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Corstopitum

(100 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Ortschaft im Tal des North Tyne, h. Corbridge. Während der Eroberung durch Agricola (77-84 n.Chr.) wurde hier ein großer Stützpunkt errichtet, den anschließend ein Lager weiter östl. ersetzte (ca. 125 durch Feuer zerstört). Nach der Errichtung des Hadrianswalls 7 km nördl. wurde C. zur Versorgungsbasis ausgebaut. C. spielte im frühen 3. Jh. eine bed. Rolle im Zusammenhang mit den Feldzügen des Septimius Severus. An den Stützpunkt angrenzend, entstand im 3. und 4. Jh. hier eine bed. Stadt [1]. Limes; Britannia Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 M.Bishop, J.N. …

Kattiterides

(238 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] (Καττιτερίδες, die “Zinninseln”). Mit K. waren wohl Gebiete und Inseln an den gallischen und südwestbritannischen Atlantikküsten gemeint; K. bezog man aber im allg. auf den britannischen SW und die vorgelagerten Inseln. Die meisten ant. Autoren hatten nur ungenaue Kenntnisse von dieser Gegend. So berichtet Plinius, daß der Grieche Midakritos als erster Zinn von der Insel Cassiteris importiert habe ( Midacritus, Plin. nat. 7,197), ohne genauere top. Angaben zu machen. Hdt. 3,115 bezweifelt die Existenz der Zinn-Inseln überhaupt, wohl weil…

Glannaventa

(71 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] (h. wohl Ravenglass/Cumbria). Das Lager wurde zu Anf. der Herrschaft des Hadrianus an einem Ankerplatz am Fluß angelegt (nicht ausgegraben); bes. auffallend ist ein außerhalb der Mauern gelegenes Badehaus, von dem noch Mauern mit Fensteröffnungen 3,5 m hoch anstehen. G. wurde wohl im späten 4. Jh. aufgegeben. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort at Ravenglass (Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society 58), 1958, 14-30.

Luguvallium

(259 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[English version] Die röm. Militäreinrichtungen und die Stadt L., h. Carlisle, bilden einen der wichtigsten Komplexe an der Nordgrenze von Britannia. Die meisten Phasen in der Gesch. von L. sind schlecht dokumentiert, und viele der jüngsten Ausgrabungen sind noch nicht veröffentlicht. Die früheste röm. Einrichtung ist ein Kastell am Übergang über den Fluß Eden (wohl 78/9 n.Chr.) [1; 5]. Dieses wurde bis kurz nach 100 n.Chr. gehalten, danach niedergerissen und an anderer Stelle ersetzt (bis 160 n.C…

Regni

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Regini). Celtic tribe, who settled in the area of Hampshire and West Sussex and was part of the Kingdom of Commius (mid 1st cent. BC) and of Cogidubnus (one cent. later). The main city was Noviomagus (present-day Chichester), home to a temple of Neptune and Minerva in the 1st cent. AD [1. 91]. Located near Noviomagus and 1,6 km west of Chichester was the estate of Fishbourne, probably a governor's residence from the Flavian Period (columns, mosaics, wall paintings) [2]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions of…

Luguvallium

(293 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The Roman military facilities and the city of L., modern Carlisle, form one of the most important complexes on the northern border of Britannia. Most phases in the history of L. are poorly documented, and the findings of many of the most recent excavations have not yet been published. The earliest Roman site is a fort at the crossing of the river Eden (probably AD 78/9) [1; 5]. This was demolished shortly after AD 100 and rebuilt at another location (until AD 160). A series of sto…

Venta Silurum

(156 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Town in South Wales, modern Caerwent. After the defeat of the Silures by the Roman governor Frontinus c. AD 74-76 (Tac. Agr. 17,3) VS developed into a centre of civilian settlement in the Vale of Glamorgan. VS became the capital, probably under Hadrian, of the civitas of the Silures (cf. [1]). The construction of public buildings (forum, basilica, temple) began after 125. In the late 2nd cent. AD VS was fortified with earthworks. In late Antiquity VS flourished economically (construction of numerous private houses in stone)…

