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(337 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel)
[German version] [1] Port of Megara on the Bay of Saronia (Νίσαια/ Nísaia). Port of Megara [2] on the Saronikos Kolpos near modern Páchi [1. 259]. To the east of N. in Antiquity there was the island (now part of the mainland) of Minoa [2. 56-62], connected to the mainland by a bridge (Thuc. 3,51,3). Megara and its citizens are often described in ancient sources as ‘Nisaean’ [3. 156]. In the 6th cent. BC, N. temporarily belonged to Athens (Hdt. 1,59; Plut. Solon 12,3). In 461 BC the Athenians occupied N. a second time (Thuc. 1,103,4) and connected it with the c…


(388 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Ποσείδιον/ Poseídion). [German version] [1] Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios on the coast of Triphylia Sanctuary of Poseidon Samios with a busy harbour on the coast of Triphylia (probably meant in  Hom. Od. 3,4 ff.; Str. 8,3,13; 3,16 f.; 3,20) in the Klidi coastal pass at the foot of the Kaiapha mountains, exact location not known. The P. was once the central sanctuary of Triphylia with a festival of its own. The cult statue of Poseidon at the time of Pausanias (2nd cent. AD) was in Elis [2] (Paus. 6,25,6). Samicum Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 198…

Pelodes limen

(72 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πηλώδης λιμήν; Pēlṓdēs limḗn), the modern Liqeni i Butrintit. A lake in the vicinity of Buthrotum (the modern Butrint). Rich in fish, the PL is connected by a narrow strait to the Ionios Kolpos. Sources: Str. 7,7,5; Ptol. 3,14,4. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography R. Hodges et al., Late-Antique and Byzantine Butrint: Interim Report on the Port and its Hinterland (1994-95), in: Journal of Roman Archaeology 10, 1997, 207-234.


(97 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Πρόσχιον/ Próschion, ethnikon Πρόσχειος/ Próscheios). Settlement in Aetolia, to the west of Pleuron in the vicinity of Achelous [1] (Thuc. 3,102,5; 106,1). According to Str. 10,2,6, the Aetolians relocated Pylene to a higher situation, and renamed it P. (Ath. 9,411a). P. may have been nearby the present-day Etoliko, but its location cannot be pinpointed with certainty. Inhabitants are mentioned in Hellenistic inscriptions: IG IV2 1,95,38; IG IX 12 1,11; 137; IG XI 4, 1075. SEG 41, 528; FdD III 4, 213; 362; BCH 85, 1961, 79. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography C. Ant…


(117 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Linear B | Boeotia, Boeotians (Κρεῦσις). Boeotian port on the  Corinthian Gulf in the bay of Livadostro, belonging to Thespiae (Str. 9,2,25; Liv. 36,21,5; Paus. 9,32,1). Near the coast are the remains of a fortress linked to a quay system. C. had increased importance as a port during the Spartan-Theban conflicts before 371 BC (Xen. Hell. 4,5,10; 5,4,16f.; 6,4,3f.; Xen. Ag. 2,18). In the 2nd and 1st cents. BC C. was an important Roman harbour (Liv. 36,21,5; 42,56,5). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 157-163 G. Gauv…


(134 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τενέα; Tenéa). Town in southern Corinthia on a route into Argolis (cf. Xen. Hell. 4,4,19), probably to the south of modern Chiliomodion (ancient remains with a necropolis). Inhabitants of T. are supposed to have taken part in the founding of Syracusae. On the destruction of Corinth in 146 BC (Mummius [I 3]) the already autonomous town was spared because of its relations with Rome and is recorded in the 2nd cent. AD as independent [1. no. 228]. Apollo was the main god worshipped in…


(456 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Boeotia, Boeotians (Πλάταιαι/ Plátaiai, Πλαταιαί/ Plataiaí, Lat. Plataeae; ethnic Πλαταιεύς/ Plataieús). City in southern Boeotia, in the northern foothills of Mount Cithaeron, near the Asopus. The site was inhabited from the Helladic into the Byzantine Period [1]. The city walls, still recognizable today, were built at various times. A ring wall c. 3 km in length was probably erected in the reign of Philip II (Phi…


