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(88 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( ahl as-sunna). Islamic orthodoxy based primarily on the sunna (that is, the exemplary words and deeds) of the prophet Muhammad and on the Qurʾān. The S., who constitute the majority of Muslims (more than four fifth), distinguish themselves from the Shiites i.a. in their interpretation of the Koran, in the relatively low significance of martyrdom and in areas of law. Even within the S., various schools of law have developed (Islam). Islam; Kalam Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography G. H. A. Juynboll, D. W. Brown, s.v. Sunna, EI 9, 878a-881b.


(111 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( kaʿba). The most important shrine of Islam. It is the point towards which prayer is directed, and the destination of pilgrimage, located in the interior court of the Great Mosque in Mecca (accessible only to Muslims). Pilgrims ritually kiss the black stone in the eastern corner of the Kaaba, the exterior walls of which are covered with a black cloth, which is replaced yearly. The name (‘cube’) comes from the shape of the building supposed to have been built by Abraham [1] and I…


(74 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[English version] ( Ḥasan). Enkel des Propheten Mohammed, Sohn seiner Tochter Fatima und seines Vetters Ali, Bruder des Husain, 624/5 bis nach 670 n.Chr. Nach der Ermordung Alis verzichtete H. nach Verhandlungen auf das Kalifat zugunsten des Omajjaden (Umayyaden) Muāwiya (661) und blieb fortan polit. unbedeutend. Für die Schiiten ist er der zweite Imam nach seinem Vater Ali. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography L.Veccia Vaglieri, s.v. Ḥasan b. Alı̄ b. Abı̄ Ṭālib, EI 3, 240b-243b.


(733 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[English version] I. Christlich Begriff zur ausgrenzenden Bezeichnung einer unerwünschten, von der Orthodoxie abweichenden religiösen Lehrmeinung. Der griech. Terminus haíresis (αἵρεσις, lat. haeresis [5]) ist im vor- und nicht-christl. Kontext noch ausnahmslos wertneutral verwendet: Aus der Grundbed. “Nehmen”, “Wählen” kommt es zur Bed. “rel. oder philos. Schulmeinung”, “Schulrichtung” sowie schließlich “Angehörige einer Schulrichtung”, “Partei(ung)”, “Sekte”, vgl. z.B. die Titel bei Lukian, Hermótimos ḗ perí hairéseōn; Antipater von Tarsos, Katá tṓn hairéseōn; V…


(71 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[English version] ( hiǧra). Auswanderung, Übersiedlung des Propheten Mohammed (Muḥammad) und einiger seiner Anhänger von Mekka nach Medina 622 n.Chr. nach tribalen Schwierigkeiten (Aufkündigung des Clan-Schutzes seitens seines Stammes Quraiš); Beginn der islamischen Zeitrechnung. Erst mit der H. begannen Mohammeds Wirken auch als Staatsmann sowie die eigentliche Ausbreitung des Islam (zunächst durch Bündnispolitik). Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography A. Noth, Die Hiǧra, in: U. Haarmann (Hrsg.), Gesch. der arab. Welt, 1987, 11-57.


(834 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(Koran) [German version] A. Definition The sacred book of the Muslims, the word of God, received through the prophet Muhammad c. AD 610-632. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) [German version] B. Origin The divine revelations had already been collected in oral and written form by the faithful during the lifetime of the prophet, but it was the 3rd Caliph Othman (ʿUṯmān; 644-56) who compiled them in their ultimate, unchangeable, canonical form. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) [German version] C. Structure and form - language and style The 114 Suras (loan word from Talmudic šūrah ‘sequence, lin…


(106 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Umar b. al-Ḫaṭṭāb). Second of the four 'rightly-guided' caliphs (AD 634-644). O. established the foundation of the Islamic empire and its political institutions through expansion as well as domestic organization. His negative and reserved attitude toward Jews and Christians was reflected in a number of religious-law and political decisions. The Sunnites revere O. even today as an ideal Muslim and just ruler, while the Shiites despise him as an advocate of Abu Bakr and hence an ene…


(58 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (al-Manṣūr). Abū Ǧafar al-Manṣūr, second Abbasid caliph (AD 754-775). Actual founder of the dynasty, founder of Baghdad (763). Consolidated the realm by suppressing uprisings and making improvements in administration, transportation, communications, economy and commerce. He designated his son al-Mahdī as his successor despite objections.  Abbasids Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. Kennedy, Manṣūr, in: EI 6, 427a-428b.


