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Vaballathus

(173 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] L. Iulius Aurelius Septimius V. Athenodorus, son of Odaenathus [2] and Zenobia, perhaps identical to the Timolaos [5] mentioned in the Historia Augusta (SHA Gall. 13,2; SHA Tyr. Trig. 15,2 et passim; but cf. SHA Aur. 38,1). He was still a child when his father was murdered (in AD 267), so that his career was guided by Zenobia: V. appears after 267 as rex regum and corrector totius orientis (CIS II 3971), was later imperator and dux Romanorum [1] and Augustus in the spring of 272 (ILS 8924). Coins from Alexandria showing both Aurelianus [3] and V. should n…

Rodericus (Roderic)

(326 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (German Roderich, Spanish Rodrigo, Arabic Luḏrīq). Last king of the Visigoths. The so-called Crónica Mozárabe (in Spanish) of AD 754, which provides information about the end of the West Gothic empire, reveals that R. was initially provincial governor (of Hispania Baetica ?) and in 710, after the death of Witiza, was elected king, an election which did not go unopposed. At the very time the Muslims invaded Spain in April/May 711, R. was fighting the Basques; yet he managed to deploy an approxim…

Tamsapor

(66 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Commander of Sapor [2] II, entrusted with the defence of the Persian western frontier. He spoke in favour of peace negotiations with Rome in AD 357 (Amm. Marc. 16,9,3 f.; 17,5). When the Persian War flared up again in 359, T. and Nohodares successfully led small, highly manoeuvrable divisions against the Romans (Amm. Marc. 18,8,3; 19,9,7; cf. Them. Or. 4,57). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Terentius

(5,938 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Müller, Christian (Bochum) | Schmitt, Tassilo (Bielefeld) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Et al.
Roman nomen gentile of Sabine origin. Its members begin to appear in the sources late in the 3rd cent. BC. Politically the most important branch was that of the Terentii Varrones which attained the ranks of the nobility with T. [I 14] Varro, consul in 216 BC. From the mid-2nd cent., several families of this branch were in simultaneous and unconnected existence. Cognomina showing geographical origins are widespread among the Terentii (Afer, Lucanus, Massaliota). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican period [German version] [I 1] As people's tribune in 54 BC, T. prevented…

Erato

(285 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἐρατώ; Eratṓ). [German version] [1] One of the nine Muses One of the nine  Muses; daughter of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Hes. Theog. 78; Apollod. 1,13). Attribution of a sphere of activity, as in the case of the other Muses, emerged only gradually. Plato i.a. assigns her to the sphere of the erotic, on account of her name (Phdr. 259d); but she is above all the Muse of love-lyric, and is appealed to in this connection by poets (cf. Verg. Aen. 7,37; Ov. Ars am. 2,16; 425). She is portrayed i.a. on the François Vase (570 BC) and on the Basle lekythos (together with  Thamyris and  Klio). Bloch, René (Berne) Bibl…

Orodes

(580 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ὀρώδης; Orṓdēs). [German version] [1] O. I Parthian king, 1st cent. BC Parthian king around 81/80-76/5 BC who is mentioned under the name Uruda only in cuneiform texts [1. 517, 1162f., 1165, 1170f., 1174, 1446]. He was probably a son of Artabanus [4] I and therefore a brother of the kings Mithridates [13] II and Gotarzes I who ruled before him and Sanatruces who ruled after him. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 T.G. Pinches, J.N. Strassmaier, A. J. Sachs, Late Babylonian Astronomical and Related Texts, 1955. J. Oelsner, Randbemerkungen zur arsakidischen Geschichte …

Naimanes

(101 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (App. Mithr. 19: Nemánēs; but cf. Memnon FGrH 434 F 22: Menophánēs). An Armenian in the service of Mithridates [6] VI of Pontus, who dealt M. Aquillius [I 4] a heavy defeat in Bithynia in 88 BC. He seems then to have entered the service of the Paphlagonian king Mithridates Philopator Philadelphus, a son of Mithridates VI, as a ‘N., son of Naimanes’ appears among the envoys who brought gifts in the former's name to the Roman Capitol in about 80 BC (CIL I2 730 = CIL VI 30922 = ILS 30 = ILLRP 180). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Stratonice