Magi

(116 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Fort in north-western Britannia (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,14; 40,49) with a numerus Pacensium as a garrison (4th cent. AD). Site contentious but an altar (CIL VII 1291) built by vik(ani) Mag... in Old Carlisle refers to it. It is, however, conceivable that M. was the fort in Burrow Walls and Maglona was the one in Old Carlisle (Not. Dign. Occ. 40,13; 40,29). Both forts were held right through to the 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort and Settlement at Old Carlisle, in: Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeolog…

Brigantes

(120 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The B. settled in northern England, from the Tyne-Solway isthmus to Derbyshire. In the Iron Age the B. lived in scattered communities; there were few hill-forts or large settlements. Their queen Cartimandua entered into a treaty relationship with Rome before AD 50 but lost the support of her nobles and had to appeal for Roman assistance, before the leadership was stripped from her in c. AD 69 (Tac. Hist. 3,45). The B. were defeated by Q. Petilius Cerealis (AD 71-74) and Cn. Julius Agricola (AD 77-78) and organized as a civitas with Isurium Brigantum (now Aldborough) as…

Segontium

(140 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of the main forts of the Roman occupation of North Wales [1], modern Caernarfon at the southwestern end of the Menai Strait. The first building phase dates from the governorship of Iulius [II 3] Agricola ( c. 77/8 AD). The living quarters exhibit at least three building phases from the early 2nd century AD onwards. Rebuilding in stone took place under Hadrianus (117-138). The 2nd cent. garrison was evidently small. One of the main buildings from the Antonine period was probably the officium of a procurator [2]. After being destroyed and rebuilt the fort was he…

Eboracum

(290 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Coloniae | Commerce | Legio | Limes | Limes | Pertinax | Rome | Rome | Britannia (Today York). With its strategically favourable location in the heart of the Vale of York, E. presented itself to the Romans as a base for their military control of northern Britannia. The earliest garrison was stationed in E. under Q. Petilius Cerealis in AD 71/74 [1]. The legionary camp ( legio IX Hispana) was a wood-earth fort of the 70s; the reconstruction in stone took place in the early 2nd cent. The legio VI Victrix replaced the legio I…

Dubrae

(151 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Modern Dover, was of great importance during the period of Roman occupation of  Britannia, as a port and coastal fortress. The first-rate port may well have been used during the invasion of AD 43. A fort was built in the late 2nd cent. to accommodate a unit of the classis Britannica [1]. The fort was replaced in the late 3rd cent. by a coastal fortress as protection against the Saxons. Parts of the docks and the moles have been discovered in the port area of Dover. A well preserved Roman lighthouse on East Hill, octagonal in the …

Tintagel

(81 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A headland on the northern coast of Cornwall, for a long time connected with King Arthur and his court. Limited settlement in the late Roman period was followed by more intensive settlement from the late 5th cent. AD onwards with many imports from the eastern Mediterranean, particularly amphorae and fine pottery. At that time T. was evidently the residence of the kings of the Dumnonii. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography C. Thomas, The Book of T.: Arthur and Archaeology, 1993.

Orcades

(137 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Ὀρκάδες/ Orkádes, Latin Orcades). The archipelago of Orkney (today c. 70 islands, of which 24 are inhabited) off the north coast of Scotland probably first came to the attention of the ancients through Pytheas (late 4th cent. BC). According to ancient authors, there were between 30 (Mela 3,54; Ptol. 2,3,31) and 40 (Plin. HN 4,103) only sparsely inhabited islands. The fleet of Iulius [II 3] Agricola (Tac. Agr. 10) reconnoitred the O. in AD 83/4. Some of the O. were known to Ptolemy (…

Segontiaci

(35 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe, probably in the southeast of Britain, which surrendered to Caesar in 54 BC (Caes. Gall. 5,21). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 453 f.

Dumnonii

(122 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] The D. lived in south-west Britannia. Their name may be derived from a pre-Roman divinity Dumnonos. During the Iron Age the D. were widely dispersed, without centres or oppida. After the Roman conquest (AD 50/65) the territory was secured by a legionary camp at Isca, later to become the capital of the tribe [1]. Settlements during the Roman period remained dispersed and un-Romanized, some small villae appearing in the vicinity of Isca. The economy was pastoral; ore was mined (e.g. tin in western Cornwall and Dartmoor, silver in eastern Cornwall [2]). Todd, Malcolm (Exet…

