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Naulochus

(127 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ναύλοχος/ Naúlochos). Small port on the western shore of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) beneath the southern slopes of the Haemus mountains, north of Mesambria [1], from where N. was probably founded at the turn of the 4th/3rd cents BC (Str. 7,6,1; 9,5,19; cf. also Plin. HN 4,45), modern Obzor. Mentioned as a port (ὅρμος ναυσί/ hórmos nausí), but without giving its name, in Arrian Peripl. p. eux. 36 and Anon. Peripl. m. eux. 81. The mansio on the Mesambria - Philippopolis road was called Templum Iovis in the Roman period (Tab. Peut. 8,4), and Kozeakos i…

Corpili

(94 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Κορπῖλοι; Korpîloi). Thracian tribe east of the lower course of the  Hebrus (Str. 7a,1,48). The Thracian strategia of Corpilice (Ptol. 3,6,9) also extended over the earlier territory of the  Apsinthii as far as  Aenus [1] (Str. 7a,1,58). In 188 BC the C. took part in the uprising against the troops of Cn. Manlius Vulso together with the Caeni and Maduateni (Liv. 38,40,7). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography Chr. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan. ..., in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185, esp. 84f. M. Tačeva, Istorija na bălgarskite zemi 2, 1987, 58ff.

Ganus

(103 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Γάνος; Gános). A mountain above modern Gaziköy on the European Propontis coast, modern Ganos Dağı (945 m). Its region was Ganiás (Γανιάς) with the local deity theà Ganḗa (θεὰ Γανήα). A fortified settlement was located below the mountain tò Gános (τὸ Γάνος, Scyl. 67). In the 5th cent. BC, G. was part of the Thynian tribal territory under Seuthes II, who promised  Bisanthe, G. and Neon Teichos to Xenophon (400-399 BC., Xen. An. 7,5,8). G. is also mentioned in association with the advance of Philip II into Propontis against Kersebleptes (346 BC, Aeschin. In Ctes. 3,82). von…

Aenus

(328 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Dietz, Karlheinz (Würzburg)
[German version] [1] Modern Enez This item can be found on the following maps: Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | | | Colonization | Moesi, Moesia | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) (Αἶνος; Aînos). The place today known as Enez on the Turkish bank of the Maritza, mentioned by Hom. Il. 4,520 as the home of  Peirous. The name Poltymbria (Str. 7,7,1) is a later construct. Systematic archaeological investigation is not possible because of buildings built over the relevant sites. Traces of a prehisto…

Byzantium

(4,987 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg) | Effenberger, Arne (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Achaemenids | Pontos Euxeinos | Byzantium | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | Wine | Xenophon | | | Diadochi and Epigoni | Commerce | Asia Minor | Asia Minor | Colonization | Limes | Moesi, Moesia | Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Pilgrimage | Pompeius | Delian League | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Βυζάντιον; Byzántion). [German version] I. Topography and history Greek city on the southern shore of the  Bosporus [1] on a peninsula bordering on the Chrysokeras in the north and on the Propontis …

Serdica

(587 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Daci, Dacia | Commerce | Moesi, Moesia | Pilgrimage | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Σερδική/ Serdikḗ, modern Sofia). [German version] I. Early history until the Roman Period Settlement of the Thracian Serdi on the Oescus [1] between the Scombrus and Haemus mountain ranges, a nodal point of roads (It. Ant. 135,4; Tab. Peut 7,5; Ptol. 3,11,8); modern Sofia. Settled since the 8th/7th centuries BC, in the 5th/4th centuries BC S. developed under the kings of t…

Carpathians

(209 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Καρπάτης ὄρος/Κάρπαθον ὄρος; Karpátēs óros/ Kárpathon óros, Lat. Carpates montes, Carpatae, Alpes Bastarnicae). Arch-shaped mountain range, rich in forests and water, between the Balkans ( Haemus) and the Alps, the natural border between the Balkan peninsula and the steppes of north-eastern Europe. Marinus (Ptol. 3,5,6; 15; 18; 20; 7,1; 8,1) was the first to recognize the C. as a separate mountain range, whereas they were previously mainly seen as being part of the Alps or the Haemus. Gold, …

Phanagoria

(311 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Commerce | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius (Φαναγόρεια; Phanagóreia). Port founded by Teos (Ps.-Scymn. 886f.) in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in the area of the Sindi (Ps.-Scyl. 72) (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 212; Colonisation IV.) on the Korokondamitis limne (Gulf of Taman) on the Asiatic coast of the Bosphorus [2], on the peninsula of Taman about 3 km south-west of modern Sennaja. As the Hypanis [2] in ancient times flowed with …

Sale

(104 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Σάλη; Sálē). City on the northern shore of the Aegean Sea, west of Doriscus in the south east of the foothills of the Serrheum, probably at present-day Alexandrupolis. Built as part of the peraia of Samothrace (Hdt. 7,59,2), S. belonged to the territory of Maronea [1] in 188 BC at the time of the Syrian Wars (Liv. 38,41,8: vicus Maronitarum). In the Roman Imperial Period, S. was a road-station ( mutatio) on the road from Traianopolis to Philippi (It. Burd. 602). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography B. Isaac, The Greek Settlements in Thrace until th…

Olbia

(1,082 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Zimmermann, Martin (Tübingen) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meloni, Piero (Cagliari) | Et al.
(Ὀλβία/ Olbίa). [German version] [1] Milesian colony This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Thraci, Thracia | Wine | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Apollo | Patricius | Patricius | Rome | Rome Milesian colony (Colonisation) south of modern Parutino (Ukraine) at the confluence of the Hypanis and Borysthenes (Ps.-Scymn. 808f.), and for that reason also known as Borysthenes (Βορυσθένης; Hdt. 4,24; 78); founded at the beginning of the 6th cent. BC (Hdt. 4,18,5: Ὀλβιοπολῖται; Ps.-Skymn. 813f…

Xerogypsos

(38 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Ξηρόγυψος; Xērógypsos). Small river near Perinthus in southeatern Thrace (Anna Komnena, Alexias 7, 378,14 Niebuhr; Theophylaktos Simokattes 6,245,2 Bekker), presumably modern Çorlusuyu  (in Turkey). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography C. Danov, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 2094.