(117 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Latin Bisseni, Greek Πατζινάκαι/ Patzinákai). Turkic-speaking group of tribes, first mentioned in AD 834, to the north of the Caspian Sea. After the collapse of the kingdom of the Chazars in 969 they were driven by the Oghuz Turks across the Volga into the Pontic steppes and in 971 they were defeated by the Byzantines and the Kievan Rus. The B. fled from the Rus to Bulgaria in 1036 and fought bitter battles (including in alliance with the Oghuz) with Byzantium (in 1091 and 1122) and …


(107 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Ḥusain). Grandson of the Prophet  Muhammad (Muḥammad), son of his daughter  Fatima (Fāṭima) and cousin of  Ali (ʿAlı̄). Third  Imām of the  Shiites. After the death of the  Caliph  Muʿāwiya he was forced by members of his father's party to take over power from the  Umayyads, and was killed by their troops at Kerbela (ʿIrāq) in 680. His martyr's death is remembered by the Shiites annually in passion plays, his supporters' failure to succour him is atoned for in processions of flagellators. Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography H. Halm, Der schiitische Islam, 1994 Id…


(476 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Muḥammad, Greek Μουάμεδ/ Mouámed, Μωάμετ/ Mōámet). Founder of Islam (born about AD 570 in Mecca, died AD 632 in Medina). Muslims believe that M. was the recipient of divine revelations (Qur'an) brought by the angel Gabriel [1] and the ‘seal of the prophets’. A belief in M. as God's messenger is an integral part of the Islamic faith. M. was influenced by a tribal society that was undergoing social restructuring, with certain monotheistic ideas and currents beginning to appear in its polytheistic religion (Monotheism). In 610, when he was…

Abu Bakr

(81 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] (Abū Bakr). First of the four righteous caliphs (AD 632-34), i. e. the first successor of  Muhammad. As one of the latter's first followers and close advisor, A. became caliph after his death though not without opposition ( Ali). After subduing the apostasy movement he is credited with the initial consolidation of the young Islamic community and laid the foundation for its rapid initial expansion.   Caliph Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bibliography W. M. Watt, Abū Bakr, in: EI2 I, 109b-111a.


(107 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
[German version] ( Makka; Μακόραβα; Makóraba, Ptol. 6,7,32). The most important of the holy cities of Islam only accessible to Muslims, located in modern Saudi Arabia. Mecca is the place where the prophet Muhammad was born and worked until he emigrated ( Hejira) to Medina ( Yaṯrib). It is the direction of prayer and the destination of pilgrimage ( Kaaba). Mecca was already an important centre of trade in the pre-Islamic period. The first Koranic revelations ( Qur'an) are primarily a critique of the materialism and lack of faith of Meccan merchants. Macoraba Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale) Bib…


(381 words)

Author(s): Schönig, Hanne (Halle/Saale)
( Banū Umayya). [German version] A. The dynasty AD 661-750 First Islamic dynasty (AD 661-750), with its capital at Damascus. Under the Umayyads, the Islamic expansion reached Central Asia in the east and the Pyrenees in the west. The Byzantines were driven out of North Africa, but kept resisting the Arabs in Asia Minor. This - ethnically and religiously heterogeneous - extensive empire required a new internal organization and administration, modelled on Byzantine and Persian-Sassanid institutions. Its hey…
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