Isca Silurum

(154 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Roman legionary camp set up c. AD 74 in Britannia, modern Caerleon (South Wales). The legio II Augusta was stationed there [1; 2]. In about AD 100 the fortifications were renewed in stone, followed by the internal buildings. An amphitheatre has been excavated outside the walls of the camp and likewise wharf constructions on the banks of the Usk [3; 4]. After 300 the garrison was reduced and in the 4th cent. completely withdrawn. From the 2nd cent. an extensive vicus developed. Todd, Malcolm (Exe…

Lindum

(376 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Britannia (modern Lincoln in central England; cf. etymology L. + colonia). Town in a strategically important position where the river Witham cuts through the Lincoln Edge. Around a swampy pond in the valley floor ( lindus, Celtic ‘pond’) there was a late Iron Age settlement [1]. A legionary camp formed the core of the Roman colonia on the hills in the north. Founded in about AD 60, this fortress was kept by the legio IX Hispana until around AD 71 and then by the legio II Adiutrix until c. AD 85. With 7.2 acres this fortr…

Lactodurum

(65 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Present-day Towcester, Northamptonshire; It. Ant. 2; 6. Late Iron Age settlement; from the mid 1st cent. AD a Roman army station. The town was protected in the 2nd cent. by the construction of a rampart and ditch; stone fortifications were added in the 3rd cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 382f.

Verulamium

(212 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | Britannia | Britannia City above the south bank of the River Ver at modern Saint Albans to the northwest of Londinium (modern London), settlement centre since the 1st cent. BC of the Catuvellauni [1]. The settlement expanded into the valley, where after AD 43 the Romans built a fort [2]. A municipium possibly since the Flavian period (Tac. Ann. 14,33), affected by Queen Boudicca's uprising in 60/1, V. was given a forum (cf. [3]) in AD 79 or 81 and public buildings c. 100. In about 155 parts of the city…

Habitancum

(126 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp near modern Risingham (Northumberland), one of the outposts north of Hadrian's Wall in the Rede valley. Little is known about the early phases of occupation; there is no evidence that the fort was built at the same time as Hadrian's boundary wall. A camp certainly existed in the 140s; in the Severan period it was a major base for the occupation of the north. The garrison of H. was the Cohors IIII Gallorum in the 2nd cent . and the cohors I Vangionum in the 3rd cent., accompanied by a numerus exploratorum and a vexillatio Raetorum Gaesatorum. Inside the camp there is…

Tamesa

(54 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Tamesis). River in southeastern Britain, modern Thames (Caes. Gall. 5,11,8; Tac. Ann. 14,32; Cass. Dio 40,3,1; 60,20 f.; 62,1). At the mouth of the T., an excellent natural harbour, was Londinium (modern London). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography M. Förster, Der Flußname Themse, 1942 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 466.

Camulodunum

(222 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Caesar | Christianity | | Coloniae | Limes | Pertinax | Britannia | Britannia The largest iron age oppidum in Britannia was situated on the lower reaches of the river Colne in Essex; under the rule of kings Dubnovellaunus and  Cunobellinus [1]. C., modern Colchester, developed. In its heyday (from about AD 10 to 40), the oppidum comprised 30 km2 within a system of protective dykes. As an important centre of power, C. attracted the import of luxury goods from Gaul and Italy. A richly decorated r…

Caledonii

(196 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Ancient authors applied the name C. variously: either to the inhabitants of Scotland north of a line from the Forth to the Clyde (Tac. Agr. 25), or to a tribe in the region of the Great Glen (Ptol. 2,3,8), or to a group of tribes in northern Scotland (Cass. Dio 76,12). The reference to Caledonia in Tac. Agr. 27 and to silvae Caledoniae in Plin. HN 4,102 suggests that the C. settled across a large area of eastern Scotland. Almost unknown prior to the Roman invasion, they offered fierce resistance to it, before they were decisively defeated by…

Britannia

(1,099 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] A. Name Originally the island was known as Albion (Avien. Ora maritima 108f. probably goes back to Pytheas, c. 325 BC). In the oldest Greek sources, B. appears as Βρεταννικαὶ νῆσοι ( Bretannikaì nêsoi) and the inhabitants as Βρεττανοί ( Brettanoí, Str. 2,1,18; 2,5,12). In Latin authors the form B. is common from the 1st cent. BC (Caes. B Gall. 2,4,7ff.; 4,20ff.; 5,2ff.; Cic. Fam. 7,6ff.). The general term for the island was coined by classical authors [1]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) [German version] B. Rome and Britannia The first contacts between B. and the Mediterra…

