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Acts of the Apostles

(235 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The title (πράξεις [τῶν] ἀποστόλων; práxeis [tôn] apostólōn or acta/actus apostolorum), which was first documented in the late 2nd cent., is almost certainly not its original. Paul is not really considered an apostle by the author. Acts is part of the Lukan historical corpus together with the Gospel designated as πρῶτος λόγος ( prôtos lógos) in 1.1. Repetitions and contradictions (e.g. Lk 24,50-53 and Acts 1,9-11) are explained as a variatio. The structure of Acts is presented in 1,8: spread of the gospel by ‘witnesses’ and the ‘power of the Holy Gh…

Serbs

(615 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Σέρβοι; Sérboi). The early history of the S. and the Croatians is known in outline only due to the condition of the sources: Aside from a brief mention in the Carolingian Imperial Annals (Annales regni Francorum, MGH SS 1,209: ad Sorabos, quae natio magnam Dalmatiae partem obtinere dicitur) from the 9th cent. AD, we only have the report by Constantinus [1] Porphyrogennetus (de administrando imperio 32 Moravcsik/Jenkins) following the two - contradictory - chapters on Croatia (ch. 30 and 31). The report claims that the S. had…

Melchites

(443 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] I. Term Arabic al-malakiyyūn from Aramaic malkā, ‘king’, used in the sense of the Greek βασιλεύς/ basileús. Syrians and Arabs used this (pejorative) term for the followers of the Council of Calchedon (AD 451), which is even today not recognized by the Monophysites ( Monophysitism) of the Middle East (Syrians, Copts, Armenians). The modern term they use to describe themselves is Rūm (Arabic for ‘Byzantium’, ‘Byzantines’). By contrast, the use of Melchites in the sense of a ‘United Church of the Syrian region’ is comparatively recent (not before the schism of 1724). Niehof…

Vlachs

(539 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Βλάχοι/ Bláchoi). Byzantine ethnographic term of unclear (ethnic or social) definition. Etymologically, it is the Slavic designation of all Romance peoples in south-east Europe. During the migration period, the ancient Celtic tribe-name of the Volcae was transferred by the Germanic peoples to their Romance neighbours ('Walch', 'Welschen'). The South-Slavs are responsible for its phonologic form (Βλάχ/ Vlach), which can be found in the Byzantine chronicles (Iohannes Skylitzes p. 329,80 Thurn, interpolated) or in the work of Kekaumenos …

Mauropous, Iohannes

(87 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] Byzantine scholar and bishop, born around 990 in Paphlagonia, died around 1092 (?). M. composed epigrams, letters and speeches, and as the founder of a school of law and editor of Konstantinos IX's novellae he had great influence at the court of Constantinople until the middle of the 11th century. His promotion to metropolitan of Euchaïta was however an exile in disguise. He is important as the teacher and predecessor of Psellos. Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) Bibliography A. Karpozilos, s.v. M., LMA 4, 414f.

Ragusa

(458 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Lat. Ragusium, Greek Ῥαούσιον/ Rhaoúsion, Slavic Dubrovnik; regarding the name cf. [1]), city on the Dalmatian coast. The beginnings of the trading city that was to become so famous a rival of Venice on the Adriatic Sea were hazy already for the historians of R. at the time of Humanism so that they arrived at different legends of its origin reminiscent of the type of ancient aetiology (cf. the depictions in [2; 3; 4]). The report by Constantinus [1] Porphyrogennetus (Const. de administ…

Menologion

(151 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] (Μηνολόγιον; Mēnológion). A collection of the lives of Saints of the Orthodox Church, arranged according to the feast-day of the corresponding saint, in accordance with the ecclesiastical year ( calendar). In contrast to the Synaxarion, which provides only brief notices for each saint, and to the Menaion, which usually contains liturgical songs and prayers for the saint's festival, the βίοι/ bíoi (‘lives’) of the Menologion are normally longer. It may have been mentioned first in Theodoros Studites [1. vol. 1, 21], yet the first preserved …