(348 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Πλευρῶν; Pleurôn). City in south-western Aetolian Aeolis [2] (ethnic names Πλευρώνιος/ Pleurṓnios and Πλευρωνεύς/ Pleurōneús, the area was called Πλευρωνία/ Pleurōnía, Str. 10,2,5). Listed as an Aetolian city in the Homeric catalogue of ships (Hom. Il. 2,639), P. had broken away from the Aetoloi in the 6th/5th cent. BC (Thuc. 3,102,5) and at the end of the 5th cent. became a member of the Achaean League (…


(304 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aetolians, Aetolia | Hellenistic states | Athenian League (Second) (Θέρμος, Θέρμον/ Thérmos, -on). Religious centre from the Archaic period onwards of Aetolian tribes to the north east of Lake Trichonis/modern Limni Trichonida (Aetolians, with map), 'League sanctuary' of the koinón from the 4th cent. BC, in which annual festivals with markets and the League's main assembly took place (Pol. 5,7,8; Liv. 31,32,3; Ethnicon Θέρμιος, IG IX 12 1, Z. 102; cf. Pol. 5,6,6; Str. 10,3,2) [1]. Apollo Thermios, A…


(150 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Athenian League (Second) | Boeotia, Boeotians (Λεῦκτρα; Leûktra). Town (τόπος, Str. 9,2,39, cf. Plut. Mor. 773b) and plain (τὰ Λεῦκτρα) in Boeotia in the area of Thespiae. The exact localization near Leuktra (formerly Parapoúgia) is uncertain. L. became famous through the battle of 371 BC, in which the Boeotians under the leadership of Epaminondas defeated Sparta [3. 49-59]. Remains of a tropaion [1] from the 3rd cent. BC are preserved (rebuilt today…


(195 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea | Education / Culture (Παγαί/ Pagaí, ethnic name Παγαῖος/ Pagaîos; Att. and lit. Πηγαί/ Pēgaí or Πηγαῖος/ Pēgaîos). Port city in Megaris on the Corinthian Gulf, identified with the remains of a fortified harbour settlement near what is today Alepochori. In 461 BC P. was occupied by the Athenians (Thuc. 1,103,4) who undertook marine operations from that location (Thuc. 1,111,2). During the 30-year peace the Athenians were forced to return P. to Megara [2] (Thuc. 1,115; cf. IG I3 1353). The fortunes of P. we…


(136 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
(Σύβοτα/ Sýbota). [German version] [1] Island group Island group off the coast of Epirus opposite the southern tip of Corcyra [1]. In 433 BC a sea battle took place there between Corcyra and Corinth ([1]; Thuc. 1,47,1; 50,3; Str. 2,5,20; 7,7,5). In AD 551 the islands were plundered by the Ostrogoths (Procop. Goth. 4,22,30). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 J. S. Morrison et al., The Athenian Trireme, 22000, 62-69. [German version] [2] Harbour Harbour on the coast of Epirus opposite the S. [1] island group, modern Limani Murzo. In the 5th cent. BC, S. was …


(111 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Τριποδίσκος; Tripodískos). One of five villages which developed into Megara [2]; the founder of T. was considered to be Coroebus [1] (Paus. 1,43,8 with an explanation of the  place name;  cf. Callim. Fr. 31; Plut. Mor.  295b; Steph. Byz. s. v. T.). T. is to be found in the foothills of the Gerania and on a strategically important route to  Delphi (Thuc. 4,70,1 f.), about 7 km to the northwest of Megara. In T., Apollo was worshipped, and in his honour a festival was probably instituted in Megara. The comedy writer Susarion (Susarion, fr. 2) was from T. Freitag, Klaus (Münst…


