he is represented as a boy reaching out for Poseidon; the image of a dolphin rider appearing on other coins from Taranto, represents rather Phalantus [1], in spite o…

Velia

(851 words)

Author(s): Salomone Gaggero, Eleonora (Genoa) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] [1] Ligurian city in the valley of the upper Chero (Βελεία, Βελία/ Bel(e)ía; Οὐελεία/ Oueleía). Ligurian city (but in Regio VIII) in the valley of the upper Chero (tributary of the Po), c. 30 km to the south of Placentia; modern Velleia. Possibly an Augustean colonia, tribus Galeria (Plin. HN 3,47; ILS 1079, l. 8: res publica Velleiat[ium]; ILS 5560: municipes); according to the archaeological finds evidently destroyed in the 4th/5th cent. AD and abandoned. Parts of the forum survive (drainage system; paving, cf. CIL XI 1184; basilica; po…

Cyme

(1,256 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη; Kýmē). [German version] [1] Settlement on Euboea This item can be found on the following maps: Aegean Koine C. on  Euboea. The exact location of the ancient settlement is unknown; it should be looked for near what is today the town of C., commonly Kumi, on the east coast of Euboea, possibly about 5 km north at the monastery of Sotiros (17th cent.) where there is also a Venetian fortress. Recently the remains of an Early Helladic settlement were found near Murteri south of C. whose inhabitants already traded…

Magna Graecia

(2,857 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lamboley, Jean-Luc (Grenoble)
(Μεγάλη Ἑλλάς/ Megálē Hellás, “Großgriechenland”). I. Geographie und Geschichte [English version] A. Begriff Aus geogr. Sicht überlagert der Begriff M.G. Italia, ohne jedoch damit identisch zu sein. Im 5. Jh.v.Chr. verstand man darunter die äußerste, vom Tyrrhenischen und Ion. Meer umgebene Italía, von Laus [2] nach Metapontion; nach und nach wurde M.G. für den ganzen von Griechen besiedelten Teil Süditaliens von Taras bis Kyme [2] geläufig. Der Ausdruck Megálē Hellás war schon um die Mitte des 5. Jh.v.Chr. verbreitet. Er scheint auf zwei Trad. zurückzugehen: di…

Kyme

(1,086 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Κύμη). [English version] [1] Ort auf Euboia Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Ägäische Koine K. auf Euboia. Die genaue Lage der ant. Ortschaft ist nicht bekannt; sie ist in der Nähe des h. Ortes K., volkstümlich Kumi, an der Ostküste von Euboia zu suchen, evtl. etwa 5 km nördl. beim Kloster Sotiros (17. Jh.), wo sich auch eine venezianische Festung befindet. Neuerdings wurden bei Murteri südl. von K. die Reste einer FH Siedlung aufgefunden, deren Bewohner schon über die Ägäis hinweg Handel betri…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(612 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
('promontory', 'cape'). [German version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine (τὸ Κάντιον). Headland in the far south-east of Britannia, opposite the mouth of the Rhine; a landmark for seamen and geographers, modern South Foreland/Kent ( cf. Caes. B Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. Sic. 5,21,3; Str. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium probably means 'corner' in Celtic [1]. The exposed location in the far south-east of the island gave its name to the Cantiaci, and the name was also applied to the ki…

Promunturium, Promontorium

(561 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Barceló, Pedro (Potsdam)
(“Vorgebirge”, “Kap”). [English version] [1] Promontorium Cantium Landspitze im äußersten SO von Britannia gegenüber der Mündung des Rheins (τὸ Κάντιον). Landspitze im äußersten SO von Britannia gegenüber der Mündung des Rheins, eine Landmarke für Seeleute und Geographen, h. South Foreland/Kent (vgl. Caes. Gall. 5,13,1; 14,1; 22,1; Diod. 5,21,3; Strab. 1,4,3; 4,3,3; 5,1). Cantium dürfte kelt. “Ecke” bedeuten [1]. Die exponierte Lage im äußersten SO der Insel gab den Cantiaci ihren Namen, der sich auch auf das im 6. Jh. hier entstehende Königreich Kent übertrug. Todd, Malcolm (…

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Neapolis

(1,882 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις, Νεάπολις, “Neue Stadt”). [English version] [1] Stadt an der Nordküste der Ägäis Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Makedonia, Makedones | Moesi, Moesia | Straßen Stadt an der Nordküste der Ägäis im Westen der Mündung des Nestos gegenüber Thasos, h. Kavalla (Strab. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Skyl. 67). Wohl thasische Kolonie; die genaue Gründungszeit ist unbekannt. E. des 6. Jh.v.Chr. autonome Silberprägung nach dem Vorbild von Eretria [1] (HN 196). Aus dieser Zeit stammen Reste eines Tempels der Athena Partheno…
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