Vindolanda

(108 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman fort about 40 km to the west of Newcastle upon Tyne, modern Chesterholm, founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) [1]. The fort was renovated under Hadrian; Hadrian's Wall runs 3 km to the north of it (Limes II, with map). The fort was also renovated a century later. A large vicus developed to the west of it in the 2nd and 3rd cents. [2. 1700; 3]. The most significant find from V. is the Vindolanda Writing Tablets. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 P. Bidwell, The Roman Fort of V. at Chesterholm, 1985 2 R. G. Collingwood, R. P. Wright, The Roman Inscriptions …

Cattiterides

(271 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Καττιτερίδες; Kattiterídes, ‘tin islands’). The C. were probably the regions and islands of the Atlantic coast of both Gaul and Britain; C. also generally referred to the south-west of Britain and the offshore islands. Most ancient authors had but little specific knowledge of this region. Thus Pliny reports that the Greek Midacritus was the first to import tin from the island of Cassiteris ( Midacritus, Plin. HN 7,197), without providing exact topographical details. Hdt. 3,115 doubted the very existence of these tin islands, probably because …

Corstopitum

(109 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Settlement in the valley of the North Tyne, modern Corbridge. During the conquest by Agricola (AD 77-84) a large base was erected here, subsequently replaced by a camp further to the east (destroyed by fire c. 125). After Hadrian's Wall was erected 7 km to the north, C. was extended to become a supply base. In the early 3rd cent. C. played a decisive role in connection with the campaigns of Septimius Severus. An important city adjoining the base arose here in the 3rd and 4th cents. [1].  Limes;  Britannia Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 M. Bishop, J. N. Dore, Corbridg…

Sutton Hoo

(77 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] In one of the burial mounds at SH near Woodbridge in Suffolk a wooden ship was found with a rich treasure (Gaulish, Scandinavian and Eastern English goods, Byzantine silver bowls, including one with the stamp of Anastasius [1] I, also Frankish coins of the period around AD 625). It is presumably the tomb of Rædwald (6th/7th cent. AD), a king of East Anglia. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Bruce-Mitford, The S. H. Ship-Burial, 3 vols., 1975-1983.

Hibernia

(678 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
(Ireland). [German version] A. Ancient knowledge Ancient geographers report little of the north-west coasts of Europe and the islands off this coast. The first knowledge regarding the island of Ireland, Ierne or H. was probably only obtained during the exploratory journey of Pytheas ( c. 320 BC [1; 2]). Pytheas probably did not visit H. himself and his reports were only second-hand, but Strabo, Diodorus and Mela probably had access to his information (Str. 4,5,4; Diod. Sic. 5,32; Mela 3,6). Some elements of this tradition are pure fantasy…

Silures

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in Southeast Wales from the coast to the Wye, especially in the coastal plain of present-day Glamorgan. The S. resisted the Romans from AD 44, at first under Caratacus (Tac. Ann. 12,32 f.; 12,38-40; 14,29), but were finally subdued in AD 74-76 by Frontinus (Tac. Agr. 17). In the 2nd cent., possibly under Hadrian, the S. were organised as civitas Silurum with the capital of Venta Silurum (present-day Caerwent). Modest villae were built in the coastal plain. In the end, the S. came to be the most Romanised tribe in Wales. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography V. E. …

Glevum

(216 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Coloniae | Britannia The region around Gloucester, located at the lowest lying crossing-point over the Severn, was first occupied by the Roman army in c. AD 50. A legion base was erected in Kingsholm, probably by the legio XX Valeria Victrix [1]; this was abandoned in c. AD 60 and replaced towards the end of the rulership of Nero by a fortress on the ground of modern Gloucester, which itself was abandoned in c. AD 74/5. On the grounds of the fortress, the colonia Glevum was founded using the fortress' building materials, appa…

Trinovantes

(79 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic people, settled in the region of modern Essex in the late Iron Age. In the middle of the 1st cent. BC they were under pressure from the neighbouring Catuvellauni (Caes. Gall. 5,20) and for some time were dependent on them. Under their king Cunobellinus ( c. 10-40 AD) they were again independent and dominant in southern Britain. Their largest oppidum was Camulodunum. Britannia (with map) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography R. Dunnett, The T., 1975  S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987.