(442 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Macedonia, Macedones | Persian Wars | Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Θέσπεια/ Théspeia, Hom. Il. 2,498, Hdt. 8,50,2; also Θεσπιαί/ Thespiaí, Xen. Hell. 5,4,10, IG VII 1862; Lat. Thespiae). City in South Boeotia. South of present-day T. (formerly Erimocastrum) [1], remnants of the polyandreîon (mass grave) with those who fell in 424 BC at Delium [1] are extant [2]. The city area (survey: [3]) comprised Siphae and Creusis on the Gulf of Corinth, the plain of Leucta in th…


(189 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians (Σῖφαι; Sîphai). Boeotian port on the Gulf of Corinth (Boeotia, with map). In the 5th cent. BC, S. was a port (επίνειον/ epíneion) dependent on Thespia (Thuc. 4,76,2 f.; 77,1; 89,1 f.; SEG 24, 361), from the Hellenistic period onwards it was an autonomous member of the Boeotian League with close relations with Aegosthena (IG VII 207). In the Roman period S. was called Τίφα/ Típha; the inhabitants thought of themselves as particularly skilful sailors (Paus. 9,32,4). The helmsman of the Argo…


(149 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Lat. Sarabaitae). Certainly without direct evidence, Benedict of Nursia criticizes the Sarabaitae (Coptic: 'living scattered away from the monastery'?) in his classification of monasticism: they do not subject themselves to rules and live together in twosomes or threesomes as they see fit (Regula Benedicti, ch. 1). His source is the Regula Magistri, which in turn refers to the only authentic witness, Cassianus (Cassian. Conlationes patrum 18,7). A similar group, the Remnuoth (Coptic, probably: 'living individually'), is mentioned…


(106 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Παραυαῖοι; Parauaȋ oi). An Epirote tribe of the upper valley of the Aous, still ruled by kings in the 5th cent. BC (Thuc. 2,80,6; on their location: Arr. Anab. 1,7,5). Belonging to Macedonia under Philip (Philippus [4]) II, the P. (who may be identifiable with the Παρῶροι/ Parôroi, SGDI 1350,2; 1355,4; SEG 23, 471; or the Παρωραῖροι/ Parōraȋroi, Str. 7,7,6; 7,7,8; 8,3,18) were ceded to Pyrrhus I of Epirus, probably in 294 BC. Further evidence: Plut. Pyrrhus 6,2; Ptol. 3,12,38; Steph. Byz. s.v. Π. and s.v. Χαονία. Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography P. Cabanes, L'Épire…


(209 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Education / Culture | Boeotia, Boeotians (Ἁλίαρτος, Ἀρίαρτος, Ἁρίαρτος; Halíartos, Aríartos, Haríartos [1. 483]). Boeotian city on the southern edge of Lake Copais, 20 km west of Thebes. The acropolis with archaic Athena sanctuary is located on the hill Kastri Mazíou, which was settled from the Middle Helladic to the Roman period and was adjoined by the fortified lower city. In the 6th cent. BC, H. ─ mentioned by Homer (Il. 2,503) ─ struck coins with the …


(493 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] [1] Acarnian town This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Aetolians, Aetolia | Acarnanians, Acarnania | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Οἰνιάδαι/ Oiniádai, occasionally Οἰνειάδαι/ Oineiádai). Acarnanian city near the mouth of the Achelous [1] (Thuc. 2,102,2f.; Str. 10,2,21). The city area, located near what is now Katochi, is located on a hill measuring 3 km in length and 2 km in width. Remains of the six-kilometer long city wall have been preserved, along with gate and tower installat…


(84 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster)
[German version] (Χορσίαι, Χορσία; Chorsíai, Chorsía). Isolated Boeotian town on the Gulf of Corinth, above the bay of Hagios Sarandi. At first a dependency of Thespiae; independent in the 4th cent. BC. Phocians occupied C. in 347/346 BC, using it as a base for incursions into Boeotia. In 346 BC Philip II gave C. back to the Boeotians, after levelling its walls (sources: Dem. Or. 19,141; Scyl. 38; Diod. Sic. 16,58,1; Plin. HN 4,8; StV 3,565; SEG 22,410). Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography Fossey, 187-196.
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