(826 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Στρατονίκη; Stratoníkē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Alexander [2] I, c. 500 BC Daughter of the Macedonian king Alexander [II 2] I. In the winter of 429/8 BC, she was married by her brother Perdiccas [2] II to Seuthes [1], nephew of the Odrysian king Sitalces [1], in exchange for Seuthes' having achieved the withdrawal of Thracian troops from Macedonia (Thuc. 2,101,5 f.). Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) [German version] [2] Wife of Antigonus [1], 4th cent. BC Daughter of one Corrhagus, married to Antigonus [1], mother of Demetrius [2] Poliorketes and a Philippus, who died…

Sinnaces

(88 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Son of Sūrēn Abdagaeses, centre of a conspiracy against the Parthian king Artabanus [5] II. At his instigation, in AD 35 a Parthian legation obtained from Tiberius the dispatch of prince Phraates to be pretender to the throne. After his death, Phraates' son or nephew Tiridates was installed as his successor in the Parthian Empire by L. Vitellius, the legate of Syria. S. took  Tiridates' side, taking with him his own troops (Tac. Ann. 6,31 f.; 6,36 f.). S.' subsequent fate is unknown. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Mithridates

(3,920 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Fündling, Jörg (Bonn) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(also Mithradates; Μιθριδάτης/ Mithridátēs, Μιθραδάτης/ Mithradátēs ). The personal name Μιθραδάτης is Persian - coins [4. 10-17] attest to the original spelling. Inscriptions, (Syll.3 709 passim; 741,14,23; 742,4; 12) sporadically give Μιθριδάτης, even contemporary ones (Greek ILS 37,8, Latin ILS 38,28; 60,5; 9), which is the form found in most later documents (Syll.3 785,10) and manuscripts. The change α/ι is due to weakening of vowels at the morpheme boundary, demonstrable from the 5th century onwar…

Mithrobuzanes

(75 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μιθροβουζάνης; Mithrobouzánēs). Son of Zariadris of Sophene, who was at the court of Ariarathes V of Cappadocia when his father died (163 BC). Ariarathes rejected the proposal of Artaxias I (Artaxias [1]) of Armenia to eliminate the sons of Zariadris and to split Sophene between Armenia and Cappadocia, and helped M. to take up his throne (Diod. Sic. 31,22; Pol. 31,16). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenien, 1989, 196-199.

Uranius

(384 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg)
(Οὐράνιος/ Ouránios). [German version] [0] Usurper, mid 3rd cent. L. Iulius Aurelius Sulpicius Severus U. Antoninus, usurper, who had coins minted in Emesa in 253/4; very likely identical with the priest of Aphrodite Sampsigeramus (Ioh. Mal. 12 p. 296 f.) who warded off an attack on Emesa by the Persian army in 253, in the course of which their leader (in the text Sapor [1] I himself) was killed. It may be that Or. Sib. 13,158-171 and IGLS 1799-1801 also refer to these events. When with Valerianus' [2] d…

Bas

(83 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βᾶς; Bâs). The Bithynian dynast was the son of Boteiras and second successor to  Doedalses. Memnon (FGrH 434 F 12,4) gives him 71 years, of which he ruled for 50 (377/6-328 BC). His victory over Calas, the satrap charged by Alexander [4] the Great with the conquest of  Bithynia, falls in his late phase (between 333 and 328). This event gave rise to an independent Bithynian ‘kingdom’, whose first king was B.'s son  Zipoetes [1] . Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Osroes

(176 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] 1st cent. AD Parthian king Son of Vologaeses I, who fought Pacorus for the Parthian crown from AD 89/90, but did not succeed until 108/9. His meddling in Armenia (cf. Axidares; Parthamasiris) provoked Trajan's Parthian War (Parthian and Persian Wars), which O. weathered despite severe setbacks. In 117, he expelled his son Parthamaspates, who had been drawn to the Roman side and whom Trajan had made king of the Parthians. A treaty was concluded at a meeting with Hadrian in 123, and O…