Catuvellauni

(83 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Powerful tribe in Britannia north of the lower Thames, who most likely had links with the Gallic Catualauni. Their most influential rulers were Tasciovanus and his son  Cunobellinus [1]. Following the conquest of Britannia by Claudius (Cass. Dio 60,20,2), the C. were organized as a civitas with  Verulamium as its centre (Tac. Ann. 14,33). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 S. S. Frere, Britannia, 31987, 44f. S. S. Frere, Verulamium Excavations 1, 1972 R. E. M. and T. V. Wheeler, Verulamium, 1936 K. Branigan, The C., 1985.

Sabrina

(60 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] River rising in Mid-Wales and flowing into the Bristol Channel (Tac. Ann. 12,31; Ptol. 2,3,3), modern Severn. Its valley played an important role in the period of the Roman conquest, with legionary bases at Glevum and Viroconium (modern Wroxeter). Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-Names of Roman Britain, 1979, 450 f.

Cilurnum

(117 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Roman camp on the western bank of the North Tyne, where Hadrian's wall crosses the river, modern Chesters; built in around AD 125 as a replacement for tower 27a [1. 89-91]. Garrison of the ala II Asturum in the 3rd cent. AD (CIL VII 585); prior to that, the camp may have accommodated cavalry (including Sarmatae). The camp gates are extant, as are principia, praetorium, two soldiers' quarters, extra-mural thermae, and the foundations of a bridge. South of the camp was an extended vicus [2].  Limes Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 D. J. Breeze, The Northern Frontier…

South Cadbury

(53 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Iron Age hill fort in Somerset, used for a short time in the middle of the 1st century AD by the Roman army. Resettled and fortified in the late 5th century. Ceramics were imported from the Mediterranean, other goods from Gaul. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography L. Alcock, Cadbury Castle, 1995.

Vinovia

(131 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιννοούιον/ Ouinnooúion). A Roman fort in Binchester on the important Roman road from Eboracum (modern York) to Hadrian's Wall (Ptol. 2,3,16; [1. 1036]; Limes II), where it crossed the Vedra (modern Wear), 12 km to the south of Durham. V. was founded in the Flavian period (AD 69-96) probably under Cn. Iulius [II 3] Agricola, abandoned under Hadrian, but used again in the late Antonine period and then from the 3rd cent. onwards. An extensive vicus developed outside the fort (with long narrow business premises [2. 111, 299; 3. 253]). Stones from V. were used to b…

Deva

(180 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Legio | Limes | Limes | Britannia Modern Chester. Legionary camp, originally set up for the legio II Adiutrix in c. AD 75 [1] as a wooden/earthen fort, with baths (stone); water pipes of lead date the completion to AD 79. The legio XX Valeria Victrix took over the camp in c. AD 86/7. The rebuilding in stone began in c. AD 102. A large amphitheatre situated outside the walls was constructed in the 2nd cent. [2]. West of the camp on the bank of the Dee is a mooring place. The fortress wall was renovated …

Scotti

(80 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ( Scoti, 'Scots'). A Celtic people - wild and bellicose according to Roman reports - which originally settled in the north of Hibernia (Ireland) (Oros. 1,2,81 f.). In the late 4th cent. AD, groups of them ferried across to Britannia (Amm. 18,2,3; 26,4,5; 27,8,1; 29,4,7). The S. had been Christianised before AD 431 in Hibernia by the deacon Palladius (Prosp. 1301) and came to develop a very active monastery culture. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography G. and A. Ritchie, Scotland, 1985.