Maronea

(613 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Μαρώνεια; Marṓneia). [German version] [1] North Aegaean city This item can be found on the following maps: Thraci, Thracia | Colonization | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture North Aegaean city on the southwest slopes of the Ismarus, today's Maronia. Founded by Chios (1st half of the 7th cent. BC; Scyl. 678) in the tribal lands of the Cicones. Mythography associates M. with the Homeric Márōn (Hom. Od. 9,197); first mentioned by Hecat. FGrH 1 F 159. The most important occupations were viticulture and sheep breeding. As of 529 …

Panticapaeum

(370 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Pontos Euxeinos | Scythae | Wine | Diadochi and Epigoni | Alexander | Commerce | Hellenistic states | Colonization | Patricius | Patricius | Rome (Παντικάπαιον; Pantikápaion). Milesian colony on the European side of the Bosporus [2], founded in the 7th/6th cent. BC, modern Kerč (Ps.-Scyl. 68; Scymn. 836). With its strategic and commercially commanding position and its fertile hinterland P. soon took on a leading role under the Greek poleis on the Bosporus (Str. 7,4,4; Plin. HN 4,87). Thus in about 480 BC the Regnum Bosporanum

Burgas

(151 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] City on the west coast of the Black Sea. Several prehistoric and ancient settlements have been recorded in modern B. (the oldest from the Chalcolithic period up until the Late Bronze Age). There was a Thracian settlement in Zlatkite kladenci; from the 6th cent. BC into the 2nd cent. BC possibly an empórion of  Apollonia [2]. There were three necropolises; on the height of Siloto there was a Thracian fortress and 6 km away from this were copper mines (today Vărli brjag) owned by Thracian princes. A Thracian settlement, Tyrsis, was l…

Maeotis

(144 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Μαιῶτις; Maiôtis, Latin lacus or palus Maeotis). The Asov Sea north-east of the Krim with an area of c. 38,000 km2, with an outlet to the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos in the south through the Cimmerian Bosporus [2], in the north-east confluence of the Tanais in the M. The M. is exceptionally shallow (average depth 9 m) so that it easily freezes over. In spring, south-west winds drive the water of the Pontos Euxeinos into the M. Many rivers flow into the M., which has an abundance of fish (Str. 7,4,6).…

Chabon

(65 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg)
[German version] (Χάβον; Chábon). Scythian fortress ‘in the middle of the land of the Scythians’ (IOSPE 12, 352,13; 29), built by Scilurus and his sons (Str. 7,4,3); served as a base against Mithridates VI; one of his generals, Diophantus, forced the Scythians to surrender C. (Str. 7,4,4). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Tokhtas'ev, Sergej R. (St. Petersburg) Bibliography V. F. Gajdukevič, Das Bosporanische Reich, 1971, 309.

Philippopolis

(822 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Thraci, Thracia | Christianity | | Coloniae | Alexander | Moesi, Moesia | Rome | Rome | Balkans, languages (Φιλιππόπολις/ Philippópolis, Φιλιπούπολις/ Philipoúpolis). [German version] I. Location and history up to conquest by the Goti City in Thrace (Thraci), founded by Philip (Philippus [4]) II in the immediate vicinity of a fortified settlement of the Bessi on the right bank of the Hebrus in 341 BC. An important road and river transport junction between the Ister [2], the Black Sea, …

Dyme

(299 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
(Δύμη; Dýmē). [German version] [1] City on the west coast of Achaea This item can be found on the following maps: Coloniae | Dark Ages | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Education / Culture City on the west coast of Achaea near the modern Kato-Achaia, on a broad plateau on the left bank of the Peirus, protected on three sides by precipices. Protected by a fortress (Pol. 4,59,4), D. was able to exploit the natural riches of the land on Cape Araxus. One of the old 12 cities of Achaea (Hdt. 1,145), D. arose from the amalgamation of eight villages (δῆμοι; dêmoi) (Str. 8,3,2), among them Pal…

Aegissus

(109 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] (Αἰγισσος; Aígissos). Thracian fortress (1st cent. BC, Ov. Pont. 1,8,13), modern Tulĉa (Romania) in the Danube delta. Necropolis from the 6th to 1st cents. BC. Under  Rhoemetalces at the time of Augustus controlled by Rome (Cass. Dio 54,20,1-3). In about 12 BC destroyed by northern tribes, but rebuilt; from the 2nd cent. BC onwards, growing in military and civilian importance.   Statio between Noviodunum and Salsovia (It. Ant. 226,2). Fortified under Justinian (Procop. Aed. 4,7,20). von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography G. Simion, Les Gètes de …

Saumacus

(106 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen)
[German version] Killer of Paerisades [6] V, who surrendered the Regnum Bosporanum to Mithridates [6] VI. According to the decree honouring Diophantus [2] (IOSPE 12 no. 352, 34-35), S. had begun a rebellion with the Scythae, which gripped the European part of the empire. He was captured by Diophantus and handed over to Mithridates. This rebellion was evidently directed against the new political leadership. The view that S. was a slave is based on a wrong translation. von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) Bibliography A. Gavrilov, Skify Savmaka - vosstanie ili vtorženie?, i…
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