Pharnabazus

(391 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Φαρνάβαζος; Pharnábazos). [German version] [1] Persian, Satrap of Dascylium [2]/Phrygia Persian, from 468 or 455 BC satrap of Dascylium [2] in Phrygia (Thuc. 2,67,1). Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) [German version] [2] Grandson of Ph. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2] Grandson of P. [1], satrap of Dascylium [2], died after 373 BC; in 413/12 BC he was an ally of Sparta and in 409 BC of Athens (he sheltered Alcibiades [3] in 404 und had him murdered at the request of Lysander [1]; Xen. Hell. 1,1,6; 14; 2,16; 3,8ff.; Diod.Sic. 14,11,2; Ne…

Sampsigeramus

(184 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σαμψιγέραμος; Sampsigéramos) [German version] [1] Prince of Emesa and Arethusa, 1st cent. BC The prince of Emesa and Arethusa (Str. 16,2,11) in Syria; was an (unfaithful) ally of Antiochus [14] XIII, whom he captured twice and killed in 64 BC (Diod. Sic. 40,1b). His good relationship with Pompeius [I 3] prompted Cicero to use his exotic Aramaic name as a nickname for Pompey (Cic. Att. 2,14,1; 16,2; 17,1-2; 23,2-3). S. was named among the princes who supported the rebellion of the Pompeian Caecilius [I 5] Bassus, which began in 46 BC (Str. 16,2,10). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Narses

(824 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Middle Persian Narseh, Armenian Nersēh, Greek Ναρσῆς/ Narsȇs, also Ναρσαῖος/ Narsaȋos). [German version] [1] Brother of Sapor I, died in AD 302 Brother of Sapor I, when he was prince-governor of (Persian) Armenia in AD 293 he overthrew his great-nephew Wahram III from the Persian throne and documented his success in the Paikuli inscription (cf. [1]). In about 296, N. renewed the conflict with Rome by invading (Roman) Armenia. The emperor Galerius [5] suffered a defeat at Carrhae (Ḥarran) in 297, but was able to besi…

Shahrbaraz

(77 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Chosroes [6] II's general who in 614 AD conquered Jerusalem and in 626 besieged Constantinople. On 27 April 630 he overthrew Ardashir [3] III and ruled as Persian king of kings until he was himself killed on 9 June 630 [1]. PLRE 3B, 1141-1144. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography 1 M. Ibn-G. at Tabari, Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden (with German transl., comm. and additions by  Th. Nöldeke), 1879 (reprint 1973), 290-303, 388-390.

Tigranes

(812 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Τιγράνης/ Tigránēs). [German version] [1] T. I. Father of T. [2] (App. Syr. 48), king of Armenia around 120-95 BC. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] T. II. Son of T. [1], born in 140 BC. In c. 120 BC, after a lost battle against the Parthians, he was given over to them, to be released in Armenia in 95. For his release, he had to hand over an area containing 70 valleys. In c. 93, T. annexed Orontes' [6] IV kingdom of Sophene. Not later than after the death of the Parthian king Mithridates [13] II (88/87), he recaptured the 70 valleys and annexed other…

Vasaces

(111 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] In AD 62, the Parthian Vologaeses I succeeded in encircling the Roman army of Caesennius [4] Paetus near Rhandia. V.--commander of the cavalry--was sent from the Parthian side to negotiate the capitulation. In the discussion, Paetus prided himself on the Roman supremacy over Armenia which had been in existence from Licinius [I 26] Lucullus and Pompeius [I 3] , while V. emphasised the actual Parthian dominance. His part in the negotiations that followed cannot be clearly determined…

Orophernes

(192 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Member of the royal family of Cappadocia, 4th cent. BC Brother of Ariarathes I of Cappadocia who helped Artaxerxes [3] III in the Egyptian campaigns. His brother adopted his son Ariarathes II. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Member of the royal family Cappadocia, 2nd cent. BC (also Olophernes in the manuscripts). Son of Ariarathes  IV of Cappadocia and Antiochis. He was allegedly foisted on the king by the queen who was initially childless. When she wanted to obtain the crown for her younger son Mithridates…

Vardanes

(411 words)

