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(3,932 words)

Author(s): Cancik-Kirschbaum, Eva (Berlin) | Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] I. Mesopotamia In contrast with cultic  rituals, the secular ceremonies of Mesopotamia have up to now rarely been the subject of academic research. On the whole, it has to be assumed that individual and communal life in the societies of the Ancient Orient in general and that of the  ruler in particular were dominated by numerous rules, resulting in more or less standardized patterns of behaviour. The reconstruction of such non-cultic ceremonies is largely dependent on secondary refe…


(1,878 words)

Author(s): Winterling, Aloys (Bielefeld)
(Greek ἀυλή/ aulḗ, Lat. aula, comitatus). [German version] A. General Like territorial monarchy,  monarchia, the court as ‘the extended residence’ of a monarch is a post-classical phenomenon of ancient history that does not appear until the end of the political dominance of municipal community life. The courts, which originated in the   oíkos of a Greek nobleman and the   domus of a Roman nobleman were, in contrast to those ‘houses’ no longer incorporated into the city community, but established themselves as autonomous centres of p…