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Greece

(12,206 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nicosia ) | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) I. General (CT) [German version] A. Chronology and Delineation (CT) 'Greece' (G.) can be understood in a dual sense: on the one hand, the term is used to refer to the modern Greek state since its foundation (1830); however, 'G.' can also – without immediate reference to questions of statehood - describe the territories of the former Byzantine empire in which the Greek-speaking culture found expression after 1204 or 1453, whether in the context of the Ottoman Empire (OE) or within…

Museum

(3,351 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Concept and Origin (CT) The word 'museum', from the Greek museíon ('place for worshiping muses'), designates a public collection of cultural objects, especially art objects and the buildings housing them. The International Council of Museums provides a short definition: “A museum is a non-profit making, permanent institution in the service of society and of its development, and open to the public, which acquires, conserves, researches, communicates and exhibits, fo…

Malibu, J. Paul Getty Museum

(1,905 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Institution (CT) The J. Paul Getty Museum (GM) is a part of the J. Paul Getty Trust in Malibu, California. It currently collects art in seven separate departments: Greek and Roman antiquities, medieval manuscripts, European paintings, sculptures, drawings, artistic handicrafts and photographs. With its current collection areas the museum has, since the death of its founder, grown beyond his original concepts. Behind this growth, however, there was no long-te…

New York, Metropolitan Museum

(6,924 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) | Arnold, Dorothea | Feller, Barbara
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] I. Classical Antiquity (CT) Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. The Institution (CT) The institution of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA) is a private foundation. Address: 1000 Fifth Avenue at 82nd Street, New York, NY 10028; Internet: http://www.metmuseum.org. The MMA is one of the largest museums in the world. Since its establishment, shortly after the American Civil War, it has grown through the systematic involvement of major benefactors and donors into a true colossus among col…

Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Kurt (Marburg/Lahn) | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Kurt (Marburg/Lahn) [German version] Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum (CT) The Allard Pierson Museum (APM) is located at Oude Turfmarkt 127, 1012 GC Amsterdam, the Netherlands. It is funded by the University of Amsterdam. The museum receives active support and is anchored in the public domain through the Vereniging van Vrienden Allard Pierson, with its own journal [12]. (Website: www.uba.uva.nl/apm; e-mail: APM @UBA.UVA.nl) Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] B. History of the Collection (CT) The APM, with around 14, 000 objects, is the second most imp…

Copenhagen

(2,435 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Prefatory Remarks (CT) The city of (C.) possesses three museums with collections of antiquities, which are situated at only a few minutes' distance from one another. The Ny Carlsberg Glyptoteket is the public bequest of a single collector, whose foundation created an institution of national importance. The antiquities collection of the National Museum was built around a royal collection, which became national property. Finally, the Thorvaldsen Museum is a one-artist museum, a very early example in this category, comparable to the Rodin…

Saint Petersburg, Hermitage

(2,015 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Institution (CT) Address: The State Hermitage Museum, Dvortsovaya Naberezhnaya, 32-38, St. Petersburg, Russia. http://www.hermitagemuseum.org/ Along with the Louvre (Paris, Louvre), the British Museum (London, British Museum) and like institutions, the Hermitage stands in the tradition of the great art museums and houses ca. three million objects in its various departments. Due to financial shortfalls and the economic situation in Russia, the museum has been seeking new…

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

(1,315 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Institution (CT) The organization responsible of the Museum of Fine Arts (MFA), which was founded in 1870, is a private foundation (address: MFA, 465 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115-5523, USA). Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] B. History of the collection (CT) Together with the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and others, the MFA is one of the pioneering American museum institutions of the 19th cent. The Museum was founded on February 4, 1870, and its opening in the building on Copley Square…

London, British Museum

(7,842 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) | Caygill, Marjorie | Curtis, John
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] I. Classical Antiquity (CT) Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) A. History (CT) [German version] 1. General (CT) The British Museum (BM) and its collections indisputably are of international status. It is an object museum, whose origins defined it as a universal museum, in the Enlightenment sense, and also as a national establishment, which holds in trust the scientific and historical museum possessions of the British Nation. In its history as an institution, it has demonstrated a suc…

Paris, Louvre

(4,194 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) | Crüsemann, Nicola (Speyer RWG)
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] I. Classical Antiquity (CT) Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin RWG) [German version] A. Institution (CT) Address: 36 Quai du Louvre, 75058 Paris Cedex 01, 75001 Paris. The Musée du Louvre is a national museum, which together with 34 others is under the Direction des Musées de France. It is the largest of these national institutions, and is also one of the largest museums in the world, on the same level as Berlin, London (London, British Museum) or St. Petersburg. In addition to its collection …

Boston, Museum of Fine Arts

(1,121 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG [English version] A. Institution (RWG) Träger des Mus. of Fine Arts (MFA), das 1870 gegr. wurde, ist eine private Stiftung (Adresse: MFA, 465 Huntington Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115-5523, USA). Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG [English version] B. Sammlungsgeschichte (RWG) Das MFA gehört neben dem Metropolitan Mus. of Art in New York und anderen zu den bahnbrechenden amerikanischen Museumsinstitutionen des 19. Jh. Die Museumsgründung erfolgte am 4. Februar 1870, die Eröffnung im Haus am Copley-Square am 4. Juli 1876. 1909 zog das…

Amsterdam, Allard Pierson Museum

(1,010 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG [English version] A. Institution (RWG) Das APM befindet sich am Oude Turfmarkt 127, 1012 GC Amsterdam, Niederlande. Träger ist die Univ. Amsterdam. Aktive Unterstützung und Verankerung in der Öffentlichkeit erfährt das Mus. durch die Vereniging van Vrienden Allard Pierson mit einer eigenen Zeitschrift [12] (Website: www.uba.uva.nl/apm; e-mail: APM @UBA.UVA.nl) Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG [English version] B. Sammlungsgeschichte (RWG) Das APM ist mit ca. 14000 Objekten neben dem Nationalmus. in Leiden die zweite bedeutende Antikens…

Griechenland

(10,520 words)

Author(s): Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG | Tsakmakis, Antonis (Nikosia) RWG | Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG
Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg i. Br.) RWG I. Allgemein (RWG) [English version] A. Chronologie und Abgrenzung (RWG) “G.” läßt sich in einem doppelten Sinne verstehen: Einmal meint man damit den ngriech. Staat seit seiner Gründung (1830); “G.” kann aber auch, ohne unmittelbar staatliche Bed., jene Gebiete des ehemaligen byz. Reiches bezeichnen, in denen sich nach 1204 oder 1453 die griechischsprachige Kultur artikulierte, sei es im Rahmen des Osmanischen Reiches (OR), sei es innerhalb des venezianischen Herrschafts…

Kopenhagen

(2,154 words)

Author(s): Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG
Rudolph, Wolf (Berlin) RWG [English version] A. Vorbemerkung (RWG) Die Stadt Kopenhagen besitzt drei Mus. mit Antikensammlungen, die nur wenige Minuten voneinander entfernt liegen. Die Ny Carlsberg Glyptoteket ist das öffentliche Vermächtnis eines einzelnen Sammlers, dessen Stiftung eine Einrichtung von nationaler Bed. schuf. Die Antikensammlung des Nationalmus. baut sich um eine königliche Kollektion auf, die in nationales Eigentum überstellt wurde. Das Thorvaldsen-Mus. schließlich ist ein Personen-Mus., und in dieser Ka…