Author(s): Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] River to the east of the Sea of Azov In Ptol. 5,8,2 and 14 (Οὐαρδάνης/ Ouardánēs) the most southerly of the seven rivers beyond the Tanais (Don) flowing from the east into the Maeotis (Sea of Azov), on which five cities are mentioned; the V., which is also known to Amm. 22,8,26, was a large navigable river which can be identified with the Kuban. In Antiquity it also had the name Hypanis [2], in the Roman period, however, it had the Sarmatic name V. Plontke-Lüning, Annegret (Jena) Bibliography E. Polaschek, s. v. V. (1), RE 8 A, 367 f.  V. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische R…

Vologaeses

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Οὐολόγαισος/ Ouológaisos(and other spellings); Lat. Vologaeses (and other spellings), Parthian Walagaš), name of Iranian and Armenian rulers (Parthians). [German version] [1] V. I Son of Vonones [2] II and a Greek mistress (Tac. Ann. 12,44; Jos. Ant. Lud. 20,3,4 erroneously referred to him as the son of Artabanus [5] II). In AD 50/51, he successfully fought for the Parthian throne against Gotarzes II. The first phase of his reign was marked by a war on two fronts--against the Romans in Armenia and against a son of Vardanes [2] who operated from Hyrcania. In c. 61, V. succeeded in des…

Rustam

(108 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Son of the Chorasanian governor Farruḫ-Hormizd, who overthrew Azarmiducht in AD 631 and effected the recognition of  Yazdgird III in 633. As supreme commander he tried to fend off an Arab incursion. Under R.'s leadership, for example, a Persian army advanced as far as the border fortification of Al-Qādisīya on the edge of the Syrian Desert. In the spring of 636 or 637 a battle of several days developed there, in which the Persians were defeated after R. had fallen (PLRE 3B, 1100). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography B. W. Robinson, s. v. R., EI2 8, 1995, 636-638  B. Spu…

Cyrrhestice

(235 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Κυρρηστική; Kyrrhēstikḗ). Region in northern Syria south of  Commagene, between the Euphrates and the  Amanus; named after its capital Cyrrhus [2]. The name is used for the first time, but perhaps anachronistically, in connection with events of the year 286 BC (Plut. Demetrius 48,6). Attested with certainty is a revolt of 6,000 Cyrrhesticans against Antiochus [5] the Great in 221 (Pol. 5,50; 57). At the time Seleucid rule was ending, local dynasts appear to also have had their say in the political affairs in C: the Cyrrhestican and (apparently disloyal) Roman socius C…

Prusias

(948 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Προυσίας/ Prousías). [German version] [1] P. I, the Lame King of Bithynia from 230 BC Son of Ziaelas and king of Bithynia c. 230-182 BC. P. gave support to Rhodes after the earthquake of 227 (Pol. 5,90,1) and in alliance with it fought Byzantium, but was unable to keep his conquest (Pol. 4,47-52). In 216 he destroyed the Celtic Aegosages (Pol. 5,111; [1. 43]). Characteristics of his policy were friendship with Macedonia and enmity with Pergamum. In the first of the Macedonian Wars [A] he fought by agreement with Phi…

Remmius

(255 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Schmidt, Peter L. (Constance)
[German version] [1] Commander of the guard for the detained Parthian king Vonones I, whom he killed in AD 19 Commander of the guard for the Parthian king Vonones I, who was detained in Pompeiopolis, Cilicia; in AD 19, he killed the king at the river Pyramus during an escape (Tac. Ann. 2,68; cf. Suet. Tib. 49,2). He is probably identical to the C. R. Rufus mentioned in CIL V 2837 (= ILS 2022). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] R. Palaemon, Q. Roman teacher of grammar, 1st cent. Famous Roman teacher of grammar (cf. Juv. 6,451 ff.; 7,215 ff.) of the 1st cent. AD from V…

Zabergas

(131 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Ζαβεργάς; Zabergás). In the winter of AD 558/9, Z. the khan of the Hunnish Cotrigurs led his warriors across the frozen Danube and advanced as far as Constantinople. Belisarius, who had retired from active service in 551, was recalled and sent with a motley army against the Cutrigurs. Z. lost the battle and soon afterwards abandoned his camp at Melantias. Since Iustinianus [1] recalled Belisarius immediately after his initial success, Z. was able to plunder the diocese of Thracia …