Slavs, Slavonization

(1,120 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The S. (Σκλαβηνοί/ Sklabēnoí since the 6th cent. AD; Lat. Sclaveni in Iordanes [1], from the early Slavic slověne; Σκλάβος/ Sklábos first in the High Middle Ages, from which 'slave', Arabic ṣaqāliba) are the youngest of the major linguistic groups of Europe; they first appear on the horizon of the Graeco-Roman culture in Late Antiquity. To date, the study of this process and the multifaceted acculturation processes between the S. and the ancient Mediterranean cultures, which occurred after c. AD 500, has been determined by the initial conditions of Slavic…

Venetia

(217 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] The mediaeval and modern city of Venice (Venezia) does share its name with the Regio X ( Veneta Carni et Histria) of the organisation of Italia (cf. Regio, with map) under Augustus, but its centre, the Rialto (< Rivus Altus), was founded only in the Carolingian period. A legend, appearing already in Venetian historiography (cf. also Constantinus Porphyrogennetus, De administrando imperio 28), of the founding of the city on 25 March 421 and of the flight of the population as a result of the destruction of Aquileia [1] by Attila in 452 is de…

Katepanate

(59 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[German version] Since Southern Italy was governed by a katepano (Byzantine, usually a military title, derived from κατ' ἐπάνω, attested from the 9th cent. AD onward) prior to the Norman conquest, the Normans referred to the previously Byzantine regions as K. ( capitanata). This term thus corresponds in part to Magna Graecia. Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) Bibliography ODB, s.v. Katepano.

Katepanat

(54 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] Da Süditalien vor der normannischen Eroberung von einem Katepano (byz., meist mil. Titel, von κατ' ἐπάνω, belegt seit dem 9. Jh.n.Chr.) verwaltet wurde, bezeichneten die Normannen nach der Eroberung die ehemals byz. Gebiete als K. ( capitanata). Dieser Begriff deckt sich daher z.T. mit Magna Graecia. Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) Bibliography ODB, s.v. Katepano.

Ragusa

(406 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] (lat. Ragusium, griech. Ῥαούσιον, slav. Dubrovnik; zum Namen vgl. [1]), Stadt an der dalmatischen Küste. Die Anfänge der später so berühmten Handelsstadt und Rivalin Venedigs an der Adria lagen schon z.Z. des Humanismus für die Historiker von R. im dunkeln, so daß sie zu verschiedenen Ursprungslegenden nach Art der ant. Aitiologie griffen (vgl. die Darstellungen bei [2; 3; 4]). Legendenhaft ausgeschmückt ist bereits der Bericht des Konstantinos [1] Porphyrogennetos (Konst. de administ…

Melkiten

(366 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] I. Begriff Arab. al-malakiyyūn von aram. malkā, “König”, was im Sinne von griech. βασιλεύς/ basileús gebraucht wurde. Syrer und Araber bezeichnen damit (pejorativ) die Anhänger des Konzils von Kalchedon (451 n.Chr.), das die Monophysiten (Monophysitismus) des Nahen Ostens (Syrer, Kopten, Armenier) bis h. nicht anerkennen. Eigenbezeichnung ist h. Rūm (arab. für “Byzanz”, “Byzantiner”). Die Verwendung von M. im Sinne von “Unierte des Syr. Raumes” ist hingegen jung (nicht vor dem Schisma von 1724). Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) [English version] II. Geschichte V…

Mauropus, Iohannes

(75 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] Byz. Gelehrter und Bischof, geb. um 990 in Paphlagonia, gest. um 1092 (?). M. verfaßte Epigramme, Briefe und Reden und hatte als Gründer einer Rechtsschule und Redaktor der Novellen Konstantinos' IX. bis Mitte des 11. Jh. großen Einfluß am Hof von Konstantinopel. Seine Beförderung zum Metropoliten von Euchaïta war hingegen eine versteckte Verbannung. Wichtig ist er als Lehrer und Vorgänger des Psellos. Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) Bibliography A. Karpozilos, s.v. M., LMA 4, 414f.