Londinium

(806 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Christianity | | Commerce | Limes | Rome | Rome | Britannia (modern London). The Roman city of L. - the name possibly contains the Celtic personal name Londinos - lay, probably without pre-Roman precursors, at the most suitable crossing point of the Tamesis (Thames), which drew the attention of the Romans at the time of the invasion in AD 43. The early settlement was on hills on both sides of the swampy valley of the Walbrook that flows from the nor…

Iceni

(184 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Celtic tribe in the area of Norfolk and Suffolk (south-eastern England). First mentioned under the name Cenimagni as one of the tribes that submitted to Caesar in AD 54 (Caes. B Gall. 5,21,1). At the time of the conquest of Britain by Claudius (AD 43), they were prepared to accept the alliance with Rome. In AD 47 they rebelled and were subjugated, however, they retained the status of a client kingdom (Tac. Ann. 12,31). After the death of their King Prasutagus c. AD 59, their entire territory was incorporated into the Roman administration, not only the half tha…

Maeatae

(119 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Μαιάται; Maiátai, Lat. Meatae). Tribal group in southern Scotland, late 2nd or early 3rd cent. AD, south of the Caledonii, north of the Antonine Wall. The place names Dumyat and Myot Hill in the vicinity of Stirling could be derived from the M. M. may mean ‘larger people’ or ‘inhabitants of the larger part’. The M. broke their treaty with Rome and revolted at the time of Septimius Severus in AD 210. Gradually fought down, they finally made peace in 212 with Caracalla (Xiphilinus 321; cf. Cass. Dio 76,12; Iord. Get. 2,14). Limes (II. Britannia) Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliogra…

Thule

(202 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Θούλη/ Thoúlē). T. was a concept, occasionally a literary term (Antonius [3]), less often a geographical location. The idea of a country in the northern Ocean, far to the north of Britannia, can be found in Verg. G. 1,30 and almost certainly refers to an account by Pytheas [4]. Strabo (1,4,2-5; 2,4,1; 2,5,8; 4,5,5) was the first geographer to use the place name T., but he does not say anything about its geographical location. Tac. Agr. 10 and Ptol. 2,3,32 applied T. to the Shetlan…

Mona

(231 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] Island off the coast of north Wales, modern Anglesey, one of the most fertile regions of western Britain. M. means ‘high island’ in Celtic, while in Welsh, the island is called Mam Cymru, ‘Mother of Wales’. In antiquity, M. was important for supplying the mountainous regions of Wales with provisions and ores, esp. copper. Perhaps the Ordovices were the inhabitants of M. in the Iron Age and during Roman rule. The importance of M. in the later Iron Age is demonstrated by the great c…

Viroconium

(158 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (Οὐιροκόνιον/ Ouirokónion). Roman legionary camp, in c. AD 55 laid out in connection with military operations in the valley of the upper Sabrina (modern Severn) [1. 292 f.]; modern Wroxeter in Shropshire, England. Abandoned in c. AD 74, as late as the end of the 1st cent., V. developed into the capital of the civitas Cornoviorum [2]. In AD 128/9, The city acquired a forum [1. 288] and, no later than the middle of the 2nd cent., thermal baths [3]. Numerous private houses were built from the 2nd cent. onwards. In the 4th cent., the …

Camboricum

(30 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] ‘Ford on the river bend’ (It. Ant. 474,7), presumably modern Icklingham (Suffolk) [1. 294]. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography 1 A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979.

Ratae

(177 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Roman fort in Britannia, built before AD 50 at the site of an Iron-Age settlement on the present-day Soar River and held for c. 20 years. The fort and its vicus grew into the core of a prosperous town (It. Ant. 477,4; Ptol. 2,3,20: Ῥάγε/Rháge; CIL VII 1169; cf. CIL XVI 160), present-day Leicester [1. 52 f.]. Already before AD 100, R. was the main city of the Coritani or Corieltauvi [2]. The forum and the basilica were built under Hadrian (AD 117-138), the baths in c. AD 150. Parts of the baths have survived as the Jewry Wall, as…

Cassi

(50 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] One of five tribes in Britannia, who surrendered to Caesar in 54 BC (Caes. B Gall. 5,21). Their settlement area, which cannot be localized exactly, was in the south-east of the island. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography A. L. F. Rivet, C. Smith, The Place-names of Roman Britain, 1979, 302.

Glannaventa

(74 words)

Author(s): Todd, Malcolm (Exeter)
[German version] (probably modern Ravenglass/Cumbria). The camp was laid out at the beginning of Hadrian's rule at an anchorage at the river (not excavated); especially striking is a bathhouse outside the walls; the building's walls with windows 3.5 metres high are still extant. G. was likely abandoned in the late 4th cent. Todd, Malcolm (Exeter) Bibliography E. Birley, The Roman Fort at Ravenglass (Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Archaeological Society 58), 1958, 14-30.
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