Varazdat

(99 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] After the murder of Pap in AD 374 his nephew (or cousin?) V. was installed by the Roman government as king in Armenia. He had the imperial general Mušel Mamikonian, the son of Vasaces [1], murdered and c. 378 was banished by Vasaces's brother Manuel (Faustus [4] of Byzantium 5,34 f.; 5,37; legendary Moses [2] of Chorene 3,40). PLRE 1, 945. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M.-L. Chaumont, s. v. Armenia and Iran II, EncIr 2, 418-438, esp. 428 R. H. Hewsen, The Successors of Tiridates the Great, in: Rev. des études arméniennes 13, 1978/79, 99-126 J. Markwart, Sü…

Tiridates

(1,209 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Τιριδάτης/ Tiridátēs). [German version] [1] Artaxerxes' [2] II eunuch Artaxerxes' [2] II eunuch (Ael. VH 12,1). Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) [German version] [2] Achaemenid commander of Persepolis, 2nd half of 4th cent. BC Achaemenid commander and 'treasurer' of Persepolis, who was kept in his post by Alexander [4] the Great after the surrender of the 'citadel' and treasure (Diod. Sic. 17,69,1; Curt. 5,5,2; 6,11). From 330/29 BC T. was a strategos of the Ariaspae and Gedrosians (Gedrosia) (Diod. Sic. 17,81,2). In 328/7 BC, Alexander gave the estates of a T. to the pa…

Vonones

(258 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] V. I was the eldest of four Parthian princes who in 10 BC were placed in the custody of the Romans by their father Phraates [4] IV. He was able to succeed Orodes [3] III c. 8 AD, but did not manage to gain the respect of the Iranian nationalist nobility that Artabanus [5] II arrayed against him. V. was able to force his competitor to temporarily retreat into the Medean mountains, but ultimately had to flee from him to Armenia. He tried to win the throne there, which was vacant after the final retreat of Erato […

Samus

(159 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σάμος/ Sámos). [German version] [1] King of Armenia, 3rd cent. BC King of Armenia first half of the 3rd cent. BC, appears among the paternal ancestors of Antiochus [16] I of Commagene as the father of king Arsames [4] (OGIS 394). S. (and not his homonymous descendant) founded Samosata, later the capital of Commagene, and Samokart in the Armenian region of Arzanene. In c. 255 BC he hosted the Bithynian prince Ziaelas. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] S. Theosebes Dicaeus (Σ. Θεοσεβὴς Δίκαιος/ S. Theosebḕs Díkaios). Great-grandson of S. [1], son of Ptolemaeus [III…

Azarmiducht

(52 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] Sassanid queen, daughter of  Chosroes II and sister of  Boran, whom she succeeded on the throne for a few months. She had the governor of Chorasan killed and was then overthrown by his son Rustam. (PLRE 3A, 160). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography Ph. Gignoux, s.v. Âzarmîgduxt, EncIr 3, 190.

Varazes

(93 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Βαράθης/ Baráthēs, Varazes). An Armenian who was sent by Iustinianus [1] to Italy in 548 at the head of 800 of his countrymen and arrived at just the right time to rescue Verus (PLRG 3B, 1370) and his Heruli from total destruction by Totila (Procop. Goth. 3,27). Recalled from Italy in 551, he was appointed leader of 800 Tzans (Armenian sub-tribe) against the Persians in Lazica (Procop. Goth. 4,13,10). His identification with an Armenian commander V. in Lazica in 556 (Agathias 4,13) is disputed. PLRE 3B, 1362 f. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)

Zipoetes

(424 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ζιποίτης/ Zipoítēs). [German version] [1] Bithynian prince, 356-280 BC Born in 356 BC, he succeeded his father, the Bithynian prince Bas, in 328. In 315 BC, his first attempt to expand his kingdom by conquering Chalcedon and Astacus [1] failed (Diod. Sic. 19,60,3). In the period after the battle of Ipsus (in 301), Z. defeated two of Lysimachus' [2] strategoi (Memnon FGrH 434 F 6,3). Renewed fighting with Chalcedon (Plut. Mor. 302e) and the conquest of Astacus (Str. 12,4,2; Paus. 5,12,7) are probably con…