Menologion

(123 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] (Μηνολόγιον). Sammlung von Hl.-Viten der orthodoxen Kirche, die nach dem Fest des jeweiligen Hl., dem Kirchenjahr entsprechend (Kalender) angeordnet sind. Im Gegensatz zum Synaxarion, das zu jedem Hl. nur kurze Notizen bietet, und zum Menaion, das in der Regel liturgische Gesänge und Gebete zum Fest des Hl. enthält, sind die βίοι (“Lebensbeschreibungen”) des M. normalerweise länger. Erste Erwähnung vielleicht bei Theodoros Studites [1. Bd. 1, 21], sind die ersten Exemplare aus de…

Apostelgeschichte

(224 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
[English version] Der seit Ende des 2. Jhs. bezeugte Titel (πράξεις [τῶν] ἀποστόλων bzw. acta/actus apostolorum) ist kaum urspr. Paulus gilt dem Autor gerade nicht als Apostel. Die A. gehört zusammen mit dem in 1,1 als πρῶτος λόγος bezeichneten Evangelium zum lukanischen Geschichtswerk. Die Doppelungen und Widersprüche (so Lk 24,50-53 bzw. Apg 1,9-11) erklären sich als variatio. Die Gliederung der A. wird durch 1,8 vorgegeben: Ausbreitung des Evangeliums durch ›Zeugen‹ und die ›Kraft des Heiligen Geistes in Jerusalem‹ (1,4- 8,3) ›und in ganz Iudäa un…

Qurʾān

(834 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Koran) [German version] A. Definition The sacred book of the Muslims, the word of God, received through the prophet Muhammad c. AD 610-632. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) [German version] B. Origin The divine revelations had already been collected in oral and written form by the faithful during the lifetime of the prophet, but it was the 3rd Caliph Othman (ʿUṯmān; 644-56) who compiled them in their ultimate, unchangeable, canonical form. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) [German version] C. Structure and form - language and style The 114 Suras (loan word from Talmudic šūrah ‘sequence, lin…

Epirus

(1,836 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Ἤπειρος; Ḗpeiros, Epirus) [German version] I. Region E. is located at the north-western fringe of the Greek cultural sphere, nowadays comprising northern Greece and southern Albania. From Homer (8th cent. BC) to the late 5th cent., the geographical term ἤπειρος ( ḗpeiros) referred to the mainland north of the Gulf of Ambracia. There is a wide variation in the attribution of individual tribes to E. both in ancient and modern literature, making it impossible clearly to define E.'s geographic expansion [1]. E. was bordered in the west by…

Paphus

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Writing | Christianity | Zenobia | Kypros | Diadochi and Epigoni | Natural catastrophes | Phoenicians, Poeni | Pompeius | Rome | Rome | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Πάφος; Páphos). [German version] I. Old Paphus In antiquity two cities on the southern coast of Cyprus bore the name P.; from the Roman Imperial period, they were differentiated as New P. (Νέα Πάφος/ Néa Páphos, near modern Kato P.) and Old P. (Παλαίπαφος/ Palaípaphos, near modern Kouklia). (Old) P. is first mentioned on the Prism of Asarhaddon (673/2 B…

Crete

(1,586 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Κρήτη, Krētē, Latin Creta). [German version] A. Settlement geography C. is the largest Greek island, with an east-west extension of 250 km and a north-south extension of max. 60 km. The narrowest part is the Isthmus of Hierapytna in the east. The island's topography is shaped by its mountains. Three large mountain ranges dominate: in the west the ‘White Mountains’ (  Leúka órē , 2,482 m), in the centre the  Ida Mountains (Piloritis, 2,456 m) and in the east the  Dicte Range (highest elevation 2,147 m) with the Lassithi Plateau (moun…
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