Zenobia

(1,365 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ζηνοβία; Zēnobía). [German version] [1] Wife of Radamistus, 1st cent. AD The wife of the Armenian king Radamistus is the heroine of an episode in Tacitus (Ann. 12,51): when her husband was forced to flee to Iberia in AD 54, she was apparently unable to cope with the hardships of the journey due to her pregnancy and supposedly asked to be killed. Injured by her husband and thrown into the Araxes, Z. was rescued and brought to Radamistus' rival Tiridates [5] I, who treated her honourably. These events were …

Abdissares

(87 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] A king of Armenia known from coins, to whom the twelfth pedestal of the paternal ancestors of  Antiochus [16] I of Commagene can be assigned. Thus he would be the son of  Arsames and the father of Xerxes of Armenia as well as the ruler who committed himself to make tribute payments to  Antiochus [5] III (Pol. 8,25). His reign may fall in the decade before 215 BC. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Media Atropatene und Groß-Armenien, 1989 M.-L. Chaumont, in: Gnomon 67, 1995, 330-336.

Doedalses

(269 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] Sculptor whose existence is contested Sculptor whose existence is contested. Pliny (HN 36,35) mentions a work in marble in Rome Venerem lavantem †sesededalsa† stantem, from which the Bithynian name D. is gleaned, an emendation which is largely accepted. This D. is then identified with Daedalus, who according to a Byzantine source created a Zeus Stratios for the Bithynian King Nicomedes. The statue type of that Zeus has not been established with any certainty. The statue of the standing Venus that Pli…

Hormisdas

(847 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Modern Persian Hormizd, Arab. Hurmuz; Sassanids). [German version] [1] H. I. Son of Sapor I, Persian governor in Armenia, approx. AD 250 Lat. Odomastes (HA Tyr. Trig. 2,2). Son of  Sapor I, on whose order he invaded Armenia. He was in office there from c. AD 252 as Persian governor with the title of Great King and succeeded his father after his death (autumn 272) to the throne of Persia for c. one year. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] H. II. Nephew of H. [1], king of Persia AD 302-309 Nephew of [1], king of Persia AD 302-309 (Agathias 4,25,1). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) …

Monaeses

(95 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Μοναίσης; Monaísēs). Parthian nobleman who fled from  Phraates IV. to Marcus Antonius [I 9] in 37 BC. The latter accepted him as a possible pretender to the throne (Cass. Dio 49,24,2), but did not oppose M.'s reconciliation with Phraates (Plut. Antonius 37). In Anthony's Parthian War (Parthian and Persian Wars), M. defeated the Roman army (Hor. Carm. 3,6,9) but had his cousin, Mithradates, show the retreating triumvir a route to the Armenian border (Plut. Antonius 46). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien z…

Artaxias

(424 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] I. Armenian king (190-around 160 BC) Son of one Zariadris, descended from Orontes. At the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC he ruled the Araxes valley around Armavira under Seleucid sovereignty. After the battle of Magnesia (190 BC), he revolted and established himself as king with Roman consent. He founded the new capital city Artaxata, allegedly following the advice of Hannibal. Campaigns of conquest against neighbouring countries and peoples increased the power of the king so consider…

Menemachus

(174 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Μενέμαχος/ Menémachos). [German version] [1] Pontic general, 71 BC Pontic general. When Mithradates [6] VI and Licinius [I 26] Lucullus faced one another at the Lycus in northern Bithynia in 71 BC, Mithradates had a unit under M. and Myron attack a Roman supply column under M. Fabius Hadrianus. The king tried to explain its heavy defeat (the two leaders and almost all the men fell) by the lack of experience of the generals (Plut. Lucullus 17; Sall. fr. IV 8 M.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] Cavalry leader of Tigranes II of Armenia, 67 BC Cavalry leader of Tigranes II …

Arsaces

(366 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] [1] A. I. Founder and Ruler of the Parthian Empire (247-217 BC) Uncertain origin; around 250 BC under his leadership, the Parni invaded the region of Astauene. The confusion in the eastern part of the Seleucid kingdom allowed A. to conquer Parthia around 238, and Hyrcania shortly thereafter. He was crowned in Asaak. In spite of a counterattack led by Seleucus II, A. was able to maintain his hold on Parthia and Hyrcania. He left a strong state behind him at his death in 217. He was the founder of the Parthian Empire and founding father of the Arsacids. Schottky, Martin (Pretzfel…

Vasak

(121 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Latin Vasaces). [German version] [1] V. Mamikonian Armenian, imperial general under Arsaces [4] II of Armenia. V. tried to maintain good relations with Rome. Together with the king, c. 368 he fell into the hands of Sapor [2] II, who had V. flayed (Procop. BP 1,5: Βασσίκιος; Faustus [4] Buzandaci 3,16; 4,2; 4,11; 4,16; 4,20; 4,23-49; 4,53 ff.). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) [German version] [2] V. of Siunik from 442 governor of Armenia, became involved in the conflict between his Christian countrymen and his Zoroastrian general Yazdgird [2] II. After a Persian …

Asander

(328 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Ἀσάνδρος; Asándros) [German version] [1] Macedonian satrap of Lydia (334-331 BC) Son of a certain Philotas, probably related to  Parmenion, under Alexander [4] the Great the commander of the  Prodromoi and  Paeones (so in Diod. Sic. 17,17,4), in 334-331 BC satrap of  Lydia; he participated in the conquest of  Caria. In the winter of 329/28 he led troops to Alexander and then is no longer mentioned. Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) Bibliography Berve, 2, no. 165 Heckel, 385. [German version] [2] Macedonian satrap of Caria (around 320 BC) Son of Agathon, after the death of  Alexander…

Sanatruces

(216 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
(Σανατρούκης/ Sanatroúkēs). [German version] [1] Parthian ruler, 1st cent. BC (Greek literary sources: Σινατρούκης/ Sinatroúkēs, Phlegon of Tralleis, fr. 12 in Photius; Σινατροκλῆς/ Sinatroklês, Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15; or in the genitive: Σιντρίκου/ Sintríkou, App. Mithr. 104). Son of Artabanus [4] I and brother of Mithridates [13] II, Gotarzes I and Orodes [1] I. In 78/7 BC, in his 80th year, S. was elevated to the Parthian throne by the Sacaraucae and ruled a further 7 years (Ps.-Lucian, Macr. 15). In the conflict between Mith…

Parthamasiris

(67 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] (Παρθαμάσιρις/ Parthamásiris). Brother of Axidares; he was chosen by Osroes [1] to be the successor to the Armenian throne. In AD 114, Trajan met with P. in Elegeia but refused to acknowledge him and had him killed contrary to international law (Fronto, Principia historiae p. 212 van den Hout 1988). Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Karras-Klapproth, Prosopographische Studien zur Geschichte des Partherreiches, 1988  PIR2 P 131.

Pharasmanes

(486 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Φαρασμάνης; Pharasmánēs). [German version] [1] Ph. I. King in the Caucasus (1st cent. AD) Son of Mithridates [19] and king of Iberia [1] (Caucasus). From AD 35, as an ally of Rome, P. had been supporting the Armenian kingdom of his brother Mithridates [20] (Tac. Ann. 6,32-35; 11,8-9) and, after AD 51, that of his own son Radamistus (Tac. Ann. 12,44-47). His relatives’ failure as client kings to Rome (cf. Tac. Ann. 13,37) and the acceptance of the Arsacid Tiridates I. as king of Armenia must have affected him…

Phriapatius

(84 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] The third Parthian king and the first to take the name Arsákēs as an epithet (Arsaces III). He reigned c. 191-176 BC. He was the father of the Parthian kings Phraates [1] I, Mithridates [12] I and Artabanus [4] I and therefore the progenitor of all later Arsacids (Arsaces; Just. Epit. 41,5,8-9; Nisa ostrakon 1760). Parthia; Parthians Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) Bibliography M. Schottky, Parther, Meder und Hyrkanier, in: AMI 24, 1991, 61-1…

Nennius

(210 words)

Author(s): Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld)
[German version] The Welshman N. is said to be the author of the Historia Brittonum, which appeared around AD 829, although his authorship has recently been disputed [1. 1089f.]. The work is a compilation in Latin, and does not form a coherent historical account, but collates source texts for such an account in a semi-chronological sequence. This literary form, consciously chosen by the author, represents a modern and, for its time, unique approach to dealing with historical material [2]. The information preserved by N. is certainly of extremely disparate value, especiall…
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